Justyn  Ortiz

Justyn Ortiz

1597366800

flowtrackd: DDoS Protection with Unidirectional TCP Flow Tracking

Magic Transit is Cloudflare’s L3 DDoS Scrubbing service for protecting network infrastructure. As part of our ongoing investment in Magic Transit and our DDoS protection capabilities, we’re excited to talk about a new piece of software helping to protect Magic Transit customers: flowtrackd. flowtrackd is a software-defined DDoS protection system that significantly improves our ability to automatically detect and mitigate even the most complex TCP-based DDoS attacks. If you are a Magic Transit customer, this feature will be enabled by default at no additional cost on July 30, 2020.

"I know you call this service Magic Transit, but now I know why." - Webhost Limited, when first hearing about flowtrackd

TCP-Based DDoS Attacks

In the first quarter of 2020, one out of every two L3/4 DDoS attacks Cloudflare mitigated was an ACK Flood, and over 66% of all L3/4 attacks were TCP based. Most types of DDoS attacks can be mitigated by finding unique characteristics that are present in all attack packets and using that to distinguish ‘good’ packets from the ‘bad’ ones. This is called “stateless” mitigation, because any packet that has these unique characteristics can simply be dropped without remembering any information (or “state”) about the other packets that came before it. However, when attack packets have no unique characteristics, then “stateful” mitigation is required, because whether a certain packet is good or bad depends on the other packets that have come before it.

The most sophisticated types of TCP flood require stateful mitigation, where every TCP connection must be tracked in order to know whether any particular TCP packet is part of an active connection. That kind of mitigation is called “flow tracking”, and it is typically implemented in Linux by the iptables conntrack module. However, DDoS protection with conntrack is not as simple as flipping the iptable switch, especially at the scale and complexity that Cloudflare operates in. If you’re interested to learn more, in this blog we talk about the technical challenges of implementing iptables conntrack.

Complex TCP DDoS attacks pose a threat as they can be harder to detect and mitigate. They therefore have the potential to cause service degradation, outages and increased false positives with inaccurate mitigation rules. So how does Cloudflare block patternless DDoS attacks without affecting legitimate traffic?

Bidirectional TCP Flow Tracking

Using Cloudflare’s traditional products, HTTP applications can be protected by the WAF service, and TCP/UDP applications can be protected by Spectrum. These services are “reverse proxies”, meaning that traffic passes through Cloudflare in both directions. In this bidirectional topology, we see the entire TCP flow (i.e., segments sent by both the client and the server) and can therefore track the state of the underlying TCP connection. This way, we know if a TCP packet belongs to an existing flow or if it is an “out of state” TCP packet. Out of state TCP packets look just like regular TCP packets, but they don’t belong to any real connection between a client and a server. These packets are most likely part of an attack and are therefore dropped.

Reverse Proxy: What Cloudflare Sees

While not trivial, tracking TCP flows can be done when we serve as a proxy between the client and server, allowing us to absorb and mitigate out of state TCP floods. However it becomes much more challenging when we only see half of the connection: the ingress flow. This visibility into ingress but not egress flows is the default deployment method for Cloudflare’s Magic Transit service, so we had our work cut out for us in identifying out of state packets.

The Challenge With Unidirectional TCP Flows

With Magic Transit, Cloudflare receives inbound internet traffic on behalf of the customer, scrubs DDoS attacks, and routes the clean traffic to the customer’s data center over a tunnel. The data center then responds directly to the eyeball client using a technique known as Direct Server Return (DSR).

#ddos #security #tcp #magic transit #gatebot

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flowtrackd: DDoS Protection with Unidirectional TCP Flow Tracking
Justyn  Ortiz

Justyn Ortiz

1597366800

flowtrackd: DDoS Protection with Unidirectional TCP Flow Tracking

Magic Transit is Cloudflare’s L3 DDoS Scrubbing service for protecting network infrastructure. As part of our ongoing investment in Magic Transit and our DDoS protection capabilities, we’re excited to talk about a new piece of software helping to protect Magic Transit customers: flowtrackd. flowtrackd is a software-defined DDoS protection system that significantly improves our ability to automatically detect and mitigate even the most complex TCP-based DDoS attacks. If you are a Magic Transit customer, this feature will be enabled by default at no additional cost on July 30, 2020.

