The Tech Behind NASA’s Perseverance Rover

On February 18, 2021, NASA’s Perseverance Rover landed on Mars for the first time ending a seven-month-long voyage. The rover is now all set to scrape the red planet to unearth hints of ancient microbial life

Know more:

#marsrover #perseverancerover #nasa

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The Tech Behind NASA’s Perseverance Rover
Mike  Kozey

Mike Kozey


Test_cov_console: Flutter Console Coverage Test

Flutter Console Coverage Test

This small dart tools is used to generate Flutter Coverage Test report to console

How to install

Add a line like this to your package's pubspec.yaml (and run an implicit flutter pub get):

  test_cov_console: ^0.2.2

How to run

run the following command to make sure all flutter library is up-to-date

flutter pub get
Running "flutter pub get" in coverage...                            0.5s

run the following command to generate on coverage directory

flutter test --coverage
00:02 +1: All tests passed!

run the tool to generate report from

flutter pub run test_cov_console
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
 print_cov_constants.dart                    |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |

Optional parameter

If not given a FILE, "coverage/" will be used.
-f, --file=<FILE>                      The target file to be reported
-e, --exclude=<STRING1,STRING2,...>    A list of contains string for files without unit testing
                                       to be excluded from report
-l, --line                             It will print Lines & Uncovered Lines only
                                       Branch & Functions coverage percentage will not be printed
-i, --ignore                           It will not print any file without unit testing
-m, --multi                            Report from multiple files
-c, --csv                              Output to CSV file
-o, --output=<CSV-FILE>                Full path of output CSV file
                                       If not given, "coverage/test_cov_console.csv" will be used
-t, --total                            Print only the total coverage
                                       Note: it will ignore all other option (if any), except -m
-p, --pass=<MINIMUM>                   Print only the whether total coverage is passed MINIMUM value or not
                                       If the value >= MINIMUM, it will print PASSED, otherwise FAILED
                                       Note: it will ignore all other option (if any), except -m
-h, --help                             Show this help

example run the tool with parameters

flutter pub run test_cov_console --file=coverage/ --exclude=_constants,_mock
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |

report for multiple files (-m, --multi)

It support to run for multiple files with the followings directory structures:
1. No root module
2. With root module
You must run test_cov_console on <root> dir, and the report would be grouped by module, here is
the sample output for directory structure 'with root module':
flutter pub run test_cov_console --file=coverage/ --exclude=_constants,_mock --multi
File                                         |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
File - module_a -                            |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |
File - module_b -                            |% Branch | % Funcs | % Lines | Uncovered Line #s |
lib/src/                                     |         |         |         |                   |
 print_cov.dart                              |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |...,149,205,206,207|
lib/                                         |         |         |         |                   |
 test_cov_console.dart                       |    0.00 |    0.00 |    0.00 |    no unit testing|
 All files with unit testing                 |  100.00 |  100.00 |   88.37 |                   |

Output to CSV file (-c, --csv, -o, --output)

flutter pub run test_cov_console -c --output=coverage/test_coverage.csv

#### sample CSV output file:
File,% Branch,% Funcs,% Lines,Uncovered Line #s
test_cov_console.dart,0.00,0.00,0.00,no unit testing
print_cov_constants.dart,0.00,0.00,0.00,no unit testing
All files with unit testing,100.00,100.00,86.07,""


Use this package as an executable

Install it

You can install the package from the command line:

dart pub global activate test_cov_console

Use it

The package has the following executables:

$ test_cov_console

Use this package as a library

Depend on it

Run this command:

With Dart:

 $ dart pub add test_cov_console

With Flutter:

 $ flutter pub add test_cov_console

This will add a line like this to your package's pubspec.yaml (and run an implicit dart pub get):

  test_cov_console: ^0.2.2

Alternatively, your editor might support dart pub get or flutter pub get. Check the docs for your editor to learn more.

