Elian  Harber

Elian Harber

1665094440

gRPC to JSON proxy generator following the gRPC HTTP spec

gRPC-Gateway

gRPC to JSON proxy generator following the gRPC HTTP spec

About

The gRPC-Gateway is a plugin of the Google protocol buffers compiler protoc. It reads protobuf service definitions and generates a reverse-proxy server which translates a RESTful HTTP API into gRPC. This server is generated according to the google.api.http annotations in your service definitions.

This helps you provide your APIs in both gRPC and RESTful style at the same time.

Docs

You can read our docs at:

Testimonials

We use the gRPC-Gateway to serve millions of API requests per day, and have been since 2018 and through all of that, we have never had any issues with it.

- William Mill, Ad Hoc

Background

gRPC is great -- it generates API clients and server stubs in many programming languages, it is fast, easy-to-use, bandwidth-efficient and its design is combat-proven by Google. However, you might still want to provide a traditional RESTful JSON API as well. Reasons can range from maintaining backward-compatibility, supporting languages or clients that are not well supported by gRPC, to simply maintaining the aesthetics and tooling involved with a RESTful JSON architecture.

This project aims to provide that HTTP+JSON interface to your gRPC service. A small amount of configuration in your service to attach HTTP semantics is all that's needed to generate a reverse-proxy with this library.

Installation

Compile from source

The following instructions assume you are using Go Modules for dependency management. Use a tool dependency to track the versions of the following executable packages:

// +build tools

package tools

import (
    _ "github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2/protoc-gen-grpc-gateway"
    _ "github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2/protoc-gen-openapiv2"
    _ "google.golang.org/grpc/cmd/protoc-gen-go-grpc"
    _ "google.golang.org/protobuf/cmd/protoc-gen-go"
)

Run go mod tidy to resolve the versions. Install by running

$ go install \
    github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2/protoc-gen-grpc-gateway \
    github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2/protoc-gen-openapiv2 \
    google.golang.org/protobuf/cmd/protoc-gen-go \
    google.golang.org/grpc/cmd/protoc-gen-go-grpc

This will place four binaries in your $GOBIN;

  • protoc-gen-grpc-gateway
  • protoc-gen-openapiv2
  • protoc-gen-go
  • protoc-gen-go-grpc

Make sure that your $GOBIN is in your $PATH.

Download the binaries

You may alternatively download the binaries from the GitHub releases page. We generate SLSA3 signatures using the OpenSSF's slsa-framework/slsa-github-generator during the release process. To verify a release binary:

  1. Install the verification tool from slsa-framework/slsa-verifier#installation.
  2. Download the provenance file attestation.intoto.jsonl from the GitHub releases page.
  3. Run the verifier:
slsa-verifier -artifact-path <the-binary> -provenance attestation.intoto.jsonl -source github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway -tag <the-tag>

Alternatively, see the section on remotely managed plugin versions below.

Usage

Define your gRPC service using protocol buffers

your_service.proto:

 syntax = "proto3";
 package your.service.v1;
 option go_package = "github.com/yourorg/yourprotos/gen/go/your/service/v1";

 message StringMessage {
   string value = 1;
 }

 service YourService {
   rpc Echo(StringMessage) returns (StringMessage) {}
 }

Generate gRPC stubs

This step generates the gRPC stubs that you can use to implement the service and consume from clients:

Here's an example buf.gen.yaml you can use to generate the stubs with buf:

version: v1
plugins:
  - name: go
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - name: go-grpc
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative

With this file in place, you can generate your files using buf generate.

For a complete example of using buf generate to generate protobuf stubs, see the boilerplate repo. For more information on generating the stubs with buf, see the official documentation.

If you are using protoc to generate stubs, here's an example of what a command might look like:

protoc -I . \
    --go_out ./gen/go/ --go_opt paths=source_relative \
    --go-grpc_out ./gen/go/ --go-grpc_opt paths=source_relative \
    your/service/v1/your_service.proto

Implement your service in gRPC as usual.

Generate reverse-proxy using protoc-gen-grpc-gateway

At this point, you have 3 options:

  • no further modifications, use the default mapping to HTTP semantics (method, path, etc.)
    • this will work on any .proto file, but will not allow setting HTTP paths, request parameters or similar
  • additional .proto modifications to use a custom mapping
    • relies on parameters in the .proto file to set custom HTTP mappings
  • no .proto modifications, but use an external configuration file
    • relies on an external configuration file to set custom HTTP mappings
    • mostly useful when the source proto file isn't under your control
  1. Using the default mapping
  2. With custom annotations
  3. External configuration If you do not want to (or cannot) modify the proto file for use with gRPC-Gateway you can alternatively use an external gRPC Service Configuration file. Check our documentation for more information. This is best combined with the standalone=true option to generate a file that can live in its own package, separate from the files generated by the source protobuf file.