"I know you call this service Magic Transit, but now I know why." - Webhost Limited, when first hearing about flowtrackd

TCP-Based DDoS Attacks

In the first quarter of 2020, one out of every two L3/4 DDoS attacks Cloudflare mitigated was an ACK Flood, and over 66% of all L3/4 attacks were TCP based. Most types of DDoS attacks can be mitigated by finding unique characteristics that are present in all attack packets and using that to distinguish ‘good’ packets from the ‘bad’ ones. This is called “stateless” mitigation, because any packet that has these unique characteristics can simply be dropped without remembering any information (or “state”) about the other packets that came before it. However, when attack packets have no unique characteristics, then “stateful” mitigation is required, because whether a certain packet is good or bad depends on the other packets that have come before it.

The most sophisticated types of TCP flood require stateful mitigation, where every TCP connection must be tracked in order to know whether any particular TCP packet is part of an active connection. That kind of mitigation is called “flow tracking”, and it is typically implemented in Linux by the iptables conntrack module. However, DDoS protection with conntrack is not as simple as flipping the iptable switch, especially at the scale and complexity that Cloudflare operates in. If you’re interested to learn more, in this blog we talk about the technical challenges of implementing iptables conntrack.

Complex TCP DDoS attacks pose a threat as they can be harder to detect and mitigate. They therefore have the potential to cause service degradation, outages and increased false positives with inaccurate mitigation rules. So how does Cloudflare block patternless DDoS attacks without affecting legitimate traffic?

Bidirectional TCP Flow Tracking

Using Cloudflare’s traditional products, HTTP applications can be protected by the WAF service, and TCP/UDP applications can be protected by Spectrum. These services are “reverse proxies”, meaning that traffic passes through Cloudflare in both directions. In this bidirectional topology, we see the entire TCP flow (i.e., segments sent by both the client and the server) and can therefore track the state of the underlying TCP connection. This way, we know if a TCP packet belongs to an existing flow or if it is an “out of state” TCP packet. Out of state TCP packets look just like regular TCP packets, but they don’t belong to any real connection between a client and a server. These packets are most likely part of an attack and are therefore dropped.

Reverse Proxy: What Cloudflare Sees

While not trivial, tracking TCP flows can be done when we serve as a proxy between the client and server, allowing us to absorb and mitigate out of state TCP floods. However it becomes much more challenging when we only see half of the connection: the ingress flow. This visibility into ingress but not egress flows is the default deployment method for Cloudflare’s Magic Transit service, so we had our work cut out for us in identifying out of state packets.

The Challenge With Unidirectional TCP Flows

With Magic Transit, Cloudflare receives inbound internet traffic on behalf of the customer, scrubs DDoS attacks, and routes the clean traffic to the customer’s data center over a tunnel. The data center then responds directly to the eyeball client using a technique known as Direct Server Return (DSR).

#ddos #security #tcp #magic transit #gatebot

Jenny Jabde

1621251999

Quick Flow Male Enhancement Reviews, Benefits Price & Buy Quick Flow?

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On the off chance that you fall in the subsequent class, Quick Flow Male Enhancement is the thing that your body is needing right now. The recently discovered male arrangement is the difficult solver for numerous types and types of erectile pressure causing brokenness and causes those issues to be rectified and henceforth blessings you with the more youthful sexual variant.

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Different results of this class have numerous regular Ingredients in them, yet the ones here in Quick Flow Male Enhancement are truly uncommon and furthermore natural in their reap and produce. This allows you to get the experience of the truth of more profound sex intercourse which you generally thought was a fantasy for you. Positively, this is a demonstrated natural thing, and relying upon it is no place off-base according to specialists. It is time that your body is given valuable minerals as requested by age.