Import it

Now in your Dart code, you can use:

import 'package:test_cov_console/test_cov_console.dart';


import 'package:flutter/material.dart';

void main() {

class MyApp extends StatelessWidget {
  // This widget is the root of your application.
  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    return MaterialApp(
      title: 'Flutter Demo',
      theme: ThemeData(
        // This is the theme of your application.
        // Try running your application with "flutter run". You'll see the
        // application has a blue toolbar. Then, without quitting the app, try
        // changing the primarySwatch below to and then invoke
        // "hot reload" (press "r" in the console where you ran "flutter run",
        // or simply save your changes to "hot reload" in a Flutter IDE).
        // Notice that the counter didn't reset back to zero; the application
        // is not restarted.
        // This makes the visual density adapt to the platform that you run
        // the app on. For desktop platforms, the controls will be smaller and
        // closer together (more dense) than on mobile platforms.
        visualDensity: VisualDensity.adaptivePlatformDensity,
      home: MyHomePage(title: 'Flutter Demo Home Page'),

class MyHomePage extends StatefulWidget {
  MyHomePage({Key? key, required this.title}) : super(key: key);

  // This widget is the home page of your application. It is stateful, meaning
  // that it has a State object (defined below) that contains fields that affect
  // how it looks.

  // This class is the configuration for the state. It holds the values (in this
  // case the title) provided by the parent (in this case the App widget) and
  // used by the build method of the State. Fields in a Widget subclass are
  // always marked "final".

  final String title;

  _MyHomePageState createState() => _MyHomePageState();

class _MyHomePageState extends State<MyHomePage> {
  int _counter = 0;

  void _incrementCounter() {
    setState(() {
      // This call to setState tells the Flutter framework that something has
      // changed in this State, which causes it to rerun the build method below
      // so that the display can reflect the updated values. If we changed
      // _counter without calling setState(), then the build method would not be
      // called again, and so nothing would appear to happen.

  Widget build(BuildContext context) {
    // This method is rerun every time setState is called, for instance as done
    // by the _incrementCounter method above.
    // The Flutter framework has been optimized to make rerunning build methods
    // fast, so that you can just rebuild anything that needs updating rather
    // than having to individually change instances of widgets.
    return Scaffold(
      appBar: AppBar(
        // Here we take the value from the MyHomePage object that was created by
        // the method, and use it to set our appbar title.
        title: Text(widget.title),
      body: Center(
        // Center is a layout widget. It takes a single child and positions it
        // in the middle of the parent.
        child: Column(
          // Column is also a layout widget. It takes a list of children and
          // arranges them vertically. By default, it sizes itself to fit its
          // children horizontally, and tries to be as tall as its parent.
          // Invoke "debug painting" (press "p" in the console, choose the
          // "Toggle Debug Paint" action from the Flutter Inspector in Android
          // Studio, or the "Toggle Debug Paint" command in Visual Studio Code)
          // to see the wireframe for each widget.
          // Column has various properties to control how it sizes itself and
          // how it positions its children. Here we use mainAxisAlignment to
          // center the children vertically; the main axis here is the vertical
          // axis because Columns are vertical (the cross axis would be
          // horizontal).
          children: <Widget>[
              'You have pushed the button this many times:',
              style: Theme.of(context).textTheme.headline4,
      floatingActionButton: FloatingActionButton(
        onPressed: _incrementCounter,
        tooltip: 'Increment',
        child: Icon(Icons.add),
      ), // This trailing comma makes auto-formatting nicer for build methods.

Author: DigitalKatalis
Source Code: 
License: BSD-3-Clause license

#flutter #dart #test 

Mikel  Okuneva

Mikel Okuneva


NASA’s New AI Tool Can Spot Craters On Mars

Amid NASA’s progress in AI research starting from ML model to predict hurricanes to partnering with Google to make quantum computing accessible, it has now developed a new AI tool to classify a cluster of craters on Mars.

The launch of this new AI tool, built on a machine learning algorithm, was aimed at helping scientists to reduce their process time of scanning a single Context Camera image. Thus, researchers from Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), created this tool also called an “automated fresh impact crater classifier”, where for the “first time” researchers are leveraging AI to identify unknown craters on the Red Planet, stated by NASA, in their statement.

According to their news release, typically scientists and researchers spend hours each day studying images to understand “dust devils, avalanches, and shifting dunes,” and approximately 40 minutes to scan a single Context Camera image; however this tool will significantly reduce the processing time and advance the workflow massively.

The launch of this tool is a part of a broader NASA’s bigger effort — COSMIC — capturing onboard summarization to monitor image change that develops technologies for future generations of Mars orbiters.

How Has The Tool Been Created?

