What are the differences between Rust's `String` and `str`?

Why does Rust have&nbsp;<code>String</code>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<code>str</code>? What are the differences between&nbsp;<code>String</code>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<code>str</code>? When does one use&nbsp;<code>String</code>&nbsp;instead of&nbsp;<code>str</code>&nbsp;and vice versa? Is one of them getting deprecated?

Why does Rust have String and str? What are the differences between String and str? When does one use String instead of str and vice versa? Is one of them getting deprecated?

The Rust developers should Know top 8 Rust IDE & text Editors

The Rust developers should Know top 8 Rust IDE & text Editors

Rust is an open source systems programming language which has been sponsored by Mozilla. It runs fast, claims to be safer than many other programming languages, prevents segfaults, practical in coding and a thread safety guaranteeing language

Apparently, a good Rust IDE & text editor must do two things very well: syntax highlighting (coloration of the code) and auto-completion.  Best choice of Rust IDE & editors can easily configure the working environment, leading to better productivity. let’s highlight 8 best Rust IDE & text editors for web developers and take a bird’s eye view of how each one of them can assist us when developing Rust applications.

Table of Contents

  • 1- IntelliJ rust
  • 2 – Eclipse RustDT
  • 3 – Atom Editor
  • 4 – Sublime text 3
  • 5- Visual studio code
  • 6- Neovim
  • 7 – GEANY
  • 8 – Spacemacs
1- IntelliJ rust

IntelliJ Rust is one of the most widely used Rust IDE. IntelliJ makes possible to link more then one project, even if you don’t use workspaces. There’s also a dedicated toolbar, which shows projects status. It provides all the mainly expected features including native code completion, broad navigation, intentions, formatting and much more.There’s also a preliminary debugger support. 

2 – Eclipse RustDT

RustDT is an Eclipse IDE for the Rust programming language.  It contains a base workspace and an extensible plug-in system for customizing the environment. It’s a free and open source and provides Rich Client Platform (RCP) for development of general purpose applications.

3 – Atom Editor

Developed by GitHub, the highly customizable environment and ease of installation of new packages has turned Atom into the IDE of choice for a lot of people. It is worth mentioning that the code examples provided in this dunebook were actually coded using Atom only. you can easily add Rust Programming language support using Rust Atom package.

4 – Sublime text 3

Sublime Text is a sophisticated text editor for code, markup, and prose. you’ll love the slick user interface, extraordinary features, and amazing performance. This is probably one of the most widespread code editors nowadays, some cool features of the sublime text. you can easily add Rust Programming language support to Sublime text using Rust Sublime text package.

5- Visual studio code

Visual Studio Code is a source code editor developed by Microsoft for Windows, Linux, and macOS. It possesses basic features such as highlighting errors (and sometimes apply suggestions for fixing them), jump to definitions, show you the types of expressions, offer code completion, and more. It also includes advanced features such as support for debugging, embedded Git control, syntax highlighting, intelligent code completion, snippets, and code refactoring. Thus, it makes app development easier on any platform and has been supporting a range of major languages. Rust extension adds advanced language support for the Rust to Vs code.

6- Neovim

Neovim is a pretty cool version and successor of Vim IDE. It is one of the best IDE for Rust to work with. Apart from all the basic features provided by most of the other IDE’s, it contains several other powerful features such as key-bindings and modes, editing documents exactly where you intend to, complete customization and modularity with plugins. It also contains different plugins used to enhance or change the behavior of core vim and get better results; the most important ones are Nerdtree, Tagbar, FZF, Neo-complete etc.

7 – GEANY

Geany is a light weighted and modern in design GUI based text editor, that supports almost all major programming languages. It offers all the common features that you expect for any modern text editors, such as syntax highlighting, Auto-completion, Multiple document support, Simple project management, Syntax highlighting, Code folding (partially), Symbol lists, Code navigation and line numbering. As soon as you’ll open it up, you will find a lot of clean white space area to work in. 

8 – Spacemacs

Spacemacs in yet another text editor used for programming in Rust. It does provide the developers with all the basic features such as Auto-completion, Error detection, and correction, but apart from it, it has other major features such as community-driven configurations, Maintaining two completely separate keybinding systems and community maintained layers.It is an extensible and customizable text editor, which basically combines both Emacs and Vim editor, taking the best features of both of them and providing it together as one.Thus, you need to install Emacs first to operate Spacemacs.

Apparently, all these IDE’s possess their own advantages and the developer needs to see what he/she needs the most and should make choice accordingly. There are various other IDEs also that can be relied on for programming in RUST, apart from the mentioned ones, as per the user needs. All the best for your choices!