Write an entrypoint for the HTTP reverse-proxy server

package main

import (
  "context"
  "flag"
  "net/http"

  "github.com/golang/glog"
  "github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2/runtime"
  "google.golang.org/grpc"
  "google.golang.org/grpc/credentials/insecure"

  gw "github.com/yourorg/yourrepo/proto/gen/go/your/service/v1/your_service"  // Update
)

var (
  // command-line options:
  // gRPC server endpoint
  grpcServerEndpoint = flag.String("grpc-server-endpoint",  "localhost:9090", "gRPC server endpoint")
)

func run() error {
  ctx := context.Background()
  ctx, cancel := context.WithCancel(ctx)
  defer cancel()

  // Register gRPC server endpoint
  // Note: Make sure the gRPC server is running properly and accessible
  mux := runtime.NewServeMux()
  opts := []grpc.DialOption{grpc.WithTransportCredentials(insecure.NewCredentials())}
  err := gw.RegisterYourServiceHandlerFromEndpoint(ctx, mux,  *grpcServerEndpoint, opts)
  if err != nil {
    return err
  }

  // Start HTTP server (and proxy calls to gRPC server endpoint)
  return http.ListenAndServe(":8081", mux)
}

func main() {
  flag.Parse()
  defer glog.Flush()

  if err := run(); err != nil {
    glog.Fatal(err)
  }
}

(Optional) Generate OpenAPI definitions using protoc-gen-openapiv2

Here's what a buf.gen.yaml file might look like:

version: v1
plugins:
  - name: go
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - name: go-grpc
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - name: grpc-gateway
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - name: openapiv2
    out: gen/openapiv2

To use the custom protobuf annotations supported by protoc-gen-openapiv2, we need another dependency added to our protobuf generation step. If you are using buf, you can add the buf.build/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway dependency to your deps array:

version: v1
name: buf.build/yourorg/myprotos
deps:
  - buf.build/googleapis/googleapis
  - buf.build/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway

With protoc (just the swagger file):

protoc -I . --openapiv2_out ./gen/openapiv2 \
    --openapiv2_opt logtostderr=true \
    your/service/v1/your_service.proto

If you are using protoc to generate stubs, you will need to copy the protobuf files from the protoc-gen-openapiv2/options directory of this repository, and providing them to protoc when running.

Note that this plugin also supports generating OpenAPI definitions for unannotated methods; use the generate_unbound_methods option to enable this.

It is possible with the HTTP mapping for a gRPC service method to create duplicate mappings with the only difference being constraints on the path parameter.

/v1/{name=projects/*} and /v1/{name=organizations/*} both become /v1/{name}. When this occurs the plugin will rename the path parameter with a "_1" (or "_2" etc) suffix to differentiate the different operations. So in the above example, the 2nd path would become /v1/{name_1=organizations/*}. This can also cause OpenAPI clients to URL encode the "/" that is part of the path parameter as that is what OpenAPI defines in the specification. To allow gRPC gateway to accept the URL encoded slash and still route the request, use the UnescapingModeAllCharacters or UnescapingModeLegacy (which is the default currently though may change in future versions). See Customizing Your Gateway for more information.

Usage with remote plugins

As an alternative to all of the above, you can use buf with remote plugins to manage plugin versions and generation. An example buf.gen.yaml using remote plugin generation looks like this:

version: v1
plugins:
  - remote: buf.build/library/plugins/go:v1.27.1-1
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - remote: buf.build/library/plugins/go-grpc:v1.1.0-2
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - remote: buf.build/grpc-ecosystem/plugins/grpc-gateway:v2.6.0-1
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - remote: buf.build/grpc-ecosystem/plugins/openapiv2:v2.6.0-1
    out: gen/openapiv2

This requires no local installation of any plugins. Be careful to use the same version of the generator as the runtime library, i.e. if using v2.6.0-1, run

$ go get github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2@v2.6.0

To get the same version of the runtime in your go.mod.

Video intro

This GopherCon UK 2019 presentation from our maintainer @JohanBrandhorst provides a good intro to using the gRPC-Gateway. It uses the following boilerplate repo as a base: https://github.com/johanbrandhorst/grpc-gateway-boilerplate.