In order to train the AI tool, or also known as the crater classifier, the researchers and scientists fed the model 6,830 Context Camera images. These images are taken from the context cameras as well as those of locations with previously discovered impacts — confirmed via HiRISE.

Once the model has been trained, the tool is equipped with 112,000 images that have been taken by the Context Camera on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The training of the model was done on a supercomputer cluster at JPL, which was created by dozens of high-performance computers that can operate in concert with one another. Such advancement will help the scientists in reducing the processing time to an average of just five seconds.

While this model development process was going on, the scientists have undergone some significant challenges, one was to figure out “how to run up to 750 copies of the classifier across the entire cluster simultaneously,” stated by the JPL computer scientist Gary Doran.

To explain it, Doran said, technically, it isn’t feasible to process over 112,000 images in a reasonable amount of time without distributing the work across many computers, and that’s why it was required to split the problem into smaller pieces that can be solved in parallel.

However though this advancement made a massive change in scientist workflow, the classifier still requires a human to check its work.

To this point, JPL computer scientist Kiri Wagstaff stated, artificial intelligence can’t replace the skilled analysis work of a scientist; however, this new algorithm can act as an assistant. “This paves the way for an exciting symbiosis of human and AI’ investigators’ working together to accelerate scientific discovery.”

#news #nasa #nasa ai #nasa ai to spot craters on mars #nasa artificial intelligence #nasa machine learning

The Tech Behind NASA’s Perseverance Rover

On February 18, 2021, NASA’s Perseverance Rover landed on Mars for the first time ending a seven-month-long voyage. The rover is now all set to scrape the red planet to unearth hints of ancient microbial life

Know more:

#marsrover #perseverancerover #nasa

Digging The Tech Behind NASA’s Perseverance Rover

On February 18, 2021, NASA’s Perseverance Rover landed on Mars for the first time ending a seven-month-long voyage. The rover is now all set to scrape the red planet to unearth hints of ancient microbial life.

Read more:

#nasa #mars

Rust  Language

Rust Language


Std Library Types in Rust - The Rust Programming Language

Std Library Types - Rust By Example

The std library provides many custom types which expands drastically on the primitives. Some of these include:

  • growable Strings like: "hello world"
  • growable vectors: [1, 2, 3]
  • optional types: Option<i32>
  • error handling types: Result<i32, i32>
  • heap allocated pointers: Box<i32>

Box, stack and heap

All values in Rust are stack allocated by default. Values can be boxed (allocated on the heap) by creating a Box<T>. A box is a smart pointer to a heap allocated value of type T. When a box goes out of scope, its destructor is called, the inner object is destroyed, and the memory on the heap is freed.

Boxed values can be dereferenced using the * operator; this removes one layer of indirection.

use std::mem;

#[derive(Debug, Clone, Copy)]
struct Point {
    x: f64,
    y: f64,

// A Rectangle can be specified by where its top left and bottom right 
// corners are in space
struct Rectangle {
    top_left: Point,
    bottom_right: Point,

fn origin() -> Point {
    Point { x: 0.0, y: 0.0 }

fn boxed_origin() -> Box<Point> {
    // Allocate this point on the heap, and return a pointer to it
    Box::new(Point { x: 0.0, y: 0.0 })

fn main() {
    // (all the type annotations are superfluous)
    // Stack allocated variables
    let point: Point = origin();
    let rectangle: Rectangle = Rectangle {
        top_left: origin(),
        bottom_right: Point { x: 3.0, y: -4.0 }

    // Heap allocated rectangle
    let boxed_rectangle: Box<Rectangle> = Box::new(Rectangle {
        top_left: origin(),
        bottom_right: Point { x: 3.0, y: -4.0 },

    // The output of functions can be boxed
    let boxed_point: Box<Point> = Box::new(origin());

    // Double indirection
    let box_in_a_box: Box<Box<Point>> = Box::new(boxed_origin());

    println!("Point occupies {} bytes on the stack",
    println!("Rectangle occupies {} bytes on the stack",

    // box size == pointer size
    println!("Boxed point occupies {} bytes on the stack",
    println!("Boxed rectangle occupies {} bytes on the stack",
    println!("Boxed box occupies {} bytes on the stack",

    // Copy the data contained in `boxed_point` into `unboxed_point`
    let unboxed_point: Point = *boxed_point;
    println!("Unboxed point occupies {} bytes on the stack",