Thanks for reading

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Further reading about Rust Programming

The Rust Programming Language

Why you should move from Node.js to Rust in 2019

Rust Vs. Haskell: Which Language is Best for API Design?

7 reasons why you should learn Rust programming language in 2019

An introduction to Web Development with Rust for Node.js Developers

Learning Rust Programming


Why you should move from Node.js to Rust in 2019

Why you should move from Node.js to Rust in 2019

In this article I want talk about my reasoning behind it, and why you as a NodeJS developer should consider the same.

Rust is the new JavaScript

JavaScripts appeal comes mainly from it’s easy-to-use and available-everywhere characteristics. It’s the only choice in the browser to build applications.

It also shines on the server side of things with its easy to use frameworks, easy syntax and no static types.

Building a web application with NodeJS takes literally a few hours. And with React on the frontend you have a always evolving and powerful tool to build complex applications.

So why is Rust the new JavaScript then?

  • Rust is available not only on the server, but also runs on hardware
  • With WASM, Rust will be able to run in the browser as well
  • As a frontend developer, NodeJS helped you to get into server-side programming. Learning Rust will help you covering the whole stack from hardware to server to frontend

Rust is the logical next step

NodeJS was so successful that even large applications got build with it. However, one missing piece was and is its type system. With no static types, Microsoft had to step in and create TypeScript. It offers many people who had to move from C++ and Java a familiar environment.

However, now instead of learning JavaScript, you are learning a tool from Microsoft which adds another layer on top of all the other layers to make JavaScript run on the server.

Learning TypeScript is bad pain, learning Rust is good pain

When you learn TypeScript, you mostly cope with a tool which is there to improve a language which lacks well thought through features.

If you want types, and you might need them in bigger applications, you can move to a typed language right away. Why bother with a transpiler?

Types

You know the saying: The biggest strength is also your biggest weakness?

Well with Rust, the thing you will love the most is its static type system. It will take some time though. The type system will prevent you from easily deploying a CRUD app in under one hour, but it will help you in the long run crafting sophisticated, safe and fast applications.

And once you are used to it, you can create your own “rust-web-starter” app and get the same benefits of crafting fast prototypes as you would with Node.

Rust is the new Bitcoin, but better

I painted a pretty simple picture: Why would you then choose Rust over, lets say Go?

Because Rust is the new Bitcoin. The majority of contributers are not working for Mozilla (who took over the Rust project and published it). The development of the language happens in the open, and everyone can contribute. Decentralized if you wish.

If Mozilla would completely abandon the language, it would still live on and flourish. Go however is solely maintained within Google, and we all know what happens to most Google projects after a few years.

It doesn’t seem like Go will go anywhere, the language is great and you will be super productive with it. But so is Rust, plus it has all the other features.

Documentation

When I talked about “leveling up” in the beginning, I meant leveling up. You don’t have to read through StackOverflow to fix some random problem.

The Rust docs are superb. You have to get used to them though. The structure and explanations make more sense once you start building your own applications and need help.

The Rust Compiler

Your biggest enemy and your best friend. The term “good pain” couldn’t be more accurate when it comes to the Rust Compiler. You will hate it that even simple exercises will fail in the beginning and you can’t even easily pass Strings around.

But, once you got the hang of it, you realize the biggest strength of the compiler:

You can pair program with the compiler and be sure to have crafted a solid application afterwards

Rust is still evolving, and you might live in a city where the community is not strong yet! So what? The Rust Compiler knows everything, and if it approves your code you can feel safe and secure.

Obviously…

Rust is as well:

Thanks for reading

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Further reading

The Complete Node.js Developer Course (3rd Edition)

Angular & NodeJS - The MEAN Stack Guide

NodeJS - The Complete Guide (incl. MVC, REST APIs, GraphQL)

Best 50 Nodejs interview questions from Beginners to Advanced in 2019

Node.js 12: The future of server-side JavaScript

An Introduction to Node.js Design Patterns

Basic Server Side Rendering with Vue.js and Express

Fullstack Vue App with MongoDB, Express.js and Node.js

How to create a full stack React/Express/MongoDB app using Docker

An introduction to Web Development with Rust for Node.js Developers

7 reasons why you should learn Rust programming language in 2019

Rust Vs. Haskell: Which Language is Best for API Design?

Rust for IOT

Rust Programming Language - A language empowering everyone to build reliable and efficient software.

Is Rust ready for the embedded world yet?

