JSON Web Tokens, Macaroons, and PASETOs, Oh My!

Security tokens such as JWTs are now commonplace in developer guides and documentation. They are a key part of securing mobile and web applications. Why is this? What benefits do they provide? How should you use them in your applications? In this talk, you’ll learn what security tokens are, how to use them, and how to abuse them. Along the way, you’ll learn the differences between the three most popular types of security tokens: JWTs, Macaroons, and PASETO, and when to use (and not use!) them.

Brian Demers, Okta

#jwt #security #developer

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JSON Web Tokens, Macaroons, and PASETOs, Oh My!
Brandon  Adams

Brandon Adams


What is JSON? | JSON Objects and JSON Arrays | Working with JSONs Tutorial

In this video, we work with JSONs, which are a common data format for most web services (i.e. APIs). Thank you for watching and happy coding!

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#jsons #json arrays #json objects #what is json #jsons tutorial #blondiebytes

Hollie  Ratke

Hollie Ratke


What is JSON Web Token

A JSON Web Token (JWT) is a JSON object that is defined in RFC 7519 as a safe way of transmitting information between two parties. Information in the JWT is digitally-signed, so that it can be verified and trusted.

JWT Properties

  • Less verbose - JWT is compact in size and can be passed in the URL, POST parameter, or HTTP header.
  • Self-contained - JWT carries all of information needed for exchanging information and authentication.
  • Versatile - JWT works in .NET, Python, Node.js, Java, PHP, Ruby, Go, JavaScript, and Haskell.

JWT Use Cases

  • Information Exchange - JWT can be used between two parties to exchange information. JWT is digitally-signed and can be used in a secure public/private key pair. Information is verified using the public key on the other end.
  • Authentication - JWT can contain user information in the payload and can be used in the session to authenticate the user. Once authenticated, users can access protected resources in an application using the JWT included in the request. So, every request will be authenticated by verifying the JWT.

JWT contains three parts: Header, Payload, and Signature which are separated by a dot.



The JWT Header consists of 2 parts:

  • The token type (typ): JWT
  • Algorithm used to sign the token (alg)
 "typ" : "JWT",  
 "alg" : "HS256"  

Header Algorithm Types:

  • Symmetric Algorithms - This algorithm type uses a single secret key to both sign and verify the JWT token. For example: HMAC algorithms.
  • Asymmetric Algorithms - This algorithm type uses a private key to sign the token and a public key to verify the signature. For example: RSA and ECDSA algorithms.

alg Value

Digital Signature or MAC Algorithm

AlgoDescriptionHS256HMAC using SHA-256 hash algorithmHS384HMAC using SHA-384 hash algorithmHS512HMAC using SHA-512 hash algorithmRS256RSASSA using SHA-256 hash algorithmRS384RSASSA using SHA-384 hash algorithmRS512RSASSA using SHA-512 hash algorithmES256ECDSA using P-256 curve and SHA-256 hash algorithmES384ECDSA using P-384 curve and SHA-384 hash algorithmES512ECDSA using P-521 curve and SHA-512 hash algorithm

The Base64Url-encoded Header**,** which is first part of our JWT, looks like the following:



The Payload, also known as the JWT claim, contains all of the information we want to transmit.

Different types of claims can be used to build the Payload:

  • Registered Claim - These claims are optional but recommended as they contain some metadata about the token:

CodeNameDescriptionississuerIdentifies the principal that issued the JWT.subsubjectIdentifies the principal that is the subject of the JWT.audaudienceIdentifies the recipients that the JWT is intended for.expExpiration timeIdentifies the expiration time on or after which the JWT MUST NOT be accepted for processing.nbfNot beforeIdentifies the time before which the JWT MUST NOT be accepted for processing.iatIssue atIdentifies the time at which the JWT was issued.jtiJWT idUnique identifier for the JWT, can be used to prevent the JWT from being replayed.

  • Public Claim - These claims are defined by you, such as user name, and other important information.
  • Private Claim - A producer and consumer may agree to use claim names that are private. These are subject to collision, so use them with caution.

Example Payload:

 "sub": "1234567890",  
 "name": "Frank Emic",  
 "jti": "4b5fcea6-2a5e-4a9d-97f2-3d8631ea2c5a",  
 "iat": 1521191902,  
 "exp": 1521195630  

This example contains a combination of registered and public claims. “sub”,”jti”,”iat”, and “exp” are registered claims and “name” is a public claim.

#json #token #web

Spring Security with JSON Web Token and Refresh Token

In this tutorial, you will understand and learn how to generate and sign a JSON Web Token to securely access your RESTful application. This tutorial teaches how to use JWT (JSON Web Token) to embed user roles and permissions to delegate users authorization(what they can and can’t do) in the application. It also dives into defining and creating API, exposing API Endpoints over HTTP, and testing API Endpoints (using an HTTP client - Postman).

Source Code:

Intro 0:00
What is JWT(Json Web Token) 1:00
Authentication and Authorization 05:00
Security with JWT 08:02
Domain Models 11:02
Repository 20:12
Service and Implementation - Part 1 22:41
Service and Implementation - Part 2 30:34
API Resource - Part 1 33:01
API Resource - Part 2 33:01
Adding Data - Part 2 46:48
Security Configuration 52:02
Authentication Filter Part 1 01:03:13
Authentication Filter Part 2 01:11:31
Authentication Filter Part 3 01:19:42
Course Promo 1:31:10
Course App Demo 01:33:22
Authorization Filter Part 1 - 01:42:53
Authorization Filter Part 2 - 01:53:43
Refresh Token 01:58:56

#json web token #jwt #token #spring

Ashish parmar

Ashish parmar


Evolution in Web Design: A Case Study of 25 Years - Prismetric

The term web design simply encompasses a design process related to the front-end design of website that includes writing mark-up. Creative web design has a considerable impact on your perceived business credibility and quality. It taps onto the broader scopes of web development services.

