Corey Brooks

Corey Brooks

1594097118

Understanding Class Inheritance in Python

Introduction

Object-oriented programming creates reusable patterns of code to curtail redundancy in development projects. One way that object-oriented programming achieves recyclable code is through inheritance, when one subclass can leverage code from another base class.

This tutorial will go through some of the major aspects of inheritance in Python, including how parent classes and child classes work, how to override methods and attributes, how to use the super() function, and how to make use of multiple inheritance.

What Is Inheritance?

Inheritance is when a class uses code constructed within another class. If we think of inheritance in terms of biology, we can think of a child inheriting certain traits from their parent. That is, a child can inherit a parent’s height or eye color. Children also may share the same last name with their parents.

Classes called child classes or subclasses inherit methods and variables from parent classes or base classes.

We can think of a parent class called Parent that has class variables for last_name, height, and eye_color that the child class Child will inherit from the Parent.

Because the Child subclass is inheriting from the Parent base class, the Child class can reuse the code of Parent, allowing the programmer to use fewer lines of code and decrease redundancy.

Parent Classes

Parent or base classes create a pattern out of which child or subclasses can be based on. Parent classes allow us to create child classes through inheritance without having to write the same code over again each time. Any class can be made into a parent class, so they are each fully functional classes in their own right, rather than just templates.

Let’s say we have a general Bank_account parent class that has Personal_account and Business_account child classes. Many of the methods between personal and business accounts will be similar, such as methods to withdraw and deposit money, so those can belong to the parent class of Bank_account. The Business_account subclass would have methods specific to it, including perhaps a way to collect business records and forms, as well as an employee_identification_number variable.

Similarly, an Animal class may have eating() and sleeping() methods, and a Snake subclass may include its own specific hissing() and slithering() methods.

Let’s create a Fish parent class that we will later use to construct types of fish as its subclasses. Each of these fish will have first names and last names in addition to characteristics.

We’ll create a new file called fish.py and start with the __init__() constructor method, which we’ll populate with first_name and last_name class variables for each Fish object or subclass.

fish.py

class Fish:
    def __init__(self, first_name, last_name="Fish"):
        self.first_name = first_name
        self.last_name = last_name

We have initialized our last_name variable with the string "Fish" because we know that most fish will have this as their last name.

Let’s also add some other methods:

fish.py

class Fish:
    def __init__(self, first_name, last_name="Fish"):
        self.first_name = first_name
        self.last_name = last_name

    def swim(self):
        print("The fish is swimming.")

    def swim_backwards(self):
        print("The fish can swim backwards.")

We have added the methods swim() and swim_backwards() to the Fish class, so that every subclass will also be able to make use of these methods.

Since most of the fish we’ll be creating are considered to be bony fish (as in they have a skeleton made out of bone) rather than cartilaginous fish (as in they have a skeleton made out of cartilage), we can add a few more attributes to the __init__() method:

fish.py

class Fish:
    def __init__(self, first_name, last_name="Fish",
                 skeleton="bone", eyelids=False):
        self.first_name = first_name
        self.last_name = last_name
        self.skeleton = skeleton
        self.eyelids = eyelids

    def swim(self):
        print("The fish is swimming.")

    def swim_backwards(self):
        print("The fish can swim backwards.")

Building a parent class follows the same methodology as building any other class, except we are thinking about what methods the child classes will be able to make use of once we create those.

Child Classes

Child or subclasses are classes that will inherit from the parent class. That means that each child class will be able to make use of the methods and variables of the parent class.

For example, a Goldfish child class that subclasses the Fish class will be able to make use of the swim() method declared in Fish without needing to declare it.

We can think of each child class as being a class of the parent class. That is, if we have a child class called Rhombus and a parent class called Parallelogram, we can say that a Rhombus is a Parallelogram, just as a Goldfish is a Fish.

The first line of a child class looks a little different than non-child classes as you must pass the parent class into the child class as a parameter:

class Trout(Fish):

The Trout class is a child of the Fish class. We know this because of the inclusion of the word Fish in parentheses.