Vectors are re-sizable arrays. Like slices, their size is not known at compile time, but they can grow or shrink at any time. A vector is represented using 3 parameters:

  • pointer to the data
  • length
  • capacity

The capacity indicates how much memory is reserved for the vector. The vector can grow as long as the length is smaller than the capacity. When this threshold needs to be surpassed, the vector is reallocated with a larger capacity.

fn main() {
    // Iterators can be collected into vectors
    let collected_iterator: Vec<i32> = (0..10).collect();
    println!("Collected (0..10) into: {:?}", collected_iterator);

    // The `vec!` macro can be used to initialize a vector
    let mut xs = vec![1i32, 2, 3];
    println!("Initial vector: {:?}", xs);

    // Insert new element at the end of the vector
    println!("Push 4 into the vector");
    println!("Vector: {:?}", xs);

    // Error! Immutable vectors can't grow
    // FIXME ^ Comment out this line

    // The `len` method yields the number of elements currently stored in a vector
    println!("Vector length: {}", xs.len());

    // Indexing is done using the square brackets (indexing starts at 0)
    println!("Second element: {}", xs[1]);

    // `pop` removes the last element from the vector and returns it
    println!("Pop last element: {:?}", xs.pop());

    // Out of bounds indexing yields a panic
    println!("Fourth element: {}", xs[3]);
    // FIXME ^ Comment out this line

    // `Vector`s can be easily iterated over
    println!("Contents of xs:");
    for x in xs.iter() {
        println!("> {}", x);

    // A `Vector` can also be iterated over while the iteration
    // count is enumerated in a separate variable (`i`)
    for (i, x) in xs.iter().enumerate() {
        println!("In position {} we have value {}", i, x);

    // Thanks to `iter_mut`, mutable `Vector`s can also be iterated
    // over in a way that allows modifying each value
    for x in xs.iter_mut() {
        *x *= 3;
    println!("Updated vector: {:?}", xs);

More Vec methods can be found under the std::vec module


There are two types of strings in Rust: String and &str.

A String is stored as a vector of bytes (Vec<u8>), but guaranteed to always be a valid UTF-8 sequence. String is heap allocated, growable and not null terminated.

&str is a slice (&[u8]) that always points to a valid UTF-8 sequence, and can be used to view into a String, just like &[T] is a view into Vec<T>.

fn main() {
    // (all the type annotations are superfluous)
    // A reference to a string allocated in read only memory
    let pangram: &'static str = "the quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog";
    println!("Pangram: {}", pangram);

    // Iterate over words in reverse, no new string is allocated
    println!("Words in reverse");
    for word in pangram.split_whitespace().rev() {
        println!("> {}", word);

    // Copy chars into a vector, sort and remove duplicates
    let mut chars: Vec<char> = pangram.chars().collect();

    // Create an empty and growable `String`
    let mut string = String::new();
    for c in chars {
        // Insert a char at the end of string
        // Insert a string at the end of string
        string.push_str(", ");

    // The trimmed string is a slice to the original string, hence no new
    // allocation is performed
    let chars_to_trim: &[char] = &[' ', ','];
    let trimmed_str: &str = string.trim_matches(chars_to_trim);
    println!("Used characters: {}", trimmed_str);

    // Heap allocate a string
    let alice = String::from("I like dogs");
    // Allocate new memory and store the modified string there
    let bob: String = alice.replace("dog", "cat");

    println!("Alice says: {}", alice);
    println!("Bob says: {}", bob);

More str/String methods can be found under the std::str and std::string modules

Literals and escapes

There are multiple ways to write string literals with special characters in them. All result in a similar &str so it's best to use the form that is the most convenient to write. Similarly there are multiple ways to write byte string literals, which all result in &[u8; N].

