1678443398

What do we observe when we stand in front of a mirror?

Well, our mirror image is exactly the same as our original structure with the only difference that the right part of our body appears on the left in the mirror.

This is exactly what happens in a **mirror tree**!

The mirror of a binary tree is the exact replica of a binary tree with the only difference that the left and the right nodes are interchanged with each other.

With reference to that, in this blog, you can learn how to make copies of binary trees using the recursive algorithm. But, before we dive into the topic, let's have a brief look at binary trees and mirror binary trees.

Binary Trees are defined as data structures that usually have a maximum of two nodes. Here, each of the nodes can have two children nodes at maximum within the structure.

Hence, the structure of a binary tree follows a definite pathway. This path leads to the leaf nodes that are found at the end of the structure.

The binary trees start from the root node that is also commonly known as the ancestor node. This ancestor node branches out into left and right nodes that further follow the same pattern.

Which is why, if you look closely at the structure of a binary tree, you will observe that the tree has different levels or structures that are connected to each other with the help of pointers.

And, while we are on the subject of the structure of a binary tree, did you know that you can copy the different levels of the binary tree all together to form an entirely new tree that looks exactly alike?

This **tree mirror** concept is basically known as a mirror binary tree where we can replicate the structure of any given binary tree into its same exact form with the positions of the left and right subtrees interchanged.

Let's have a brief look at what mirror binary trees are and further we will discuss the algorithms to convert the binary trees into **tree mirrors**.

As the term suggests, a mirror binary tree is the exact duplicate of a regular binary tree down to all the nodes of the tree. This comes with the only exception that the position of the right and the left subtrees are interchanged between each other.

This is essentially because the **tree mirror** is created to provide an exact mirror image of the original binary tree.

Hence, except for the root node of the tree, all the other nodes and their values remain the same but their orders are entirely opposite. For the programming interviews, the mirror tree is a common coding problem asked in the technical interviews.

You might be asked to check whether two binary trees are exactly mirroring each other or not.

If you are interested in learning the algorithms to mirror binary trees, read the next section of the blog.

From regular to level order traversal, we can create a mirror tree out of a binary tree using two different versions of the same approach.

But, before we figure out how, have a look at the problem statement.

**Problem Statement**

You are given a Binary Tree. You are required to convert this binary tree to its mirror form.

Keep in mind that only the left and the right subtrees of the binary tree will be interchanged in the mirror. All the other nodes such as the root and the left nodes will remain exactly the same in the **mirror tree**.

**Answer Key**

The logic here is to perform a traversal of the binary tree in a recursive order and then swap the left and the right subtrees after the traversal is over.

In order to implement this in a program, we can use the following algorithms:

- Start by calling mirror function for the left part of the input binary tree that will be mirror (left-subtree)
- In a similar order, call the mirror function for the right part of the subtree that will be considered as mirror (right-subtree)
- Now, you can perform the swap function on both the right and the left subtrees using the following functions
- Right-subtree = temp
- Left-subtree = right-subtree
- Temp = left subtree

Here's an implementation of this approach in a program:

- Start by creating a class that will be used for containing the right and the left children of the input binary tree
- Use the mirror () function to mirror these nodes
- Now, you can move towards the subtrees by using the */ logic
- Next up, the system will perform a swap function to swap the two subtrees using the right and the left pointers
- A helper function will be initiated by the program in order to test the mirror () function
- Next up, the Inorder Traversal of the input binary tree will be printed
- Now, considering the
**duplicates in the array,**the input tree will be converted to its mirror using the tree.mirror()

**Time Complexity for this approach:**

O(N)

For this approach, we intend to perform a queue based traversal of the tree that will be in a level order.

And, while we are performing the traversal, the right and the left children nodes from the input tree will be swapped for their positions.

Here are the steps to complete this approach:

- Start by initiating a level order traversal of the input binary tree
- While you are performing the traversal, interchange the nodes of the right and the left subtrees to form the mirror \

**Time Complexity for this approach:**

O(N)

The recursive algorithm is the best approach for finding** ****duplicates in array**.

That is why, this approach has effectively solved the problem of converting a binary tree into its mirror.

After the program is printed, the converted binary tree will look exactly like the original tree.

