Recurrent Neural Networks in Tensorflow will help you in understanding why we need Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) and what exactly it is. It also explains few issues with training a Recurrent Neural Network and how to overcome those challenges using LSTMs. The last section includes a use-case of LSTM to predict the next word using a sample short story
#tensorflow #deep-learning #machine-learning #python
Recurrent neural networks, also known as RNNs, are a class of neural networks that allow previous outputs to be used as inputs while having hidden states. RNN models are mostly used in the fields of natural language processing and speech recognition.
The vanishing and exploding gradient phenomena are often encountered in the context of RNNs. The reason why they happen is that it is difficult to capture long term dependencies because of multiplicative gradient that can be exponentially decreasing/increasing with respect to the number of layers.
Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) and Long Short-Term Memory units (LSTM) deal with the vanishing gradient problem encountered by traditional RNNs, with LSTM being a generalization of GRU.
1D Convolution_ layer_ creates a convolution kernel that is convolved with the layer input over a single spatial (or temporal) dimension to produce a tensor of outputs. It is very effective for deriving features from a fixed-length segment of the overall dataset. A 1D CNN works well for natural language processing (NLP).
TensorFlow Datasets is a collection of datasets ready to use, with TensorFlow or other Python ML frameworks, such as Jax. All datasets are exposed as
[_tf.data.Datasets_](https://www.tensorflow.org/api_docs/python/tf/data/Dataset), enabling easy-to-use and high-performance input pipelines.
This is a dataset for binary sentiment classification containing substantially more data than previous benchmark datasets. It provides a set of 25,000 highly polar movie reviews for training, and 25,000 for testing.
import pandas as pd import numpy as np import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import seaborn as sns %matplotlib inline
import tensorflow as tf import tensorflow_datasets imdb, info=tensorflow_datasets.load("imdb_reviews", with_info=True, as_supervised=True) imdb
train_data, test_data=imdb['train'], imdb['test'] training_sentences= training_label= testing_sentences= testing_label= for s,l in train_data: training_sentences.append(str(s.numpy())) training_label.append(l.numpy()) for s,l in test_data: testing_sentences.append(str(s.numpy())) testing_label.append(l.numpy()) training_label_final=np.array(training_label) testing_label_final=np.array(testing_label)
vocab_size=10000 embedding_dim=16 max_length=120 trunc_type='post' oov_tok='<oov>' from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.text import Tokenizer from tensorflow.keras.preprocessing.sequence import pad_sequences tokenizer= Tokenizer(num_words=vocab_size, oov_token=oov_tok) tokenizer.fit_on_texts(training_sentences) word_index=tokenizer.word_index sequences=tokenizer.texts_to_sequences(training_sentences) padded=pad_sequences(sequences, maxlen=max_length, truncating=trunc_type) testing_sequences=tokenizer.texts_to_sequences(testing_sentences) testing_padded=pad_sequences(testing_sequences, maxlen=max_length) from tensorflow.keras.models import Sequential from tensorflow.keras.layers import Dense, Dropout, Embedding
#imdb #convolutional-network #long-short-term-memory #recurrent-neural-network #gated-recurrent-unit #neural networks
Neural networks have been around for a long time, being developed in the 1960s as a way to simulate neural activity for the development of artificial intelligence systems. However, since then they have developed into a useful analytical tool often used in replace of, or in conjunction with, standard statistical models such as regression or classification as they can be used to predict or more a specific output. The main difference, and advantage, in this regard is that neural networks make no initial assumptions as to the form of the relationship or distribution that underlies the data, meaning they can be more flexible and capture non-standard and non-linear relationships between input and output variables, making them incredibly valuable in todays data rich environment.
In this sense, their use has took over the past decade or so, with the fall in costs and increase in ability of general computing power, the rise of large datasets allowing these models to be trained, and the development of frameworks such as TensforFlow and Keras that have allowed people with sufficient hardware (in some cases this is no longer even an requirement through cloud computing), the correct data and an understanding of a given coding language to implement them. This article therefore seeks to be provide a no code introduction to their architecture and how they work so that their implementation and benefits can be better understood.