Generally special characters are escaped with a backslash character: \. This way you can add any character to your string, even unprintable ones and ones that you don't know how to type. If you want a literal backslash, escape it with another one: \\

String or character literal delimiters occuring within a literal must be escaped: "\"", '\''.

fn main() {
    // You can use escapes to write bytes by their hexadecimal values...
    let byte_escape = "I'm writing \x52\x75\x73\x74!";
    println!("What are you doing\x3F (\\x3F means ?) {}", byte_escape);

    // ...or Unicode code points.
    let unicode_codepoint = "\u{211D}";
    let character_name = "\"DOUBLE-STRUCK CAPITAL R\"";

    println!("Unicode character {} (U+211D) is called {}",
                unicode_codepoint, character_name );

    let long_string = "String literals
                        can span multiple lines.
                        The linebreak and indentation here ->\
                        <- can be escaped too!";
    println!("{}", long_string);

Sometimes there are just too many characters that need to be escaped or it's just much more convenient to write a string out as-is. This is where raw string literals come into play.

fn main() {
    let raw_str = r"Escapes don't work here: \x3F \u{211D}";
    println!("{}", raw_str);

    // If you need quotes in a raw string, add a pair of #s
    let quotes = r#"And then I said: "There is no escape!""#;
    println!("{}", quotes);

    // If you need "# in your string, just use more #s in the delimiter.
    // There is no limit for the number of #s you can use.
    let longer_delimiter = r###"A string with "# in it. And even "##!"###;
    println!("{}", longer_delimiter);

Want a string that's not UTF-8? (Remember, str and String must be valid UTF-8). Or maybe you want an array of bytes that's mostly text? Byte strings to the rescue!

use std::str;

fn main() {
    // Note that this is not actually a `&str`
    let bytestring: &[u8; 21] = b"this is a byte string";

    // Byte arrays don't have the `Display` trait, so printing them is a bit limited
    println!("A byte string: {:?}", bytestring);

    // Byte strings can have byte escapes...
    let escaped = b"\x52\x75\x73\x74 as bytes";
    // ...but no unicode escapes
    // let escaped = b"\u{211D} is not allowed";
    println!("Some escaped bytes: {:?}", escaped);

    // Raw byte strings work just like raw strings
    let raw_bytestring = br"\u{211D} is not escaped here";
    println!("{:?}", raw_bytestring);

    // Converting a byte array to `str` can fail
    if let Ok(my_str) = str::from_utf8(raw_bytestring) {
        println!("And the same as text: '{}'", my_str);

    let _quotes = br#"You can also use "fancier" formatting, \
                    like with normal raw strings"#;

    // Byte strings don't have to be UTF-8
    let shift_jis = b"\x82\xe6\x82\xa8\x82\xb1\x82\xbb"; // "ようこそ" in SHIFT-JIS

    // But then they can't always be converted to `str`
    match str::from_utf8(shift_jis) {
        Ok(my_str) => println!("Conversion successful: '{}'", my_str),
        Err(e) => println!("Conversion failed: {:?}", e),

For conversions between character encodings check out the encoding crate.

A more detailed listing of the ways to write string literals and escape characters is given in the 'Tokens' chapter of the Rust Reference.


Sometimes it's desirable to catch the failure of some parts of a program instead of calling panic!; this can be accomplished using the Option enum.

The Option<T> enum has two variants:

  • None, to indicate failure or lack of value, and
  • Some(value), a tuple struct that wraps a value with type T.
// An integer division that doesn't `panic!`
fn checked_division(dividend: i32, divisor: i32) -> Option<i32> {
    if divisor == 0 {
        // Failure is represented as the `None` variant
    } else {
        // Result is wrapped in a `Some` variant
        Some(dividend / divisor)

// This function handles a division that may not succeed
fn try_division(dividend: i32, divisor: i32) {
    // `Option` values can be pattern matched, just like other enums
    match checked_division(dividend, divisor) {
        None => println!("{} / {} failed!", dividend, divisor),
        Some(quotient) => {
            println!("{} / {} = {}", dividend, divisor, quotient)

fn main() {
    try_division(4, 2);
    try_division(1, 0);

    // Binding `None` to a variable needs to be type annotated
    let none: Option<i32> = None;
    let _equivalent_none = None::<i32>;

    let optional_float = Some(0f32);

    // Unwrapping a `Some` variant will extract the value wrapped.
    println!("{:?} unwraps to {:?}", optional_float, optional_float.unwrap());

    // Unwrapping a `None` variant will `panic!`
    println!("{:?} unwraps to {:?}", none, none.unwrap());


We've seen that the Option enum can be used as a return value from functions that may fail, where None can be returned to indicate failure. However, sometimes it is important to express why an operation failed. To do this we have the Result enum.