1652250166

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1679978580

In this pythonn tutorial we will learn about how to convert base 2 binary number string to integer in Python. Ever faced the challenge of converting a binary number string into an integer for smooth processing in your Python code? Python offers seamless solutions for transforming data types without a hitch, making it an ideal choice for developers worldwide.

In this article, we’ll delve into two popular methods to tackle binary string conversion: Python’s built-in int() function and the powerful bitstring library, part of the bit array package. Join us as we break down each approach, guiding you through the process of efficient typecasting in Python.

A binary number is expressed in the base-2 number system using only “0”s and “1”s. The zeros and ones are called the index of a binary number. They are also called “bits”.

A computer system only uses the binary system for computations. It is the way in which machine code is written. Circuit diagrams can be used to represent the working of binary systems.

Boolean algebra including “AND”, “OR” and “NOT” gates can be used to represent addition, subtraction, multiplications in the binary system.

We can easily convert a number that is an integer from the decimal system, that is the base-10 system to the binary system by dividing it with 2 and arranging the remainders in a bottom-to-top order.

Converting Decimal to Base-2 Numbers

A binary number can also be converted easily into a decimal number in mathematics.

Converting a Base-2 Number String to an Integer in Python

A string in python is something that is written between two quotation marks, for example, “this is a string”.

Hence, a base-2 number string is a binary number written between two quotation marks . For example-‘1010001’ is a base-2 number string.

In python, programmers can clearly define the conversion of one data type into another in their code. This is known as explicit typecasting in python.

Explicit typecasting is extremely useful. Unlike other programming languages, python has built-in functions that can perform explicit typecasting without having to write huge blocks of code for transforming one data type into another.

Explicit typecasting has many advantages. Some of them are:

- It helps in converting lower data types into higher ones for ease of operations.
- It prevents the loss of data when converting from one data type to another.
- Functions like int() and str() are extremely helpful and hassle free to use.

We can use the int() built-in function to convert a string literal into an integer in python. Let’s look at how we can implement this :

```
#converting a base-2 number string into an integer.
#taking an input for a number in the form of a string
inin=input("Enter a binary number= ")
#displaying the input
print("The given input is=",inin)
#converting using int()
outout=int(inin,2)
#displaying the output
print("the number in the decimal system or as an integer is=",outout)
```

The output would be:

```
Enter a binary number= 10011
The given input is= 10011
the number in the decimal system or as an integer is= 19
```

Example: Converting Binary String with int() Function

The bitstring module helps in natural and easy creation of binary data. Binary data analysis and manipulation using bitstring comes in very handy along with the BitArray class.

Before we can use this module we have to install in it our system, run the following code in your command prompt:

`pip install bitstring`

Let’s see how we can implement this:

```
#converting a base-2 number string into an integer.
#importing required modules
from bitstring import BitArray
#taking an input for a number in the form of a string
inin=input("Enter a binary number= ")
#displaying the input
print("The given input is=",inin)
#converting using bitArray
outout=BitArray(bin=inin).int
#displaying the output
print("the number in the decimal system or as an integer is=",outout)
```

The output will be:

```
Enter a binary number= 0100111
The given input is= 0100111
the number in the decimal system or as an integer is= 39
```

Example: Converting Binary String with Bitstring Module

Throughout this tutorial, we’ve explored the process of converting binary numbers to decimal integers in Python. With Python’s extensive library of built-in functions and modules, there’s no need for manual calculations. Explicit typecasting is a powerful feature that simplifies this conversion process. We have demonstrated two methods for converting base-2 number strings to integers: using the int() function and the bitstring module.

Article source at: https://www.askpython.com

1680068400

Neste tutorial do pythonn, aprenderemos como converter string de número binário de base 2 em inteiro em Python. Já enfrentou o desafio de converter uma string de número binário em um número inteiro para um processamento suave em seu código Python? O Python oferece soluções perfeitas para transformar tipos de dados sem problemas, tornando-o uma escolha ideal para desenvolvedores em todo o mundo.

Neste artigo, vamos nos aprofundar em dois métodos populares para lidar com a conversão de string binária: a função int() integrada do Python e a poderosa biblioteca bitstring, parte do pacote bit array. Junte-se a nós enquanto detalhamos cada abordagem, guiando você pelo processo de typecasting eficiente em Python.