If your IOT project is on ARM or MSP430, it already has native support in the Rust compiler, and AVR and RISC-V have compiler forks available. But architecture support is only the first challenge: If you're used to writing Rust for hosts that run an operating system, the paradigm shift of having to do everything yourself in the embedded world can be jarring. This talk will introduce the basic techniques for writing Rust to run microcontrollers, and survey outstanding embedded rust projects already available in the ecosystem.

An introduction to Web Development with Rust for Node.js Developers

An introduction to Web Development with Rust for Node.js Developers

What is Rust and why do I want learn it? Rust is a systems programming language like C or C++, but with influences from functional programming languages and even scripting languages like JavaScript.

What is Rust and why do I want learn it? Rust is a systems programming language like C or C++, but with influences from functional programming languages and even scripting languages like JavaScript.

Rust is different. You can pick up Python or Ruby over the weekend, create a first CRUD application and be happy with the results.

With Rust… with Rust you will struggle to pass a String to a different method, change and return it. You then will order the Rust book, see its size, sigh and get started.

After a few weeks of fighting through the book after work, you give up and wait until someone else creates an easy-to-follow tutorial.

Here is your “easy” tutorial

I struggled with the same problems. Life circumstances however gave me a few months time on my hands to really focus on Rust.

What follows is a first overview, concept, and paths to follow. In the coming weeks and months, I’ll publish a series of articles to help you to get from concept to product.

NodeJS vs Rust

After installing them (I chose brew for macOS in this example, the method doesn’t matter), the underlying stack looks different. NodeJS needs V8, the runtime engine from Google, and bindings to the JavaScript library to run JavaScript code.

Rust depends almost completely on Rust itself. Just the compiler is using llvm libraries, which are written in C and C++.

How much “web” is in Rust?

It was and is a design decision not to include a standard http library in Rust. The OSI layer is therefore covered differently:

Node covers the whole stack, and offers with Koa and Express, two well-known and “rock-solid” web frameworks which help you to build applications on top of HTTP.

On the Rust side of things, just TCP is implemented in the Rust Core. The current web frameworks (actix and rocket) are implementing everything up until HTTP though. So you don’t need to care where this is coming from.

If you want to use pure HTTP calls without any larger framework, you can install “crates” (equivalent to npm packages in the Node world) which implement the HTTP protocol (like hyper and tiny_http).

npm vs cargo

Node is using npm for its package management:

  • npm install is installing dependencies
  • npm run xyz is executing scripts inside the package.json

On the Rust side, cargo is handling everything related to your project:

  • npm install is installing dependencies
  • npm run xyz is executing scripts inside the package.json

There is an open PR to add cargo add to install dependencies. Right now you have to add them by hand to your Cargo.toml file. As you see, you don’t need to include scripts in a package.json to run tests or build and test your application.

Mindset change: Cargo is fetching the packages after cargo run, and just if the version changed. So the first time it will fetch all packages, the second time just when a change in the version number happened. Unlike npm i which fetches the packages right away, and will add it to the package.json with the save notation.### Ecosystem

Node is not successful for no reason. The ecosystem is rich and flourishing. Rust is still developing, but has already many great “crates”. The website arewewebyet.org is tracking the progress and showing you interesting packages in the Rust world.

There is also an attempt to create an official Rust Web Framework, called Tide. It is already pretty mature and can be used for side projects. Feel free to contribute and help craft a great environment for web development in Rust.

Asnyc programming aka Promises aka Futures

Nodes killer feature are Promises. Although not always easy to understand and handle, Promises and the event loop are what makes Node so lucrative.

Rust is also implementing an asynchronous mechanism, which are not yet in the final version. They are called Futures. A library called Tokio is already offering an asynchronous run time. You can track the progress on asynchronous programming in Rust over at areweasyncyet.

How to get started?

  1. Install Rust: curl [https://sh.rustup.rs](https://sh.rustup.rs "https://sh.rustup.rs") -sSf | sh
  2. Create a new project: cargo new web-app --bin
  3. cd web-app

Now you can choose your web framework of choice. You can either start with rocket or actix. You can follow the tutorials on the website to get a first web application running.

Heads up: undefined, borrowing and types

To not to get frustrated until my next post, here are the main four things about Rust you will have to get used to (which are quite awesome after a while).

  1. Install Rust: curl [https://sh.rustup.rs](https://sh.rustup.rs "https://sh.rustup.rs") -sSf | sh
  2. Create a new project: cargo new web-app --bin
  3. cd web-app

Use this example to play around, see where you can get errors and learn to fix them.

Is this all?

Two opinions:

  • npm install is installing dependencies
  • npm run xyz is executing scripts inside the package.json

You actually have to learn a decent amount of Rust to get started. This is what I am here for. In the next few days, weeks and months I will cover the basics up until creating a solid web application.