Web designing is identified as a critical factor for the success of websites and eCommerce. The internet has completely changed the way businesses and brands operate. Web design and web development go hand-in-hand and the need for a professional web design and development company, offering a blend of creative designs and user-centric elements at an affordable rate, is growing at a significant rate.

In this blog, we have focused on the different areas of designing a website that covers all the trends, tools, and techniques coming up with time.

Web design
In 2020 itself, the number of smartphone users across the globe stands at 6.95 billion, with experts suggesting a high rise of 17.75 billion by 2024. On the other hand, the percentage of Gen Z web and internet users worldwide is up to 98%. This is not just a huge market but a ginormous one to boost your business and grow your presence online.

Web Design History
At a huge particle physics laboratory, CERN in Switzerland, the son of computer scientist Barner Lee published the first-ever website on August 6, 1991. He is not only the first web designer but also the creator of HTML (HyperText Markup Language). The worldwide web persisted and after two years, the world’s first search engine was born. This was just the beginning.

Evolution of Web Design over the years
With the release of the Internet web browser and Windows 95 in 1995, most trading companies at that time saw innumerable possibilities of instant worldwide information and public sharing of websites to increase their sales. This led to the prospect of eCommerce and worldwide group communications.

The next few years saw a soaring launch of the now-so-famous websites such as Yahoo, Amazon, eBay, Google, and substantially more. In 2004, by the time Facebook was launched, there were more than 50 million websites online.

Then came the era of Google, the ruler of all search engines introducing us to search engine optimization (SEO) and businesses sought their ways to improve their ranks. The world turned more towards mobile web experiences and responsive mobile-friendly web designs became requisite.

Let’s take a deep look at the evolution of illustrious brands to have a profound understanding of web design.

Here is a retrospection of a few widely acclaimed brands over the years.

From a simple idea of renting DVDs online to a multi-billion-dollar business, saying that Netflix has come a long way is an understatement. A company that has sent shockwaves across Hollywood in the form of content delivery. Abundantly, Netflix (NFLX) is responsible for the rise in streaming services across 190 countries and meaningful changes in the entertainment industry.


The idea of Netflix was born when Reed Hastings and Marc Randolph decided to rent DVDs by mail. With 925 titles and a pay-per-rental model, Netflix.com debuts the first DVD rental and sales site with all novel features. It offered unlimited rentals without due dates or monthly rental limitations with a personalized movie recommendation system.

Netflix 1997-2000


Announcing its initial public offering (IPO) under the NASDAQ ticker NFLX, Netflix reached over 1 million subscribers in the United States by introducing a profile feature in their influential website design along with a free trial allowing members to create lists and rate their favorite movies. The user experience was quite engaging with the categorization of content, recommendations based on history, search engine, and a queue of movies to watch.

Netflix 2001-2005 -2003


They then unleashed streaming and partnering with electronic brands such as blu-ray, Xbox, and set-top boxes so that users can watch series and films straight away. Later in 2010, they also launched their sophisticated website on mobile devices with its iconic red and black themed background.

Netflix 2006-2010 -2007


In 2013, an eye-tracking test revealed that the users didn’t focus on the details of the movie or show in the existing interface and were perplexed with the flow of information. Hence, the professional web designers simply shifted the text from the right side to the top of the screen. With Daredevil, an audio description feature was also launched for the visually impaired ones.

Netflix 2011-2015


These years, Netflix came with a plethora of new features for their modern website design such as AutoPay, snippets of trailers, recommendations categorized by genre, percentage based on user experience, upcoming shows, top 10 lists, etc. These web application features yielded better results in visual hierarchy and flow of information across the website.

Netflix 2016-2020


With a sleek logo in their iconic red N, timeless black background with a ‘Watch anywhere, Cancel anytime’ the color, the combination, the statement, and the leading ott platform for top video streaming service Netflix has overgrown into a revolutionary lifestyle of Netflix and Chill.

Netflix 2021

Contunue to read: Evolution in Web Design: A Case Study of 25 Years

#web #web-design #web-design-development #web-design-case-study #web-design-history #web-development

Hello Jay

Hello Jay


How To Debug JSON Web Tokens (JWTs)

Many modern web applications, both client-side and server-side, use JSON Web Tokens (JWTs) for authentication, which is an excellent approach. However, when things don’t work, it can be tricky to work out why.

This post aims to give you some tactics for understanding and correcting problems with JWTs. If you’re just getting started, check out the  documentation on working with JWTs and our APIs first.

Does Your JSON Web Token Look Plausible?

Sometimes the problem is as simple as knowing whether you even passed the right value into the right place, the equivalent to “is it plugged in?” question.

So, add a little debugging to your code to output the JWT somewhere you can see, such as your error log or console.

Then take a look for the following:

  • Does this look like a token? It should be three sets of garbled-looking alphanumeric strings (technically, upper and lower case characters, numeric digits, + and / are permitted, with = used for padding), separated by dots.
  • Is there whitespace around it, including a newline at the end? Pesky, errant whitespaces can trip up some tools.
  • Is it there at all? I have mistyped a variable name and regenerated the token a few times before realising that the problem is me, not the token.

If the token passes visual inspection, then we need to get out some more specific tools.

#json #json web tokens #jwts #security #tips and tricks