With child classes, we can choose to add more methods, override existing parent methods, or simply accept the default parent methods with the pass keyword, which we’ll do in this case:

fish.py

...
class Trout(Fish):
    pass

We can now create a Trout object without having to define any additional methods.

fish.py

...
class Trout(Fish):
    pass

terry = Trout("Terry")
print(terry.first_name + " " + terry.last_name)
print(terry.skeleton)
print(terry.eyelids)
terry.swim()
terry.swim_backwards()

We have created a Trout object terry that makes use of each of the methods of the Fish class even though we did not define those methods in the Trout child class. We only needed to pass the value of "Terry" to the first_name variable because all of the other variables were initialized.

When we run the program, we’ll receive the following output:

Output
Terry Fish
bone
False
The fish is swimming.
The fish can swim backwards.

Next, let’s create another child class that includes its own method. We’ll call this class Clownfish, and its special method will permit it to live with sea anemone:

fish.py

...
class Clownfish(Fish):

    def live_with_anemone(self):
        print("The clownfish is coexisting with sea anemone.")

Next, let’s create a Clownfish object to see how this works:

fish.py

...
casey = Clownfish("Casey")
print(casey.first_name + " " + casey.last_name)
casey.swim()
casey.live_with_anemone()

When we run the program, we’ll receive the following output:

Output
Casey Fish
The fish is swimming.
The clownfish is coexisting with sea anemone.

The output shows that the Clownfish object casey is able to use the Fish methods __init__() and swim() as well as its child class method of live_with_anemone().

If we try to use the live_with_anemone() method in a Trout object, we’ll receive an error:

Output
terry.live_with_anemone()
AttributeError: 'Trout' object has no attribute 'live_with_anemone'

This is because the method live_with_anemone() belongs only to the Clownfish child class, and not the Fish parent class.

Child classes inherit the methods of the parent class it belongs to, so each child class can make use of those methods within programs.

#python #oop #developer

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Understanding Class Inheritance in Python
Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

1619510796

Lambda, Map, Filter functions in python

Welcome to my Blog, In this article, we will learn python lambda function, Map function, and filter function.

Lambda function in python: Lambda is a one line anonymous function and lambda takes any number of arguments but can only have one expression and python lambda syntax is

Syntax: x = lambda arguments : expression

Now i will show you some python lambda function examples:

#python #anonymous function python #filter function in python #lambda #lambda python 3 #map python #python filter #python filter lambda #python lambda #python lambda examples #python map

Lawrence  Lesch

Lawrence Lesch

1662107520

Superdom: Better and Simpler ES6 DOM Manipulation

Superdom

You have dom. It has all the DOM virtually within it. Use that power:

// Fetch all the page links
let links = dom.a.href;

// Links open in a new tab
dom.a.target = '_blank';

Only for modern browsers

Getting started

Simply use the CDN via unpkg.com:

<script src="https://unpkg.com/superdom@1"></script>

Or use npm or bower:

npm|bower install superdom --save

Select

It always returns an array with the matched elements. Get all the elements that match the selector:

// Simple element selector into an array
let allLinks = dom.a;

// Loop straight on the selection
dom.a.forEach(link => { ... });

// Combined selector
let importantLinks = dom['a.important'];

There are also some predetermined elements, such as id, class and attr:

// Select HTML Elements by id:
let main = dom.id.main;

// by class:
let buttons = dom.class.button;

// or by attribute:
let targeted = dom.attr.target;
let targeted = dom.attr['target="_blank"'];

Generate

Use it as a function or a tagged template literal to generate DOM fragments:

// Not a typo; tagged template literals
let link = dom`<a href="https://google.com/">Google</a>`;

// It is the same as
let link = dom('<a href="https://google.com/">Google</a>');

Delete elements

Delete a piece of the DOM

// Delete all of the elements with the class .google
delete dom.class.google;   // Is this an ad-block rule?

Attributes

You can easily manipulate attributes right from the dom node. There are some aliases that share the syntax of the attributes such as html and text (aliases for innerHTML and textContent). There are others that travel through the dom such as parent (alias for parentNode) and children. Finally, class behaves differently as explained below.

Get attributes

The fetching will always return an array with the element for each of the matched nodes (or undefined if not there):

// Retrieve all the urls from the page
let urls = dom.a.href;     // #attr-list
  // ['https://google.com', 'https://facebook.com/', ...]