Rust for Front-end Developers

Rust for Front-end Developers

In this post, we’ll look at Rust — a language empowering everyone to build reliable and efficient software. The goal of this article is to introduce you to Rust and explain why it’s useful.

The world of front-end development is fast-paced and can be pretty daunting to even the most experienced developers.

Each new framework, design system, and architecture pattern comes with rather bold claims about changing the future of how we’ll write code.

In this post, we’ll look at Rust — a language empowering everyone to build reliable and efficient software.

I know what you’re thinking: “I’ve heard this rhetoric before.”

You’re not wrong. Nevertheless, I can assure you that Rust lives up to the hype.

TL;DR

The goal of this article is to introduce you to Rust and explain why it’s useful.

As a front-end developer, you’ve probably mostly interacted with JavaScript as your primary language. Its dynamic, loosely-typed nature can make it a little difficult to quickly pick up other languages that doesn’t share these traits.

However, Rust was designed to make the learning curve of strict-typed languages less steep, meaning you won’t experience the typical frustration of learning languages like c++.

There are very minor similarities between Rust and JavaScript, such as the use of let and const for variable declarations.

This isn’t a huge deal, but I found that I felt more at ease using Rust since I was already familiar with these keywords.

Another benefit to Rust is that the syntax isn’t verbose — it’s very straightforward and clean.

What is Rust?

According the the official documentation, “The Rust programming language helps you write faster, more reliable software. High-level ergonomics and low-level control are often at odds in programming language design; Rust challenges that conflict.

By balancing powerful technical capacity and a great developer experience, Rust gives you the option to control low-level details (such as memory usage) without all the hassle traditionally associated with such control.”

Who is Rust for?

If you’re entirely new to programming, Rust probably isn’t for you.

The official documentation inclusive assumes you’ve written code in another programming language, but it doesn’t make any assumptions about which one.

If you’re usually concerned with memory-efficient code, Rust will be an especially good fit for you.

With Rust, anyone can do systems-level work traditionally reserved for the elite club of coders who have mastered the low-details of memory management, data representation, and concurrency.

Sound boring?

Here are some exciting facts: Rust isn’t limited to low-level systems programming, and it’s expressive and ergonomic enough to make CLI apps, web servers, and many other kinds of fun piece of software you’re excited to build.

Getting started

Setting up Rust is easy regardless of your operating system.

I don’t want to clutter this piece, so just head over to the installation guideline page and it will automatically detect your OS and walk you through the recommended setup for your machine.

Note : If you’re on a Linux or Mac, you should see something like in the image below:

Rust for Front-end Developers

For the purposes of this post, we’ll be using a UNIX-based system (All Linux distributions and Macs). Run the command below in your terminal and follow the onscreen instructions.

Note: If you are using a Windows subsystem for Linux, the command works for you too.

curl https://ah.rustup.rs -sSf | sh`

If you’re on a Windows machine, yours would look something like this:

Rust for Front-end Developers

for windows and windows subsystem for Linux

As usual, click on the link to download the executable and follow the onscreen instructions.

Setting up your development environment

In this article, we’ll use VS Code.

To boost efficiency, I’d recommend using the Rust extension, which helps with code-completion, error detection, etc.

Rust for Front-end Developers

User-uploaded image:vscode-rust.png

It’s worth noting that regardless of your code editor of choice, there are bound to be extensions or plugins for Rust. Check your editor’s extensions marketplace and you should see one.

Install it as instructed and you’re good to go.

Once you’ve gotten all that out of the way, run the following command to see if you’ve got Rust installed on your machine.

rustc --version

If all went well, you should see something like this:

Rust for Front-end Developers

If you’ve followed the installation properly but failed to run this command in your terminal, the most likely cause is that you didn’t configure the PATH environment variable properly.

Head over to the installation guide to see how you can sort that out.

Note: remember to restart your terminal after the installation procedure before you run this command.

Next steps

You don’t need to scour the internet for books or resources to learn Rust.

With your installation comes a copy of the book “The Rust Programming Language” by Steve Klabnik and Carol Nichols, with contributions from the Rust community.

It walks you through setup, basics, and advanced topics with a hands-on approach. It’s a top-notch resource.

You can read the book online or use the command below for an offline copy. Be sure to install rustup on your machine if you didn’t do so during your initial Rust setup.

rustup docs --book

Alternatively, you can choose to do the rustlings course. It guides you through downloading and setting up the Rust tool chain, and teaches you the basics of reading and writing Rust syntax on the command line.

You can also check out Rust by Example if reading hundreds of pages about a language isn’t really your style.