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Vishal Thakare

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Garware Paint Protection Film

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Garware Hi-Tech Films Limited was successfully launched in 1957. Garware Polyester Ltd is a class apart. They are the result of a single-source, vertically integrated manufacturing process.
The films are manufactured in a state-of-the-art, ISO-9001:2015 certified facility that makes just about everything that goes into their protection films, from the base petrochemical intermediate (DMT) right down to the finished products. This eliminates dependency on other manufacturers enabling complete control over the entire manufacturing process—from polymers to packaged goods. That’s important because it ensures high quality and ultimately, total consumer satisfaction.
Garware Polyester Ltd is one of the three companies worldwide who possesses the competency to produce dyed polyester film. We also command significant presence in USA, South America, Russia, China, Far East & Europe. In fact, more than 80% of this world class product is exported.

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What is Flow Protocol (FLOW) | What is Flow Protocol token | What is FLOW token

Introducing Flow Protocol (FLOW)

Flow is a protocol that establishes an Ethereum based self-distributing token (FLOW). FLOW is designed to facilitate token distribution without dilution.

The protocol distributes inflation of FLOW tokens to all addresses holding it without the need for a single transaction. Inflation happens daily and does not require any action on the side of the FLOW token holder or any other parties. This method of inflation allows for the token to be applied to modern DeFi use cases without diluting the token holders.

Over a period of 10 years, inflation is reduced and ends with a capped supply of FLOW tokens.

Why do we need Flow?

Until now, digital assets like Bitcoin have required participation in mining or staking in order to receive a portion of the inflating supply. This has several problems:

  • When a digital asset is tied to a consensus mechanism, it disproportionately punishes holders as their share of the supply is continuously diluted during the inflation period.
  • The long term value of these assets depends heavily on the ability of the protocol to continue to operate without inflation being paid to miners/stakers, which is a highly debated topic.
  • Protocol coins (BTC, ETH, etc) are tied to the underlying network, which can cause their value to fluctuate wildly due delays in network upgrades, bugs, etc.
  • Assets that require actions such as staking in order to receive a portion of inflation prevent them from being used easily in other applications (lending, collateral, etc.) without being diluted.

Flow solves these problems by applying the single-responsibility principle (SRP) from software engineering. The Flow protocol takes responsibility only for essential distribution functions, allowing the Ethereum network to manage everything outside that scope.

Designed for DeFI

As DeFi rapidly grows, so does the demand for collateral assets that fill specific roles. FLOW (Store of Value) can help diversify collateral by being combined with digital assets that fill other roles such as ETH (Protocol) and AMPL (Elastic Supply).

FLOW does not need to be staked or locked into a contract to receive inflation, therefore it can be applied to the full range of DeFi applications while still achieving its distribution target

The FLOW Inflation Schedule

FLOW inflation is governed by Eras. The daily inflation applied to the token supply starts at 1% during the Genesis Era and is halved at the end of every Era.

The first era, called the Genesis Era, lasts for 60 days. After the Genesis Era there are 10 additional Eras, each lasting for 365 days.

Inflation stops upon completion of the final Era and the supply becomes capped.

The initial supply of tokens started at 10,000,000 FLOW. As the daily inflation occurs over a period of 10 years, the supply will increase to just under 700,000,000 FLOW.

Image for post

You can see the total supply, current inflation rate and the next halving at https://app.flowprotocol.io/dashboard

Flow Token (FLOW)

The FLOW token and its distribution would be governed by Eras. At the end of each Era, it is expected that the inflation rate would be halved, just like how the mining rewards in Bitcoin are always halved after a certain period.

The First Era of the would-be was called the Genesis Era, and it would last for a mere 60 days. Subsequent eras would last for 356 days, and there would only be ten of them.

During the Genesis Era, the daily inflation rate would start at 1%, and at the end, it would be halved.

Benefits of Inflation with FLOW

Inflation occurs in most other cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin and Ether. However, in almost all other cases the inflation is only paid to miners or stakers. This harms holders of the token by diluting their ownership of the total token supply.

With FLOW, your share of the total supply can **never **be diluted. This means that no dilution occurs as the supply inflates. Even if you are using your tokens for yield farming or any other DeFi application, the inflation will still be applied!

FLOW inflation has several other benefits that help achieve the goal of becoming a widely adopted store of value.

As the token supply inflates, some holders may choose to sell the additional tokens. This helps achieve the wide distribution required to become a robust store of value as inflation decreases and eventually stops. This effect can already be observed by the impressive number of FLOW holders.