// Get an array of the h2 contents (alias of innerHTML)
let h2s = dom.h2.html;     // #attr-alias
  // ['Level 2 header', 'Another level 2 header', ...]

// Get whether any of the attributes has the value "_blank"
let hasBlank = dom.class.cta.target._blank;    // #attr-value
  // true/false

You also use these:

  • html (alias of innerHTML): retrieve a list of the htmls
  • text (alias of textContent): retrieve a list of the htmls
  • parent (alias of parentNode): travel up one level
  • children: travel down one level

Set attributes

// Set target="_blank" to all links
dom.a.target = '_blank';     // #attr-set
dom.class.tableofcontents.html = `
  <ul class="tableofcontents">
    ${dom.h2.map(h2 => `
      <li>
        <a href="#${h2.id}">
          ${h2.innerHTML}
        </a>
      </li>
    `).join('')}
  </ul>
`;

Remove an attribute

To delete an attribute use the delete keyword:

// Remove all urls from the page
delete dom.a.href;

// Remove all ids
delete dom.a.id;

Classes

It provides an easy way to manipulate the classes.

Get classes

To retrieve whether a particular class is present or not:

// Get an array with true/false for a single class
let isTest = dom.a.class.test;     // #class-one

For a general method to retrieve all classes you can do:

// Get a list of the classes of each matched element
let arrays = dom.a.class;     // #class-arrays
  // [['important'], ['button', 'cta'], ...]

// If you want a plain list with all of the classes:
let flatten = dom.a.class._flat;     // #class-flat
  // ['important', 'button', 'cta', ...]

// And if you just want an string with space-separated classes:
let text = dom.a.class._text;     // #class-text
  // 'important button cta ...'

Add a class

// Add the class 'test' (different ways)
dom.a.class.test = true;    // #class-make-true
dom.a.class = 'test';       // #class-push

Remove a class

// Remove the class 'test'
dom.a.class.test = false;    // #class-make-false

Manipulate

Did we say it returns a simple array?

dom.a.forEach(link => link.innerHTML = 'I am a link');

But what an interesting array it is; indeed we are also proxy'ing it so you can manipulate its sub-elements straight from the selector:

// Replace all of the link's html with 'I am a link'
dom.a.html = 'I am a link';

Of course we might want to manipulate them dynamically depending on the current value. Just pass it a function:

// Append ' ^_^' to all of the links in the page
dom.a.html = html => html + ' ^_^';

// Same as this:
dom.a.forEach(link => link.innerHTML = link.innerHTML + ' ^_^');

Note: this won't work dom.a.html += ' ^_^'; for more than 1 match (for reasons)

Or get into genetics to manipulate the attributes:

dom.a.attr.target = '_blank';

// Only to external sites:
let isOwnPage = el => /^https?\:\/\/mypage\.com/.test(el.getAttribute('href'));
dom.a.attr.target = (prev, i, element) => isOwnPage(element) ? '' : '_blank';

Events

You can also handle and trigger events:

// Handle click events for all <a>
dom.a.on.click = e => ...;

// Trigger click event for all <a>
dom.a.trigger.click;

Testing

We are using Jest as a Grunt task for testing. Install Jest and run in the terminal:

grunt watch

Download Details:

Author: franciscop
Source Code: https://github.com/franciscop/superdom 
License: MIT license

#javascript #es6 #dom 

Types of Inheritance in Python | Python Inheritance [With Example] | upGrad blog

Introduction

The struggle for a clean code is a battle joined by all the programmers. And that battle can be conquered with a proper armour of object-oriented programming concepts. And proper utilization of OOP concepts helps us to improve code reusability, readability, optimal time and space complexity.

Coding in Python is super fun. It has a whopping number of library support, object-oriented, GUI programmability makes it a hot cake among all the programming languages.

Inheritance is one of the most utilized object-oriented features and implementing it in python is an enthusiastic task. So, let’s start now!

First things first let’s understand the definition of inheritance.

