Conjoint Analysis: Using discrete choice modelling in market research

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Conjoint Analysis: Using discrete choice modelling in market research
Chloe  Butler

Chloe Butler


Pdf2gerb: Perl Script Converts PDF Files to Gerber format


Perl script converts PDF files to Gerber format

Pdf2Gerb generates Gerber 274X photoplotting and Excellon drill files from PDFs of a PCB. Up to three PDFs are used: the top copper layer, the bottom copper layer (for 2-sided PCBs), and an optional silk screen layer. The PDFs can be created directly from any PDF drawing software, or a PDF print driver can be used to capture the Print output if the drawing software does not directly support output to PDF.

The general workflow is as follows:

  1. Design the PCB using your favorite CAD or drawing software.
  2. Print the top and bottom copper and top silk screen layers to a PDF file.
  3. Run Pdf2Gerb on the PDFs to create Gerber and Excellon files.
  4. Use a Gerber viewer to double-check the output against the original PCB design.
  5. Make adjustments as needed.
  6. Submit the files to a PCB manufacturer.

Please note that Pdf2Gerb does NOT perform DRC (Design Rule Checks), as these will vary according to individual PCB manufacturer conventions and capabilities. Also note that Pdf2Gerb is not perfect, so the output files must always be checked before submitting them. As of version 1.6, Pdf2Gerb supports most PCB elements, such as round and square pads, round holes, traces, SMD pads, ground planes, no-fill areas, and panelization. However, because it interprets the graphical output of a Print function, there are limitations in what it can recognize (or there may be bugs).

See docs/Pdf2Gerb.pdf for install/setup, config, usage, and other info.

#Pdf2Gerb config settings:
#Put this file in same folder/directory as itself (global settings),
#or copy to another folder/directory with PDFs if you want PCB-specific settings.
#There is only one user of this file, so we don't need a custom package or namespace.
#NOTE: all constants defined in here will be added to main namespace.
#package pdf2gerb_cfg;

use strict; #trap undef vars (easier debug)
use warnings; #other useful info (easier debug)

#configurable settings:
#change values here instead of in main file

use constant WANT_COLORS => ($^O !~ m/Win/); #ANSI colors no worky on Windows? this must be set < first DebugPrint() call

#just a little warning; set realistic expectations:
#DebugPrint("${\(CYAN)} ${\(VERSION)}, $^O O/S\n${\(YELLOW)}${\(BOLD)}${\(ITALIC)}This is EXPERIMENTAL software.  \nGerber files MAY CONTAIN ERRORS.  Please CHECK them before fabrication!${\(RESET)}", 0); #if WANT_DEBUG

use constant METRIC => FALSE; #set to TRUE for metric units (only affect final numbers in output files, not internal arithmetic)
use constant APERTURE_LIMIT => 0; #34; #max #apertures to use; generate warnings if too many apertures are used (0 to not check)
use constant DRILL_FMT => '2.4'; #'2.3'; #'2.4' is the default for PCB fab; change to '2.3' for CNC

use constant WANT_DEBUG => 0; #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
use constant GERBER_DEBUG => 0; #level of debug to include in Gerber file; DON'T USE FOR FABRICATION
use constant WANT_STREAMS => FALSE; #TRUE; #save decompressed streams to files (for debug)
use constant WANT_ALLINPUT => FALSE; #TRUE; #save entire input stream (for debug ONLY)

#DebugPrint(sprintf("${\(CYAN)}DEBUG: stdout %d, gerber %d, want streams? %d, all input? %d, O/S: $^O, Perl: $]${\(RESET)}\n", WANT_DEBUG, GERBER_DEBUG, WANT_STREAMS, WANT_ALLINPUT), 1);
#DebugPrint(sprintf("max int = %d, min int = %d\n", MAXINT, MININT), 1); 