The Result<T, E> enum has two variants:

  • Ok(value) which indicates that the operation succeeded, and wraps the value returned by the operation. (value has type T)
  • Err(why), which indicates that the operation failed, and wraps why, which (hopefully) explains the cause of the failure. (why has type E)
mod checked {
    // Mathematical "errors" we want to catch
    pub enum MathError {

    pub type MathResult = Result<f64, MathError>;

    pub fn div(x: f64, y: f64) -> MathResult {
        if y == 0.0 {
            // This operation would `fail`, instead let's return the reason of
            // the failure wrapped in `Err`
        } else {
            // This operation is valid, return the result wrapped in `Ok`
            Ok(x / y)

    pub fn sqrt(x: f64) -> MathResult {
        if x < 0.0 {
        } else {

    pub fn ln(x: f64) -> MathResult {
        if x <= 0.0 {
        } else {

// `op(x, y)` === `sqrt(ln(x / y))`
fn op(x: f64, y: f64) -> f64 {
    // This is a three level match pyramid!
    match checked::div(x, y) {
        Err(why) => panic!("{:?}", why),
        Ok(ratio) => match checked::ln(ratio) {
            Err(why) => panic!("{:?}", why),
            Ok(ln) => match checked::sqrt(ln) {
                Err(why) => panic!("{:?}", why),
                Ok(sqrt) => sqrt,

fn main() {
    // Will this fail?
    println!("{}", op(1.0, 10.0));


Chaining results using match can get pretty untidy; luckily, the ? operator can be used to make things pretty again. ? is used at the end of an expression returning a Result, and is equivalent to a match expression, where the Err(err) branch expands to an early Err(From::from(err)), and the Ok(ok) branch expands to an ok expression.

mod checked {
    enum MathError {

    type MathResult = Result<f64, MathError>;

    fn div(x: f64, y: f64) -> MathResult {
        if y == 0.0 {
        } else {
            Ok(x / y)

    fn sqrt(x: f64) -> MathResult {
        if x < 0.0 {
        } else {

    fn ln(x: f64) -> MathResult {
        if x <= 0.0 {
        } else {

    // Intermediate function
    fn op_(x: f64, y: f64) -> MathResult {
        // if `div` "fails", then `DivisionByZero` will be `return`ed
        let ratio = div(x, y)?;

        // if `ln` "fails", then `NonPositiveLogarithm` will be `return`ed
        let ln = ln(ratio)?;


    pub fn op(x: f64, y: f64) {
        match op_(x, y) {
            Err(why) => panic!("{}", match why {
                    => "logarithm of non-positive number",
                    => "division by zero",
                    => "square root of negative number",
            Ok(value) => println!("{}", value),

fn main() {
    checked::op(1.0, 10.0);

Be sure to check the documentation, as there are many methods to map/compose Result.


The panic! macro can be used to generate a panic and start unwinding its stack. While unwinding, the runtime will take care of freeing all the resources owned by the thread by calling the destructor of all its objects.

Since we are dealing with programs with only one thread, panic! will cause the program to report the panic message and exit.

// Re-implementation of integer division (/)
fn division(dividend: i32, divisor: i32) -> i32 {
    if divisor == 0 {
        // Division by zero triggers a panic
        panic!("division by zero");
    } else {
        dividend / divisor

// The `main` task
fn main() {
    // Heap allocated integer
    let _x = Box::new(0i32);

    // This operation will trigger a task failure
    division(3, 0);

    println!("This point won't be reached!");

    // `_x` should get destroyed at this point

Let's check that panic! doesn't leak memory.

$ rustc && valgrind ./panic
==4401== Memcheck, a memory error detector
==4401== Copyright (C) 2002-2013, and GNU GPL'd, by Julian Seward et al.
==4401== Using Valgrind-3.10.0.SVN and LibVEX; rerun with -h for copyright info
==4401== Command: ./panic
thread '<main>' panicked at 'division by zero',
==4401== HEAP SUMMARY:
==4401==     in use at exit: 0 bytes in 0 blocks
==4401==   total heap usage: 18 allocs, 18 frees, 1,648 bytes allocated
==4401== All heap blocks were freed -- no leaks are possible
==4401== For counts of detected and suppressed errors, rerun with: -v
==4401== ERROR SUMMARY: 0 errors from 0 contexts (suppressed: 0 from 0)


Where vectors store values by an integer index, HashMaps store values by key. HashMap keys can be booleans, integers, strings, or any other type that implements the Eq and Hash traits. More on this in the next section.