Um número binário é expresso no sistema numérico de base 2 usando apenas "0" e "1". Os zeros e uns são chamados de índice de um número binário. Eles também são chamados de "bits".

Um sistema de computador usa apenas o sistema binário para cálculos. É a maneira como o código de máquina é escrito. Diagramas de circuitos podem ser usados para representar o funcionamento de sistemas binários.

Álgebra booleana incluindo portas “AND”, “OR” e “NOT” pode ser usada para representar adição, subtração, multiplicações no sistema binário.

Podemos facilmente converter um número inteiro do sistema decimal, ou seja, o sistema de base 10 para o sistema binário, dividindo-o por 2 e organizando os restos em ordem de baixo para cima.

Convertendo números decimais em base 2

Um número binário também pode ser convertido facilmente em um número decimal em matemática.

Convertendo uma string numérica de base 2 em um número inteiro em Python

Uma string em python é algo escrito entre duas aspas, por exemplo, “isto é uma string”.

Portanto, uma string numérica de base 2 é um número binário escrito entre duas aspas . Por exemplo, '1010001' é uma sequência numérica de base 2.

Em python, os programadores podem definir claramente a conversão de um tipo de dados em outro em seu código. Isso é conhecido como typecasting explícito em python.

Typecasting explícito é extremamente útil. Ao contrário de outras linguagens de programação, o python possui funções internas que podem realizar typecast explícito sem ter que escrever grandes blocos de código para transformar um tipo de dados em outro.

Typecasting explícito tem muitas vantagens. Alguns deles são:

- Ele ajuda na conversão de tipos de dados inferiores em superiores para facilitar as operações.
- Evita a perda de dados ao converter de um tipo de dados para outro.
- Funções como int() e str() são extremamente úteis e fáceis de usar.

Podemos usar a função interna int() para converter uma string literal em um inteiro em python. Vejamos como podemos implementar isso:

```
#converting a base-2 number string into an integer.
#taking an input for a number in the form of a string
inin=input("Enter a binary number= ")
#displaying the input
print("The given input is=",inin)
#converting using int()
outout=int(inin,2)
#displaying the output
print("the number in the decimal system or as an integer is=",outout)
```

A saída seria:

```
Enter a binary number= 10011
The given input is= 10011
the number in the decimal system or as an integer is= 19
```

Exemplo: Convertendo String Binária com a Função int()

O módulo bitstring ajuda na criação natural e fácil de dados binários. A análise e manipulação de dados binários usando bitstring são muito úteis junto com a classe BitArray.

Antes de podermos usar este módulo, temos que instalar nele nosso sistema, execute o seguinte código em seu prompt de comando:

`pip install bitstring`

Vejamos como podemos implementar isso:

```
#converting a base-2 number string into an integer.
#importing required modules
from bitstring import BitArray
#taking an input for a number in the form of a string
inin=input("Enter a binary number= ")
#displaying the input
print("The given input is=",inin)
#converting using bitArray
outout=BitArray(bin=inin).int
#displaying the output
print("the number in the decimal system or as an integer is=",outout)
```

A saída será:

```
Enter a binary number= 0100111
The given input is= 0100111
the number in the decimal system or as an integer is= 39
```

Exemplo: Conversão de String Binária com Módulo Bitstring

Ao longo deste tutorial, exploramos o processo de conversão de números binários em inteiros decimais em Python. Com a extensa biblioteca de funções e módulos integrados do Python, não há necessidade de cálculos manuais. Typecasting explícito é um recurso poderoso que simplifica esse processo de conversão. Demonstramos dois métodos para converter strings numéricas de base 2 em inteiros: usando a função int() e o módulo bitstring.

Fonte do artigo em: https://www.askpython.com

1599043260

Given a **Binary Tree** and an integer **D**, the task is to check if the distance between all pairs of same node values in the Tree is ? **D** or not. If found to be true, then print **Yes**. Otherwise, print **No**.