Firstly, the way these models work is that there is an input layer, one or more hidden layers and an output layer, each of which are connected by layers of synaptic weights¹. The input layer (X) is used to take in scaled values of the input, usually within a standardised range of 0–1. The hidden layers (Z) are then used to define the relationship between the input and output using weights and activation functions. The output layer (Y) then transforms the results from the hidden layers into the predicted values, often also scaled to be within 0–1. The synaptic weights (W) connecting these layers are used in model training to determine the weights assigned to each input and prediction in order to get the best model fit. Visually, this is represented as:
#machine-learning #python #neural-networks #tensorflow #neural-network-algorithm #no code introduction to neural networks
The purpose of this project is to build and evaluate Recurrent Neural Networks(RNNs) for sentence-level classification tasks. I evaluate three architectures: a two-layer Long Short-Term Memory Network(LSTM), a two-layer Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Network(BiLSTM), and a two-layer BiLSTM with a word-level attention layer. Although they do learn useful vector representation, BiLSTM with attention mechanism focuses on necessary tokens when learning text representation. To that end, I’m using the 2019 Google Jigsaw published dataset on Kaggle labeled “Jigsaw Unintended Bias in Toxicity Classification.” The dataset includes 1,804,874 user comments, with the toxicity level being between 0 and 1. The final models can be used for filtering online posts and comments, social media policing, and user education.
RNNs are neural networks used for problems that require sequential data processing. For instance:
At each time step t of the input sequence, RNNs compute the output yt and an internal state update ht using the input xt and the previous hidden-state ht-1. They then pass information about the current time step of the network to the next. The hidden-state ht summarizes the task-relevant aspect of the past sequence of the input up to t, allowing for information to persist over time.
Recurrent Neural Network
Recurrent Neural Network
During training, RNNs re-use the same weight matrices at each time step. Parameter sharing enables the network to generalize to different sequence lengths. The total loss is a sum of all losses at each time step, the gradients with respect to the weights are the sum of the gradients at each time step, and the parameters are updated to minimize the loss function.
forward pass: compute the loss function
Backward Pass: compute the gradients
Although RNNs learn contextual representations of sequential data, they suffer from the exploding and vanishing gradient phenomena in long sequences. These problems occur due to the multiplicative gradient that can exponentially increase or decrease through time. RNNs commonly use three activation functions: RELU, Tanh, and Sigmoid. Because the gradient calculation also involves the gradient with respect to the non-linear activations, architectures that use a RELU activation can suffer from the exploding gradient problem. Architectures that use Tanh/Sigmoid can suffer from the vanishing gradient problem. Gradient clipping — limiting the gradient within a specific range — can be used to remedy the exploding gradient. However, for the vanishing gradient problem, a more complex recurrent unit with gates such as Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) or Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) can be used.
#ai #recurrent-neural-network #attention-network #machine-learning #neural-network
Natural Language Processing is one of the artificial intelligence tasks performed with natural languages. The word ‘natural’ refers to the languages that evolved naturally among humans for communication. A long-standing goal in artificial intelligence is to make a machine effectively communicate with humans. Language modeling and Language generation (such as neural machine translation) have been popular among researchers for over a decade. For an AI beginner, learning and practicing Natural Language Processing can be initialized with classification of texts. Sentiment Analysis is among the text classification applications in which a given text is classified into a positive class or a negative class (sometimes, a neutral class, too) based on the context. This article discusses sentiment analysis using TensorFlow Keras with the IMDB movie reviews dataset, one of the famous Sentiment Analysis datasets.
TensorFlow’s Keras API offers the complete functionality required to build and execute a deep learning model. This article assumes that the reader is familiar with the basics of deep learning and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNNs). Nevertheless, the following articles may yield a good understanding of deep learning and RNNs:
#developers corner #imdb dataset #keras #lstm #lstm recurrent neural network #natural language processing #nlp #recurrent neural network #rnn #sentiment analysis #sentiment analysis nlp #tensorflow
A recurrent neural network (RNN) is an input node (hidden layer) that feeds sigmoid activation. The way an RNN does this is to take the output of one neuron and return it as input to another neuron or feed the input of the current time step to the output of earlier time steps. Here you feed the input from the previous times step by step into the input of the current times and vice versa.
This can be used in a variety of ways, such as through learning gates with known variations or a combination of sigmoid activation and a number of other types of neural networks.
Some of the applications for RNNs include predicting energy demand, predicting stock prices, and predicting human behavior. RNNs are modeled over time — based and sequence-based data, but they are also useful in a variety of other applications.
A recurrent neural network is an artificial neural network used for deep learning, machine learning, and other forms of artificial intelligence (AI). They have a number of attributes that make them useful for tasks where data needs to be processed sequentially.
To get a little more technical, recurring neural networks are designed to learn a sequence of data by traversing a hidden state from one step of the sequence to the next, combined with the input, and routing it back and forth between the inputs. RNN are neural networks that are designed for the effective handling of sequential data but are also useful for non-sequential data.
These types of data include text documents that can be seen as a sequence of words or audio files in which you can see a sequence of sound frequencies and times. The more information about the output layer is available, the faster it can be read and sequenced, and the better its performance.
#recurrent-neural-network #lstm #rnn #artificial-intelligence #neural network