#data science #inheritance #inheritance in python #python #types of inheritance #types of inheritance in python

Shardul Bhatt

Shardul Bhatt

1626775355

Why use Python for Software Development

No programming language is pretty much as diverse as Python. It enables building cutting edge applications effortlessly. Developers are as yet investigating the full capability of end-to-end Python development services in various areas. 

By areas, we mean FinTech, HealthTech, InsureTech, Cybersecurity, and that's just the beginning. These are New Economy areas, and Python has the ability to serve every one of them. The vast majority of them require massive computational abilities. Python's code is dynamic and powerful - equipped for taking care of the heavy traffic and substantial algorithmic capacities. 

Programming advancement is multidimensional today. Endeavor programming requires an intelligent application with AI and ML capacities. Shopper based applications require information examination to convey a superior client experience. Netflix, Trello, and Amazon are genuine instances of such applications. Python assists with building them effortlessly. 

5 Reasons to Utilize Python for Programming Web Apps 

Python can do such numerous things that developers can't discover enough reasons to admire it. Python application development isn't restricted to web and enterprise applications. It is exceptionally adaptable and superb for a wide range of uses.

Robust frameworks 

Python is known for its tools and frameworks. There's a structure for everything. Django is helpful for building web applications, venture applications, logical applications, and mathematical processing. Flask is another web improvement framework with no conditions. 

Web2Py, CherryPy, and Falcon offer incredible capabilities to customize Python development services. A large portion of them are open-source frameworks that allow quick turn of events. 

Simple to read and compose 

Python has an improved sentence structure - one that is like the English language. New engineers for Python can undoubtedly understand where they stand in the development process. The simplicity of composing allows quick application building. 

The motivation behind building Python, as said by its maker Guido Van Rossum, was to empower even beginner engineers to comprehend the programming language. The simple coding likewise permits developers to roll out speedy improvements without getting confused by pointless subtleties. 

Utilized by the best 

Alright - Python isn't simply one more programming language. It should have something, which is the reason the business giants use it. Furthermore, that too for different purposes. Developers at Google use Python to assemble framework organization systems, parallel information pusher, code audit, testing and QA, and substantially more. Netflix utilizes Python web development services for its recommendation algorithm and media player. 

Massive community support 

Python has a steadily developing community that offers enormous help. From amateurs to specialists, there's everybody. There are a lot of instructional exercises, documentation, and guides accessible for Python web development solutions. 

Today, numerous universities start with Python, adding to the quantity of individuals in the community. Frequently, Python designers team up on various tasks and help each other with algorithmic, utilitarian, and application critical thinking. 

Progressive applications 

Python is the greatest supporter of data science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence at any enterprise software development company. Its utilization cases in cutting edge applications are the most compelling motivation for its prosperity. Python is the second most well known tool after R for data analytics.

The simplicity of getting sorted out, overseeing, and visualizing information through unique libraries makes it ideal for data based applications. TensorFlow for neural networks and OpenCV for computer vision are two of Python's most well known use cases for Machine learning applications.

Summary

Thinking about the advances in programming and innovation, Python is a YES for an assorted scope of utilizations. Game development, web application development services, GUI advancement, ML and AI improvement, Enterprise and customer applications - every one of them uses Python to its full potential. 

The disadvantages of Python web improvement arrangements are regularly disregarded by developers and organizations because of the advantages it gives. They focus on quality over speed and performance over blunders. That is the reason it's a good idea to utilize Python for building the applications of the future.

#python development services #python development company #python app development #python development #python in web development #python software development

Art  Lind

Art Lind

1602968400

Python Tricks Every Developer Should Know

Python is awesome, it’s one of the easiest languages with simple and intuitive syntax but wait, have you ever thought that there might ways to write your python code simpler?

In this tutorial, you’re going to learn a variety of Python tricks that you can use to write your Python code in a more readable and efficient way like a pro.

Let’s get started

Swapping value in Python

Instead of creating a temporary variable to hold the value of the one while swapping, you can do this instead

>>> FirstName = "kalebu"
>>> LastName = "Jordan"
>>> FirstName, LastName = LastName, FirstName 
>>> print(FirstName, LastName)
('Jordan', 'kalebu')

#python #python-programming #python3 #python-tutorials #learn-python #python-tips #python-skills #python-development