Aileen  Jacobs

Aileen Jacobs

1599234960

Multiple Parenthesis Matching Using Stack with C Code

Multi Parenthesis Problem: We saw balanced Parentheses problem using Stack where only one type of parentheses was present in the input string. Now we can have multiple types of parentheses present in the input expression.

#c

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Multiple Parenthesis Matching Using Stack with C Code
Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1604008800

Static Code Analysis: What It Is? How to Use It?

Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.

Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.

“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer

Outline

We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.

We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.

Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.

How does it all work?

Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:

static analysis workflow

As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:

Scanning

The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.

A token might consist of either a single character, like (, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g., 7Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g, def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.

Python provides the tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:

Python

1

import io

2

import tokenize

3

4

code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"

5

6

for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):

7

    print(token)

Python

1

TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING),  string='utf-8')

2

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='color')

3

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='=')

4

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='input')

5

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='(')

6

TokenInfo(type=3  (STRING),    string="'Enter your favourite color: '")

7

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string=')')

8

TokenInfo(type=4  (NEWLINE),   string='')

9

TokenInfo(type=0  (ENDMARKER), string='')

(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)

#code quality #code review #static analysis #static code analysis #code analysis #static analysis tools #code review tips #static code analyzer #static code analysis tool #static analyzer

Hertha  Mayer

Hertha Mayer

1595334123

Authentication In MEAN Stack - A Quick Guide

I consider myself an active StackOverflow user, despite my activity tends to vary depending on my daily workload. I enjoy answering questions with angular tag and I always try to create some working example to prove correctness of my answers.

To create angular demo I usually use either plunker or stackblitz or even jsfiddle. I like all of them but when I run into some errors I want to have a little bit more usable tool to undestand what’s going on.

Many people who ask questions on stackoverflow don’t want to isolate the problem and prepare minimal reproduction so they usually post all code to their questions on SO. They also tend to be not accurate and make a lot of mistakes in template syntax. To not waste a lot of time investigating where the error comes from I tried to create a tool that will help me to quickly find what causes the problem.

Angular demo runner
Online angular editor for building demo.
ng-run.com
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Let me show what I mean…

Template parser errors#

There are template parser errors that can be easy catched by stackblitz

It gives me some information but I want the error to be highlighted

#mean stack #angular 6 passport authentication #authentication in mean stack #full stack authentication #mean stack example application #mean stack login and registration angular 8 #mean stack login and registration angular 9 #mean stack tutorial #mean stack tutorial 2019 #passport.js

Pass method as parameter using C# | Delegates in C# | C# Bangla Tutorial | Advanced C#

https://youtu.be/GfcTSJf5Rc8

#oop in c# #object oriented programming in c# #object oriented concept in c# #learn oop concept #advance c# #pass method as parameter using c#

Ari  Bogisich

Ari Bogisich

1589816580

Using isdigit() in C/C++

In this article, we’ll take a look at using the isdigit() function in C/C++. This is a very simple way to check if any value is a digit or not. Let’s look at how to use this function, using some simple examples.

#c programming #c++ #c #c#

Sadie  Ratke

Sadie Ratke

1590223380

How to use C Header Files to separate a program into multiple files

Simple programs can be put in a single file, but when your program grows larger, it’s impossible to keep it all in just one file.

You can move parts of a program to a separate file, then you create a header file.

A header file looks like a normal C file, except it ends with .h instead of .c, and instead of the implementations of your functions and the other parts of a program, it holds the declarations.

#c #c# #c++ #programming-c