While the book talks about code with a lot of words, RBE shows off a bunch of code, and keeps the talking to a minimum. It also includes fun exercises.

Interfacing Rust with the front-end

Having come this far, you’re probably wondering how you can get your hands dirty with Rust on the front-end.

Typically, to use Rust (or any other language aside from JavaScript) on the front-end, you need to use WebAssembly.

What is WebAssembly?

If you’re not already familiar with WebAssembly (wasm for short), it is a binary instruction format that promises near native performance, allowing developers to build applications with high level languages like rust , c++, or any language of your choice (other than JavaScript of course) on the web for client and server applications.

Learn more here.

Performance advantages over JavaScript

A key advantage here is that Rust is compiled down to machine code, so there is no virtual machine.

There also isn’t an interpreter sitting between your code and the machine, making it highly performant.

As this benchmark suggests, a direct comparison of REST API performance with Rocket for Rust and Restify for Node.js shows that Rust handles 72,000 requests per second compared to Node.js’ 8,000, and uses just over 1 mb of memory when idle compared to Node.js’ 19 mb.

This comes as no surprise since Rust is a systems programming language.

Rust responds to requests nearly 100 times faster on average than Node, and you won’t run into the compile time errors that JavaScript apps are usually prone to.

Additional setup for front-end Rust

Once you’re done with the setup for the standard Rust development tool chain, setting up for front-end dev is also easy.

First, you need to get wasm-pack installed. It’s a comprehensive package for building, testing, and publishing Rust-generated WebAssembly.

Run the command below in your terminal if you’re on a Mac or Linux distribution:

curl https://rustwasm.github.io/wasm-pack/installer/init.sh -s Sf | sh

For Windows machines, download the installer, run it, and follow the on-screen instructions.

You can also install cargo-generate by using an existing git repository as a template. It helps you quickly get started with a new Rust project.

Install with this command:

cargo install cargo-generate

This should work fine if you have the Rust tool-chain properly configured on your machine. Cargo is the package manager for Rust.

You also need to have npm installed. Follow these instructions to install npm.

If you already have npm installed, be sure you’re up to date. Do so with the following command:

npm install [email protected] -g

Here is a good book to get you started with Rust on the front-end

Advantages of Rust

Rust has a lot of advantages and uses:

  • I barely have the words to properly convey how fast it is. On average, it’s said to be on par with c++.

  • It has a great documentation and an immensely rich ecosystem. It has the modern amenities that developers have come to expect, such as strong package management with cargo, as well as expressive (and zero-cost) abstractions.

  • Then comes my personal favorite: its error messages are as descriptive as it gets. It features a friendly compiler with useful error messages and top-notch tooling. You really can’t ask for more.

Here’s an example:

Rust for Front-end Developers

Notice how it recommends a solution after pointing out the error. Super useful, don’t you think?
  • Working with Rust allows you to build skills that transfer from one domain to another; you can learn Rust by writing a web app, then apply those same skills to target your Raspberry Pi.

  • Rust is completely reliable. It’s rich type system and ownership model guarantee memory-safety and thread-safety and enable you to eliminate many classes of bugs at compile-time.

  • Here’s something else I love about Rust: when you write a program in rust, that program can run on any machine without Rust installed on it.

  • JavaScript Web applications struggle to attain and retain reliable performance. JavaScript’s dynamic type system and garbage collection pauses don’t help. Seemingly small code changes can result in drastic performance regressions if you accidentally wander off the JIT’s happy path.

  • Rust gives programmers low-level control and reliable performance. It is free from the non-deterministic garbage collection pauses that plague JavaScript. Programmers have control over indirection, monomorphization, and memory layout.

  • Rust and WebAssembly integrate with existing JavaScript tooling. It supports ECMAScript modules, and you can continue using the tooling you already love, like npm and Webpack.

  • When it comes to performance advantages, code size is incredibly important since the .wasm must be downloaded over the network. Rust lacks a run time, enabling small .wasm sizes because there is no extra bloat included like a garbage collector. You only pay (in code size) for the functions you actually use.

  • Existing code bases don’t need to be thrown away. You can start by porting your most performance-sensitive JavaScript functions to Rust to gain immediate benefits.

Conclusions

From web apps to embedded systems and CLI apps, Rust provides a solid tool set to create highly-sustainable and scaleable code bases.

There’s a popular saying: “Always bet on JavaScript.”

You can rest assured the same holds true for Rust.

The odds are staggeringly in its favor. Several companies already use Rust in production, including npm, Yelp, Dropbox, and others.

You can learn more about how these companies use Rust here.

Whether you’re a team of developers, students, companies, open source developers, or anyone that values speed and stability, Rust is for you.