#define standard trace and pad sizes to reduce scaling or PDF rendering errors:
#This avoids weird aperture settings and replaces them with more standardized values.
#(I'm not sure how photoplotters handle strange sizes).
#Fewer choices here gives more accurate mapping in the final Gerber files.
#units are in inches
use constant TOOL_SIZES => #add more as desired
#round or square pads (> 0) and drills (< 0):
    .010, -.001,  #tiny pads for SMD; dummy drill size (too small for practical use, but needed so StandardTool will use this entry)
    .031, -.014,  #used for vias
    .041, -.020,  #smallest non-filled plated hole
    .051, -.025,
    .056, -.029,  #useful for IC pins
    .070, -.033,
    .075, -.040,  #heavier leads
#    .090, -.043,  #NOTE: 600 dpi is not high enough resolution to reliably distinguish between .043" and .046", so choose 1 of the 2 here
    .100, -.046,
    .115, -.052,
    .130, -.061,
    .140, -.067,
    .150, -.079,
    .175, -.088,
    .190, -.093,
    .200, -.100,
    .220, -.110,
    .160, -.125,  #useful for mounting holes
#some additional pad sizes without holes (repeat a previous hole size if you just want the pad size):
    .090, -.040,  #want a .090 pad option, but use dummy hole size
    .065, -.040, #.065 x .065 rect pad
    .035, -.040, #.035 x .065 rect pad
    .001,  #too thin for real traces; use only for board outlines
    .006,  #minimum real trace width; mainly used for text
    .008,  #mainly used for mid-sized text, not traces
    .010,  #minimum recommended trace width for low-current signals
    .015,  #moderate low-voltage current
    .020,  #heavier trace for power, ground (even if a lighter one is adequate)
    .030,  #heavy-current traces; be careful with these ones!
#Areas larger than the values below will be filled with parallel lines:
#This cuts down on the number of aperture sizes used.
#Set to 0 to always use an aperture or drill, regardless of size.
use constant { MAX_APERTURE => max((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004, MAX_DRILL => -min((TOOL_SIZES)) + .004 }; #max aperture and drill sizes (plus a little tolerance)
#DebugPrint(sprintf("using %d standard tool sizes: %s, max aper %.3f, max drill %.3f\n", scalar((TOOL_SIZES)), join(", ", (TOOL_SIZES)), MAX_APERTURE, MAX_DRILL), 1);

#NOTE: Compare the PDF to the original CAD file to check the accuracy of the PDF rendering and parsing!
#for example, the CAD software I used generated the following circles for holes:
#CAD hole size:   parsed PDF diameter:      error:
#  .014                .016                +.002
#  .020                .02267              +.00267
#  .025                .026                +.001
#  .029                .03167              +.00267
#  .033                .036                +.003
#  .040                .04267              +.00267
#This was usually ~ .002" - .003" too big compared to the hole as displayed in the CAD software.
#To compensate for PDF rendering errors (either during CAD Print function or PDF parsing logic), adjust the values below as needed.
#units are pixels; for example, a value of 2.4 at 600 dpi = .0004 inch, 2 at 600 dpi = .0033"
use constant
    HOLE_ADJUST => -0.004 * 600, #-2.6, #holes seemed to be slightly oversized (by .002" - .004"), so shrink them a little
    RNDPAD_ADJUST => -0.003 * 600, #-2, #-2.4, #round pads seemed to be slightly oversized, so shrink them a little
    SQRPAD_ADJUST => +0.001 * 600, #+.5, #square pads are sometimes too small by .00067, so bump them up a little
    RECTPAD_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) rectangular pads seem to be okay? (not tested much)
    TRACE_ADJUST => 0, #(pixels) traces seemed to be okay?
    REDUCE_TOLERANCE => .001, #(inches) allow this much variation when reducing circles and rects

#Also, my CAD's Print function or the PDF print driver I used was a little off for circles, so define some additional adjustment values here:
#Values are added to X/Y coordinates; units are pixels; for example, a value of 1 at 600 dpi would be ~= .002 inch
use constant
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MINY => -0.001 * 600, #-1, #circles were a little too high, so nudge them a little lower
    CIRCLE_ADJUST_MAXX => +0.001 * 600, #+1, #circles were a little too far to the left, so nudge them a little to the right
    SUBST_CIRCLE_CLIPRECT => FALSE, #generate circle and substitute for clip rects (to compensate for the way some CAD software draws circles)
    WANT_CLIPRECT => TRUE, #FALSE, #AI doesn't need clip rect at all? should be on normally?
    RECT_COMPLETION => FALSE, #TRUE, #fill in 4th side of rect when 3 sides found

#allow .012 clearance around pads for solder mask:
#This value effectively adjusts pad sizes in the TOOL_SIZES list above (only for solder mask layers).
use constant SOLDER_MARGIN => +.012; #units are inches

#line join/cap styles:
use constant
    CAP_NONE => 0, #butt (none); line is exact length
    CAP_ROUND => 1, #round cap/join; line overhangs by a semi-circle at either end
    CAP_SQUARE => 2, #square cap/join; line overhangs by a half square on either end
    CAP_OVERRIDE => FALSE, #cap style overrides drawing logic
#number of elements in each shape type:
use constant
    RECT_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "rect" (start, end corners)
    LINE_SHAPELEN => 6, #x0, y0, x1, y1, count, "line" (line seg)
    CURVE_SHAPELEN => 10, #xstart, ystart, x0, y0, x1, y1, xend, yend, count, "curve" (bezier 2 points)
    CIRCLE_SHAPELEN => 5, #x, y, 5, count, "circle" (center + radius)
#const my %SHAPELEN =
#Readonly my %SHAPELEN =>
    rect => RECT_SHAPELEN,
    line => LINE_SHAPELEN,
    curve => CURVE_SHAPELEN,
    circle => CIRCLE_SHAPELEN,