Demand for FLOW can also be partially absorbed by inflation rather than just by increasing price alone. This results in a different price action than a typical token, making FLOW more difficult to manipulate based on traditional metrics.

How Does it Work?

Simply put, anyone who holds FLOW tokens can become a liquidity provider on Uniswap by pooling their FLOW tokens combined with an equivalent USD value of ETH.

Upon successfully pooling, the liquidity provider will receive UNI-V2 tokens which represent their stake in the Uniswap liquidity pool.

UNI-V2 tokens can then be staked to earn additional FLOW.

How are Rewards Determined?

There are several factors that determine the amount of FLOW you will receive for staking:

The unlock rate — The total rewards will be unlocked evenly over 90 days.

The amount you have staked — The amount of FLOW rewards you receive over time depends on the percentage of the total staked tokens that belong to you. If you were the only one staking you would receive all of the rewards!

The amount of time you remain staked — The rewards you earn will have a multiplier applied to them the longer you remained staked. To achieve the full multiplier (3x), you need to remain staked for at least 60 days.

How can I participate?

You will need both FLOW and ETH to provide liquidity and earn rewards from The Tap.

For example, if you have 10 ETH total that you want to stake in The Tap, you would buy 5 ETH worth of FLOW and then add liquidity on Uniswap with the resulting ETH/FLOW.

Here are the steps required to participate:

  1. Buy FLOW:  https://app.uniswap.org/#/swap?outputCurrency=0xC6e64729931f60D2c8Bc70A27D66D9E0c28D1BF9
  2. **Provide Liquidity on Uniswap: ** https://app.uniswap.org/#/add/ETH/0xC6e64729931f60D2c8Bc70A27D66D9E0c28D1BF9
  3. **Stake your liquidity tokens at The Tap: ** https://app.flowprotocol.io/

Looking for more information…

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Would you like to earn FLOW right now! ☞ CLICK HERE

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Thank for visiting and reading this article! I’m highly appreciate your actions! Please share if you liked it!

I hope this post will help you. If you liked this, please consider sharing it with others. Thank you!

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Layne  Fadel

Layne Fadel

1624545360

Azure DDoS Protection—2020 year in review

This blog post was co-authored by Anupam Vij, Principal PM Manager & Syed Pasha, Principal Network Engineer, Azure Networking.

2020 was a year unlike any other. It brought major disruptions to both the physical and digital worlds, and these changes are also evident in the cyberthreat landscape. The prevalence of Distributed Denial-of-Service (DDoS) attacks in 2020 has grown more than 50 percent with increasing complexity and a significant increase in the volume of DDoS traffic.

With the COVID-19 pandemic, billions of people across the world have been confined to their home environments, working, learning, and even socializing remotely, and internet traffic has exploded. Now, DDoS attacks are one of the largest security concerns: the surges in internet traffic make it easier for attackers to launch DDoS attacks since they don’t have to generate as much traffic to bring down services. Cybercriminals can exploit huge traffic streams to launch DDoS attacks, which makes it harder to distinguish between legitimate and malicious traffic.

At Microsoft, the Azure DDoS Protection team protects every property in Microsoft and the entire Azure infrastructure. This past year, we continued to defend against DDoS attacks in the face of an ever-evolving cyber landscape and unprecedented challenges. In this review, we share trends and insights into DDoS attacks we observed and mitigated throughout 2020.

2020 DDoS attack trends

COVID-19 drove a sharp increase in DDoS attacks

Throughout the year, we mitigated an average of 500 unique attacks a day. In total, we mitigated upwards of 200,000 unique DDoS attacks against our global infrastructure.

The peak attack period was during March to April 2020 with the onset of the COVID-19 outbreak, as countries across the globe implemented lockdowns and stay at home measures. We mitigated around 800 to 1,000 attacks per day, more than 50 percent higher than pre-COVID levels during the same time in previous years.

Short bursts of high-volume attacks

In 2020, we observed a trend towards high volume attacks with shorter durations. Multi-vector attacks continued to be prevalent as well.

#security #azure ddos protection #azure ddos