Parameters and flags

When using buf to generate stubs, flags and parameters are passed through the opt field in your buf.gen.yaml file, for example:

version: v1
plugins:
  - name: grpc-gateway
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
      - grpc_api_configuration=path/to/config.yaml
      - standalone=true

During code generation with protoc, flags to gRPC-Gateway tools must be passed through protoc using one of 2 patterns:

  • as part of the --<tool_suffix>_out protoc parameter: --<tool_suffix>_out=<flags>:<path>
--grpc-gateway_out=logtostderr=true,repeated_path_param_separator=ssv:.
--openapiv2_out=logtostderr=true,repeated_path_param_separator=ssv:.
  • using additional --<tool_suffix>_opt parameters: --<tool_suffix>_opt=<flag>[,<flag>]*
--grpc-gateway_opt logtostderr=true,repeated_path_param_separator=ssv
# or separately
--grpc-gateway_opt logtostderr=true --grpc-gateway_opt repeated_path_param_separator=ssv
--openapiv2_opt logtostderr=true,repeated_path_param_separator=ssv
# or separately
--openapiv2_opt logtostderr=true --openapiv2_opt repeated_path_param_separator=ssv

More examples

More examples are available under the examples directory.

  • proto/examplepb/echo_service.proto, proto/examplepb/a_bit_of_everything.proto, proto/examplepb/unannotated_echo_service.proto: service definition
    • proto/examplepb/echo_service.pb.go, proto/examplepb/a_bit_of_everything.pb.go, proto/examplepb/unannotated_echo_service.pb.go: [generated] stub of the service
    • proto/examplepb/echo_service.pb.gw.go, proto/examplepb/a_bit_of_everything.pb.gw.go, proto/examplepb/uannotated_echo_service.pb.gw.go: [generated] reverse proxy for the service
    • proto/examplepb/unannotated_echo_service.yaml: gRPC API Configuration for unannotated_echo_service.proto
  • server/main.go: service implementation
  • main.go: entrypoint of the generated reverse proxy

To use the same port for custom HTTP handlers (e.g. serving swagger.json), gRPC-Gateway, and a gRPC server, see this example by CoreOS (and its accompanying blog post).

Features

Supported

  • Generating JSON API handlers.
  • Method parameters in the request body.
  • Method parameters in the request path.
  • Method parameters in the query string.
  • Enum fields in the path parameter (including repeated enum fields).
  • Mapping streaming APIs to newline-delimited JSON streams.
  • Mapping HTTP headers with Grpc-Metadata- prefix to gRPC metadata (prefixed with grpcgateway-)
  • Optionally emitting API definitions for OpenAPI (Swagger) v2.
  • Setting gRPC timeouts through inbound HTTP Grpc-Timeout header.
  • Partial support for gRPC API Configuration files as an alternative to annotation.
  • Automatically translating PATCH requests into Field Mask gRPC requests. See the docs for more information.

No plan to support

But patches are welcome.

  • Method parameters in HTTP headers.
  • Handling trailer metadata.
  • Encoding request/response body in XML.
  • True bi-directional streaming.

Mapping gRPC to HTTP

  • How gRPC error codes map to HTTP status codes in the response.
  • HTTP request source IP is added as X-Forwarded-For gRPC request header.
  • HTTP request host is added as X-Forwarded-Host gRPC request header.
  • HTTP Authorization header is added as authorization gRPC request header.
  • Remaining Permanent HTTP header keys (as specified by the IANA here) are prefixed with grpcgateway- and added with their values to gRPC request header.
  • HTTP headers that start with 'Grpc-Metadata-' are mapped to gRPC metadata (prefixed with grpcgateway-).
  • While configurable, the default {un,}marshaling uses protojson.
  • The path template used to map gRPC service methods to HTTP endpoints supports the google.api.http path template syntax. For example, /api/v1/{name=projects/*/topics/*} or /prefix/{path=organizations/**}.

Contribution

See CONTRIBUTING.md.

Download Details:

Author: grpc-ecosystem
Source Code: https://github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway 
License: BSD-3-Clause license

#go #golang #grpc #rest 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

gRPC to JSON proxy generator following the gRPC HTTP spec
Brandon  Adams

Brandon Adams

1625637060

What is JSON? | JSON Objects and JSON Arrays | Working with JSONs Tutorial

In this video, we work with JSONs, which are a common data format for most web services (i.e. APIs). Thank you for watching and happy coding!

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#jsons #json arrays #json objects #what is json #jsons tutorial #blondiebytes

Elian  Harber

Elian Harber

1665094440

gRPC to JSON proxy generator following the gRPC HTTP spec

gRPC-Gateway

gRPC to JSON proxy generator following the gRPC HTTP spec

About

The gRPC-Gateway is a plugin of the Google protocol buffers compiler protoc. It reads protobuf service definitions and generates a reverse-proxy server which translates a RESTful HTTP API into gRPC. This server is generated according to the google.api.http annotations in your service definitions.