#This will repeat the entire body the number of times indicated along the X or Y axes (files grow accordingly).
#Display elements that overhang PCB boundary can be squashed or left as-is (typically text or other silk screen markings).
#Set "overhangs" TRUE to allow overhangs, FALSE to truncate them.
#xpad and ypad allow margins to be added around outer edge of panelized PCB.
use constant PANELIZE => {'x' => 1, 'y' => 1, 'xpad' => 0, 'ypad' => 0, 'overhangs' => TRUE}; #number of times to repeat in X and Y directions

# Set this to 1 if you need TurboCAD support.
#$turboCAD = FALSE; #is this still needed as an option?

#CIRCAD pad generation uses an appropriate aperture, then moves it (stroke) "a little" - we use this to find pads and distinguish them from PCB holes. 
use constant PAD_STROKE => 0.3; #0.0005 * 600; #units are pixels
#convert very short traces to pads or holes:
use constant TRACE_MINLEN => .001; #units are inches
#use constant ALWAYS_XY => TRUE; #FALSE; #force XY even if X or Y doesn't change; NOTE: needs to be TRUE for all pads to show in FlatCAM and ViewPlot
use constant REMOVE_POLARITY => FALSE; #TRUE; #set to remove subtractive (negative) polarity; NOTE: must be FALSE for ground planes

#PDF uses "points", each point = 1/72 inch
#combined with a PDF scale factor of .12, this gives 600 dpi resolution (1/72 * .12 = 600 dpi)
use constant INCHES_PER_POINT => 1/72; #0.0138888889; #multiply point-size by this to get inches

# The precision used when computing a bezier curve. Higher numbers are more precise but slower (and generate larger files).
#$bezierPrecision = 100;
use constant BEZIER_PRECISION => 36; #100; #use const; reduced for faster rendering (mainly used for silk screen and thermal pads)

# Ground planes and silk screen or larger copper rectangles or circles are filled line-by-line using this resolution.
use constant FILL_WIDTH => .01; #fill at most 0.01 inch at a time

# The max number of characters to read into memory
use constant MAX_BYTES => 10 * M; #bumped up to 10 MB, use const

use constant DUP_DRILL1 => TRUE; #FALSE; #kludge: ViewPlot doesn't load drill files that are too small so duplicate first tool

my $runtime = time(); #Time::HiRes::gettimeofday(); #measure my execution time

print STDERR "Loaded config settings from '${\(__FILE__)}'.\n";
1; #last value must be truthful to indicate successful load


#use Package::Constants;
#use Exporter qw(import); #

#my $caller = "pdf2gerb::";

#sub cfg
#    my $proto = shift;
#    my $class = ref($proto) || $proto;
#    my $settings =
#    {
#        $WANT_DEBUG => 990, #10; #level of debug wanted; higher == more, lower == less, 0 == none
#    };
#    bless($settings, $class);
#    return $settings;

#use constant HELLO => "hi there2"; #"main::HELLO" => "hi there";
#use constant GOODBYE => 14; #"main::GOODBYE" => 12;

#print STDERR "read cfg file\n";

#our @EXPORT_OK = Package::Constants->list(__PACKAGE__); #; NOTE: "_OK" skips short/common names

#print STDERR scalar(@EXPORT_OK) . " consts exported:\n";
#foreach(@EXPORT_OK) { print STDERR "$_\n"; }
#my $val = main::thing("xyz");
#print STDERR "caller gave me $val\n";
#foreach my $arg (@ARGV) { print STDERR "arg $arg\n"; }

Download Details:

Author: swannman
Source Code:

License: GPL-3.0 license


DK Business Patron launched its new Global Market Research & Analysis

DK Business Patron is one of the most revered and known outsourcing company based in India that has its roots spread all across the world. Holding a substantial market share in outsourcing processes they hold pride in their extensive client base.
The organization has been continually walking on the path of development and expansion for a long time and comes up with inventive departments that serve the growing business needs across the world. Accounting for the extensive business competition that organizations have to go through in every industry, their team has come up with an extremely inventive idea of launching a new global market research and analysis division of its own. This new development has recently been launched and has created a hustleamidst its top competitors across the globe as this proposition brings for DK Business Patron huge baggage of possibilities.
Over the years, the dedicated team of DK Business Patron has earned for itself success from all professional quarters diving into multiple collaborations and expansion plans seeking an upper hand in front of their competitors. The organization believes that the reason for their success is their continued dedication towards their client base and their vision of coming up with solutions that their clients look for and would require shortly.
Market research and analysis is one such process that serves as thebuilding blocks for shaping a successful future for any product or service to establish a sense of loyalty and visible presence beyond the market barriers and competitive elements. Even though research and analysis are often mentioned together, both of these are separate entities that require dedication and deserve at most attention in their forms to help make the process fruitful and profit-generating for the parent organization. Market research and analysis need not only be integrated within themselves but also with other core processes of any business thereby continual need of aligning market research and analysis with the core operations is felt.
As **market research and analysis **require experienced leadership and highly trained professionals to handle this diverse operation, it might become a tedious and economically hefty task for organizations to look for experienced and qualified personnel to get the job done. Other than beingfinancially draining,managing and integrating this precise process with other core business operations is a necessary yet time-consuming task if taken care of in house. These are the key reasons cited by DK Business Patron as to why they came up with a global market research and analysis division for outsourced market research and analytics services.
The organization has also citedmultiple benefits that organizations will reap if they associate with DK Business Patron global market research and analysis division. The key benefit highlighted the most was that research and analysis outsourcing services provided by DK Business Patron are guaranteed at the lowest cost per insight irrespective of the area of work or organization type and would also include industry analysis.They have stated it as an extremely cost-effective and performance-enhancing approach and that outsourcing this process to DK Business Patron will yield and maintain an excellent quality of work throughout.
Concerning the developments that DK Business Patron and their experienced team have been continually making in recent times, such expansions are quite expected shortly as well. What’s there to wait for is the segments and operations that they choose to dwell in and make the most out of. The diligent team at DK Business Patron is always engaged in bringing to their customers skilled and trained professionals to enhance the success ratio of their overseas partners that have trusted them with internal processes. Looking at the success ratio and client engagement and retention that this organization has maintained for quite a long period now it is being anticipated by market analysts that DK Business Patron will again set a benchmark in terms of outsourced Business Process Outsourcing services in India.
The reverence and word-of-mouth of this leading business outsourcing organization are attaining volume day by day and has a good impact on their International relationships with overseas clients. This makes DK Business Patron a success not only nationally but across the globe having clients from different backgrounds and different countries trusting them with their core processes for quite a time now.

#outsourcing company #outsourcing company based in india #research and analysis #market research and analysis #new global market research and analysis #outsourced market research and analytics

Importance of Market Research Before You Get a Mobile App Developed

With the infusion and escalated use of technology, the mobile app market has grown by leaps and bounds, especially in the last decade. Further estimated researches show that the size of the mobile app market will reach $407.31 billion by the year 2026. Thus, if you have some trending app ideas then this is the best time to invest in mobile app development.

Since the mobile app market is very dynamic, keeping up with the changing trends becomes very important. For doing this, in-depth market research before developing a mobile app is a very vital factor. The importance of mobile app market research can be realized from the fact that it gives the company valuable insights into their competitors. In addition, it gives you a clear idea about your own strengths and weaknesses as well.

The performance of mobile apps in the modern era depends significantly on the behind-the-scenes research work. Many studies have shown that mobile apps developed without adequate research die a premature death at the app store. Statically, around 72% of the upcoming mobile apps fail to make their mark on the market because of lousy research work.

This article will discuss why market research for your mobile application is needed and the difference it can bring into your overall business ROI.

How Market Research can help with successful Mobile App Development?
“In the long run, curiosity-driven research just works better. Real breakthroughs come from people focusing on what they’re excited about.” – Geoffrey Hinton, Psychologist and Computer Scientist

The business of mobile app development is very dynamic and it purely depends on the changing needs and wants of the customers. Doing market research is very crucial to build your stunning mobile app. Therefore, the businesses need to remain on the top of their game as far as knowing the latest market trends are concerned.

Due to its ever-changing nature, developing a mobile app is a very tough nut to crack. And without adequate market research, the whole process can become directionless in no time. The businesses wouldn’t know who their targeted audience are, which market is best for their mobile application, and most importantly the set of features to be bifurcated as must haves’ and which features to be added later as additional ones’.

In addition, full-throttle market research also helps in keeping the app development project within budget. It also assists the marketing team in coming up with unique ideas and enhancing the mobile application’s popularity.