Like vectors, HashMaps are growable, but HashMaps can also shrink themselves when they have excess space. You can create a HashMap with a certain starting capacity using HashMap::with_capacity(uint), or use HashMap::new() to get a HashMap with a default initial capacity (recommended).

use std::collections::HashMap;

fn call(number: &str) -> &str {
    match number {
        "798-1364" => "We're sorry, the call cannot be completed as dialed. 
            Please hang up and try again.",
        "645-7689" => "Hello, this is Mr. Awesome's Pizza. My name is Fred.
            What can I get for you today?",
        _ => "Hi! Who is this again?"

fn main() { 
    let mut contacts = HashMap::new();

    contacts.insert("Daniel", "798-1364");
    contacts.insert("Ashley", "645-7689");
    contacts.insert("Katie", "435-8291");
    contacts.insert("Robert", "956-1745");

    // Takes a reference and returns Option<&V>
    match contacts.get(&"Daniel") {
        Some(&number) => println!("Calling Daniel: {}", call(number)),
        _ => println!("Don't have Daniel's number."),

    // `HashMap::insert()` returns `None`
    // if the inserted value is new, `Some(value)` otherwise
    contacts.insert("Daniel", "164-6743");

    match contacts.get(&"Ashley") {
        Some(&number) => println!("Calling Ashley: {}", call(number)),
        _ => println!("Don't have Ashley's number."),


    // `HashMap::iter()` returns an iterator that yields 
    // (&'a key, &'a value) pairs in arbitrary order.
    for (contact, &number) in contacts.iter() {
        println!("Calling {}: {}", contact, call(number)); 

For more information on how hashing and hash maps (sometimes called hash tables) work, have a look at Hash Table Wikipedia

Alternate/custom key types

Any type that implements the Eq and Hash traits can be a key in HashMap. This includes:

  • bool (though not very useful since there is only two possible keys)
  • int, uint, and all variations thereof
  • String and &str (protip: you can have a HashMap keyed by String and call .get() with an &str)

Note that f32 and f64 do not implement Hash, likely because floating-point precision errors would make using them as hashmap keys horribly error-prone.

All collection classes implement Eq and Hash if their contained type also respectively implements Eq and Hash. For example, Vec<T> will implement Hash if T implements Hash.

You can easily implement Eq and Hash for a custom type with just one line: #[derive(PartialEq, Eq, Hash)]

The compiler will do the rest. If you want more control over the details, you can implement Eq and/or Hash yourself. This guide will not cover the specifics of implementing Hash.

To play around with using a struct in HashMap, let's try making a very simple user logon system:

use std::collections::HashMap;

// Eq requires that you derive PartialEq on the type.
#[derive(PartialEq, Eq, Hash)]
struct Account<'a>{
    username: &'a str,
    password: &'a str,

struct AccountInfo<'a>{
    name: &'a str,
    email: &'a str,

type Accounts<'a> = HashMap<Account<'a>, AccountInfo<'a>>;

fn try_logon<'a>(accounts: &Accounts<'a>,
        username: &'a str, password: &'a str){
    println!("Username: {}", username);
    println!("Password: {}", password);
    println!("Attempting logon...");

    let logon = Account {

    match accounts.get(&logon) {
        Some(account_info) => {
            println!("Successful logon!");
            println!("Name: {}",;
            println!("Email: {}",;
        _ => println!("Login failed!"),

fn main(){
    let mut accounts: Accounts = HashMap::new();

    let account = Account {
        username: "j.everyman",
        password: "password123",

    let account_info = AccountInfo {
        name: "John Everyman",
        email: "",

    accounts.insert(account, account_info);

    try_logon(&accounts, "j.everyman", "psasword123");

    try_logon(&accounts, "j.everyman", "password123");


Consider a HashSet as a HashMap where we just care about the keys ( HashSet<T> is, in actuality, just a wrapper around HashMap<T, ()>).

"What's the point of that?" you ask. "I could just store the keys in a Vec."