This helps you provide your APIs in both gRPC and RESTful style at the same time.

Docs

You can read our docs at:

Testimonials

We use the gRPC-Gateway to serve millions of API requests per day, and have been since 2018 and through all of that, we have never had any issues with it.

- William Mill, Ad Hoc

Background

gRPC is great -- it generates API clients and server stubs in many programming languages, it is fast, easy-to-use, bandwidth-efficient and its design is combat-proven by Google. However, you might still want to provide a traditional RESTful JSON API as well. Reasons can range from maintaining backward-compatibility, supporting languages or clients that are not well supported by gRPC, to simply maintaining the aesthetics and tooling involved with a RESTful JSON architecture.

This project aims to provide that HTTP+JSON interface to your gRPC service. A small amount of configuration in your service to attach HTTP semantics is all that's needed to generate a reverse-proxy with this library.

Installation

Compile from source

The following instructions assume you are using Go Modules for dependency management. Use a tool dependency to track the versions of the following executable packages:

// +build tools

package tools

import (
    _ "github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2/protoc-gen-grpc-gateway"
    _ "github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2/protoc-gen-openapiv2"
    _ "google.golang.org/grpc/cmd/protoc-gen-go-grpc"
    _ "google.golang.org/protobuf/cmd/protoc-gen-go"
)

Run go mod tidy to resolve the versions. Install by running

$ go install \
    github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2/protoc-gen-grpc-gateway \
    github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2/protoc-gen-openapiv2 \
    google.golang.org/protobuf/cmd/protoc-gen-go \
    google.golang.org/grpc/cmd/protoc-gen-go-grpc

This will place four binaries in your $GOBIN;

  • protoc-gen-grpc-gateway
  • protoc-gen-openapiv2
  • protoc-gen-go
  • protoc-gen-go-grpc

Make sure that your $GOBIN is in your $PATH.

Download the binaries

You may alternatively download the binaries from the GitHub releases page. We generate SLSA3 signatures using the OpenSSF's slsa-framework/slsa-github-generator during the release process. To verify a release binary:

  1. Install the verification tool from slsa-framework/slsa-verifier#installation.
  2. Download the provenance file attestation.intoto.jsonl from the GitHub releases page.
  3. Run the verifier:
slsa-verifier -artifact-path <the-binary> -provenance attestation.intoto.jsonl -source github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway -tag <the-tag>

Alternatively, see the section on remotely managed plugin versions below.

Usage

Define your gRPC service using protocol buffers

your_service.proto:

 syntax = "proto3";
 package your.service.v1;
 option go_package = "github.com/yourorg/yourprotos/gen/go/your/service/v1";

 message StringMessage {
   string value = 1;
 }

 service YourService {
   rpc Echo(StringMessage) returns (StringMessage) {}
 }

Generate gRPC stubs

This step generates the gRPC stubs that you can use to implement the service and consume from clients:

Here's an example buf.gen.yaml you can use to generate the stubs with buf:

version: v1
plugins:
  - name: go
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - name: go-grpc
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative

With this file in place, you can generate your files using buf generate.

For a complete example of using buf generate to generate protobuf stubs, see the boilerplate repo. For more information on generating the stubs with buf, see the official documentation.

If you are using protoc to generate stubs, here's an example of what a command might look like:

protoc -I . \
    --go_out ./gen/go/ --go_opt paths=source_relative \
    --go-grpc_out ./gen/go/ --go-grpc_opt paths=source_relative \
    your/service/v1/your_service.proto

Implement your service in gRPC as usual.

Generate reverse-proxy using protoc-gen-grpc-gateway

At this point, you have 3 options:

  • no further modifications, use the default mapping to HTTP semantics (method, path, etc.)
    • this will work on any .proto file, but will not allow setting HTTP paths, request parameters or similar
  • additional .proto modifications to use a custom mapping
    • relies on parameters in the .proto file to set custom HTTP mappings
  • no .proto modifications, but use an external configuration file
    • relies on an external configuration file to set custom HTTP mappings
    • mostly useful when the source proto file isn't under your control
  1. Using the default mapping
  2. With custom annotations
  3. External configuration If you do not want to (or cannot) modify the proto file for use with gRPC-Gateway you can alternatively use an external gRPC Service Configuration file. Check our documentation for more information. This is best combined with the standalone=true option to generate a file that can live in its own package, separate from the files generated by the source protobuf file.