A detailed analysis of the market for your business app will give you valuable insights and stop you from making terrible mistakes. Moreover, as you will understand the customers’ pain points, you wouldn’t cram the mobile app with unnecessary features.

With an increase in the number of options available, the patience levels of the users are declining at a rapid rate. They will instantly discard the mobile app if it keeps them waiting to do important tasks.

The in-depth market research also helps you become the pioneer in your industry using mobile apps as the platform to help your business reach greater heights.

Advantages of market research
The benefits that the businesses gain from market research for getting a cutting-edge mobile app developed are immense. We have listed some of the top advantages below:

Faster data collection
Market research for mobile apps allows faster data collection. This is one of the prominent answers to the question ‘why is app market research recommended as a must-do strategy?’ As the new-age customers use their smartphones more than any other device, it is easier to get faster responses through an app.

Better Insights
While doing in-depth research, the insights are not limited just to text-based questions. You can gauge the customer’s behavior from various touchpoints like their social media platform, photos, audio, video, etc. The market research gives you a more diverse data set for further analysis.

Enhances the brand value
The needs and wants of the consumers are constantly changing. Thus, it becomes difficult for businesses to find their core audience to target or which sections of a market will be more interested in their mobile application. Market research helps in fostering the customer-brand relationship and eventually increasing the brand value.

Better results
Through stoic mobile app market research, you can increase the usability of your mobile app. Various market research shows that 80% of smartphone users check their phone within 15 minutes of waking up. Thus, the more you engage with your customers on the mobile app, the more chances you will grow your business.

The process to conduct mobile app market research
It is inevitable for the business houses to have a clear idea about conducting their market research. Moreover, there is no explicit template that defines ways to conduct market research. In the quest to stand unique from its peers, each business conducts the research in its own way.

Broadly, the process of market research is categorized into two major categories:

Primary Research:
In Primary Research, the company must define the actual need of the app in the market. After this, they must design an optimal business model to keep the app relevant in the market. Once the business model is finalized, optimizing the marketing strategy for the app becomes the next step. Marketing strategy holds much more significance in the modern market as customers are more inclined towards personalized services.

Secondary Research:
Secondary Research mainly focuses on the main strength of the mobile app. When you define the core strength of the mobile app, bifurcating your target audience becomes easy. In addition, the company can optimize its social media strategy and cater to each of their targeted customers individually.

Continue to read : Importance-market-research-before-mobile-app-developed

#importance-market-research #mobile-app #market-research #appmarket-research #app-market-research

Using marketing mix modeling to increase ROI

Marketing mix modeling analyzes the effectiveness of each marketing campaign in terms of its contribution to sales. Marketers use the results of this analysis to adjust their marketing strategies, optimize their marketing plans, and predict sales when modeling various scenarios.

The purpose of marketing mix modeling is to develop a strategy that will increase the perceived value of the product and increase the company’s long-term profit.

What elements does the marketing mix model consist of?

Basic 4P model

The marketing mix model consists of four main elements: Product, Price, Place (distribution channels), and Promotion.

Image for post

Each of these elements answers a specific question.

Product: What is needed by the market and target audience?

Price: What should the product cost?

Place: What is the optimal distribution model to deliver the product to the customer?

Promotion: How will information about the company’s products be distributed in the market?

Modern model

Since the 4P marketing mix model was first introduced in 1960 by Edmund Jerome McCarthy, marketers have complemented it to fit the modern market.

Of the attempts to modernize it, the addition of a fifth element — People — as well as additional elements including Process and Physical evidence can be considered more or less successful.

Updated marketing mix models:

5P model: 4P + People. Answers the question, How should your employees be perceived by customers?

7P model: 5P + Process + Physical evidence. The Process element answers the question, How can we optimize the process of creating and delivering the product to customers? The Physical evidence element answers the question, How can the appearance of your store influence the buyer’s decision?

#owox-bi #analysis #roi #marketing-mix-modeling #marketing #data analysis

Ray  Patel

Ray Patel


Getting started with Time Series using Pandas

An introductory guide on getting started with the Time Series Analysis in Python

Time series analysis is the backbone for many companies since most businesses work by analyzing their past data to predict their future decisions. Analyzing such data can be tricky but Python, as a programming language, can help to deal with such data. Python has both inbuilt tools and external libraries, making the whole analysis process both seamless and easy. Python’s Panda s library is frequently used to import, manage, and analyze datasets in various formats. However, in this article, we’ll use it to analyze stock prices and perform some basic time-series operations.

#data-analysis #time-series-analysis #exploratory-data-analysis #stock-market-analysis #financial-analysis #getting started with time series using pandas