A HashSet's unique feature is that it is guaranteed to not have duplicate elements. That's the contract that any set collection fulfills. HashSet is just one implementation. (see also: BTreeSet)

If you insert a value that is already present in the HashSet, (i.e. the new value is equal to the existing and they both have the same hash), then the new value will replace the old.

This is great for when you never want more than one of something, or when you want to know if you've already got something.

But sets can do more than that.

Sets have 4 primary operations (all of the following calls return an iterator):

union: get all the unique elements in both sets.

difference: get all the elements that are in the first set but not the second.

intersection: get all the elements that are only in both sets.

symmetric_difference: get all the elements that are in one set or the other, but not both.

Try all of these in the following example:

use std::collections::HashSet;

fn main() {
    let mut a: HashSet<i32> = vec![1i32, 2, 3].into_iter().collect();
    let mut b: HashSet<i32> = vec![2i32, 3, 4].into_iter().collect();


    // `HashSet::insert()` returns false if
    // there was a value already present.
    assert!(b.insert(4), "Value 4 is already in set B!");
    // FIXME ^ Comment out this line


    // If a collection's element type implements `Debug`,
    // then the collection implements `Debug`.
    // It usually prints its elements in the format `[elem1, elem2, ...]`
    println!("A: {:?}", a);
    println!("B: {:?}", b);

    // Print [1, 2, 3, 4, 5] in arbitrary order
    println!("Union: {:?}", a.union(&b).collect::<Vec<&i32>>());

    // This should print [1]
    println!("Difference: {:?}", a.difference(&b).collect::<Vec<&i32>>());

    // Print [2, 3, 4] in arbitrary order.
    println!("Intersection: {:?}", a.intersection(&b).collect::<Vec<&i32>>());

    // Print [1, 5]
    println!("Symmetric Difference: {:?}",

(Examples are adapted from the documentation.)


When multiple ownership is needed, Rc(Reference Counting) can be used. Rc keeps track of the number of the references which means the number of owners of the value wrapped inside an Rc.

Reference count of an Rc increases by 1 whenever an Rc is cloned, and decreases by 1 whenever one cloned Rc is dropped out of the scope. When an Rc's reference count becomes zero, which means there are no owners remained, both the Rc and the value are all dropped.

Cloning an Rc never performs a deep copy. Cloning creates just another pointer to the wrapped value, and increments the count.

use std::rc::Rc;

fn main() {
    let rc_examples = "Rc examples".to_string();
        println!("--- rc_a is created ---");
        let rc_a: Rc<String> = Rc::new(rc_examples);
        println!("Reference Count of rc_a: {}", Rc::strong_count(&rc_a));
            println!("--- rc_a is cloned to rc_b ---");
            let rc_b: Rc<String> = Rc::clone(&rc_a);
            println!("Reference Count of rc_b: {}", Rc::strong_count(&rc_b));
            println!("Reference Count of rc_a: {}", Rc::strong_count(&rc_a));
            // Two `Rc`s are equal if their inner values are equal
            println!("rc_a and rc_b are equal: {}", rc_a.eq(&rc_b));
            // We can use methods of a value directly
            println!("Length of the value inside rc_a: {}", rc_a.len());
            println!("Value of rc_b: {}", rc_b);
            println!("--- rc_b is dropped out of scope ---");
        println!("Reference Count of rc_a: {}", Rc::strong_count(&rc_a));
        println!("--- rc_a is dropped out of scope ---");
    // Error! `rc_examples` already moved into `rc_a`
    // And when `rc_a` is dropped, `rc_examples` is dropped together
    // println!("rc_examples: {}", rc_examples);
    // TODO ^ Try uncommenting this line


When shared ownership between threads is needed, Arc(Atomic Reference Counted) can be used. This struct, via the Clone implementation can create a reference pointer for the location of a value in the memory heap while increasing the reference counter. As it shares ownership between threads, when the last reference pointer to a value is out of scope, the variable is dropped.

fn main() {
use std::sync::Arc;
use std::thread;

// This variable declaration is where its value is specified.
let apple = Arc::new("the same apple");

for _ in 0..10 {
    // Here there is no value specification as it is a pointer to a reference
    // in the memory heap.
    let apple = Arc::clone(&apple);

    thread::spawn(move || {
        // As Arc was used, threads can be spawned using the value allocated
        // in the Arc variable pointer's location.
        println!("{:?}", apple);

Original article source at

#rust #programming #developer