**Examples:**

_ D = 7 _Input:

```
1
/ \
2 3
/ \ / \
4 3 4 4
```

_ Yes _Output:

Explanation:

_The repeated value of nodes are 3 and 4. _

_The distance between the two nodes valued 3, is 3. _

_The maximum distance between any pair of nodes valued 4 is 4. _

Therefore, none of the distances exceed 7

_ D = 1 _Input:

```
3
/ \
3 3
\
3
```

_ No _Output:

**Recommended: Please try your approach on {IDE} first, before moving on to the solution.**

**Approach: **

The idea is to observe that the problem is similar to finding the distance between two nodes of a tree. But there can be multiple pairs of nodes for which we have to find the distance. Follow the steps below:

- Perform the Post Order Traversal of the given tree and find the distance between the repeated pairs of nodes.
- Find the nodes that are repeated in the tree using unordered_map.
- For each repeated node of a particular value, find the maximum possible distance between any pair.
- If that distance is >
**D**, print “No”. - If no such node value is found having a pair containing that value, exceeding **D, **then print “Yes”.

#greedy #recursion #searching #tree #binary tree #frequency-counting #postorder traversal #tree-traversal

1625301328

When the exchange server is synchronised with MS Outlook then, automatically a copy of its mailboxes will be generated in OST (Offline Storage Table) file format. The user can access OST data in the offline mode and work on them. The changes will get updated when the internet connectivity is re-established. OST files cannot be accessed in the other system or remote system. So to access the OST files in another system Outlook, then convert Outlook OST to PST format. Due to various reasons for which users’ want to convert OST to PST file format such as the Exchange might face some technical issues, downtime or crash. How to convert OST to PST in Outlook 2016, 2013, 2010? Well, in this blog, we will discuss both manual as well as the professional best OST to PST Converter online solution.

For better understanding of users’, we have listed some common reasons below.

Before providing methods to the query “how to convert OST file to PST in outlook 2016”, first understand why users’ need to convert OST to PST. Some of the basic reasons are provided below.

- When the Exchange server is under maintenance.
- Accidental deletion of the Exchange server account.
- Virus or Malware attacks.
- Power Failures or intrusions by malicious software.

These are a few reasons for Outlook OST to PST conversion. Now let’s proceed ahead to different methods to convert OST to PST online.

Manual strategies are cost-effective methods and here, we will discuss the complete manual steps for OST to PST conversion. Before starting the steps, it is suggested to create a backup copy of the original data as there might be a risk of human error that can ultimately lead to severe data loss. How to convert OST to PST manually? Follow the methods provided below -

- Open your Microsoft Outlook program.
- Click on the File tab.
- Select the Import/Export option.
- Click on Export to a file.
- Press the Next button.
- Now Select the Personal File folder (.pst).
- Click on the Parent root.
- Check on the include subfolders
- Click on browse and navigate to the path to save the resultant data.
- Click on the finish button.

- Sign-in to Microsoft Outlook.
- Go to the File section
- Click on Options
- Now, click on the Advanced section
- Click on Auto Archive settings…
- Navigate to the path to save the archived files.
- Click on the OK button.

- Manual Processes are lengthy and more time-consuming.
- Need connectivity with the Exchange server.
- Unable to export corrupt OST data.
- Outlook application installation is required.
- Feasible for small sized OST files only.
- High risk of data loss.

To avoid all the limitations that we have already seen above with the conventional manual techniques, users can opt for a well known and reliable automated method for conversion. There are numerous third-party solutions available to convert OST to PST, however it is suggested to use a trusted software. Using the smart * DRS Best OST to PST Converter* online utility that allows to export OST to PST, MBOX, MSG, EML, PDF, CSV, HTML, Gmail, Yandex mail, Yahoo, Office 365, etc. It can easily open corrupt OST files and convert them to healthy PST. The tool even allows users to smoothly export all the mailbox items like attachments, calendar, contacts, journals, tasks, etc. There are no file size restrictions and no risk of severe data loss. The advanced software is compatible with all versions of Mac and Windows. The free OST to PST Converter online version allows to export 50 emails for free.

Above in this blog, we have discussed the recommended solutions by experts on the query “how to convert OST to PST in Outlook 2016”. At the end of this article, we can conclude that manual strategies have several limitations, so it is suggested to use the well known DRS OST to PST Converter for an effective, accurate and effortless conversion.

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