Write an entrypoint for the HTTP reverse-proxy server

package main

import (
  "context"
  "flag"
  "net/http"

  "github.com/golang/glog"
  "github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2/runtime"
  "google.golang.org/grpc"
  "google.golang.org/grpc/credentials/insecure"

  gw "github.com/yourorg/yourrepo/proto/gen/go/your/service/v1/your_service"  // Update
)

var (
  // command-line options:
  // gRPC server endpoint
  grpcServerEndpoint = flag.String("grpc-server-endpoint",  "localhost:9090", "gRPC server endpoint")
)

func run() error {
  ctx := context.Background()
  ctx, cancel := context.WithCancel(ctx)
  defer cancel()

  // Register gRPC server endpoint
  // Note: Make sure the gRPC server is running properly and accessible
  mux := runtime.NewServeMux()
  opts := []grpc.DialOption{grpc.WithTransportCredentials(insecure.NewCredentials())}
  err := gw.RegisterYourServiceHandlerFromEndpoint(ctx, mux,  *grpcServerEndpoint, opts)
  if err != nil {
    return err
  }

  // Start HTTP server (and proxy calls to gRPC server endpoint)
  return http.ListenAndServe(":8081", mux)
}

func main() {
  flag.Parse()
  defer glog.Flush()

  if err := run(); err != nil {
    glog.Fatal(err)
  }
}

(Optional) Generate OpenAPI definitions using protoc-gen-openapiv2

Here's what a buf.gen.yaml file might look like:

version: v1
plugins:
  - name: go
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - name: go-grpc
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - name: grpc-gateway
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - name: openapiv2
    out: gen/openapiv2

To use the custom protobuf annotations supported by protoc-gen-openapiv2, we need another dependency added to our protobuf generation step. If you are using buf, you can add the buf.build/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway dependency to your deps array:

version: v1
name: buf.build/yourorg/myprotos
deps:
  - buf.build/googleapis/googleapis
  - buf.build/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway

With protoc (just the swagger file):

protoc -I . --openapiv2_out ./gen/openapiv2 \
    --openapiv2_opt logtostderr=true \
    your/service/v1/your_service.proto

If you are using protoc to generate stubs, you will need to copy the protobuf files from the protoc-gen-openapiv2/options directory of this repository, and providing them to protoc when running.

Note that this plugin also supports generating OpenAPI definitions for unannotated methods; use the generate_unbound_methods option to enable this.

It is possible with the HTTP mapping for a gRPC service method to create duplicate mappings with the only difference being constraints on the path parameter.

/v1/{name=projects/*} and /v1/{name=organizations/*} both become /v1/{name}. When this occurs the plugin will rename the path parameter with a "_1" (or "_2" etc) suffix to differentiate the different operations. So in the above example, the 2nd path would become /v1/{name_1=organizations/*}. This can also cause OpenAPI clients to URL encode the "/" that is part of the path parameter as that is what OpenAPI defines in the specification. To allow gRPC gateway to accept the URL encoded slash and still route the request, use the UnescapingModeAllCharacters or UnescapingModeLegacy (which is the default currently though may change in future versions). See Customizing Your Gateway for more information.

Usage with remote plugins

As an alternative to all of the above, you can use buf with remote plugins to manage plugin versions and generation. An example buf.gen.yaml using remote plugin generation looks like this:

version: v1
plugins:
  - remote: buf.build/library/plugins/go:v1.27.1-1
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - remote: buf.build/library/plugins/go-grpc:v1.1.0-2
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - remote: buf.build/grpc-ecosystem/plugins/grpc-gateway:v2.6.0-1
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
  - remote: buf.build/grpc-ecosystem/plugins/openapiv2:v2.6.0-1
    out: gen/openapiv2

This requires no local installation of any plugins. Be careful to use the same version of the generator as the runtime library, i.e. if using v2.6.0-1, run

$ go get github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway/v2@v2.6.0

To get the same version of the runtime in your go.mod.

Video intro

This GopherCon UK 2019 presentation from our maintainer @JohanBrandhorst provides a good intro to using the gRPC-Gateway. It uses the following boilerplate repo as a base: https://github.com/johanbrandhorst/grpc-gateway-boilerplate.

Parameters and flags

When using buf to generate stubs, flags and parameters are passed through the opt field in your buf.gen.yaml file, for example:

version: v1
plugins:
  - name: grpc-gateway
    out: gen/go
    opt:
      - paths=source_relative
      - grpc_api_configuration=path/to/config.yaml
      - standalone=true

During code generation with protoc, flags to gRPC-Gateway tools must be passed through protoc using one of 2 patterns:

  • as part of the --<tool_suffix>_out protoc parameter: --<tool_suffix>_out=<flags>:<path>
--grpc-gateway_out=logtostderr=true,repeated_path_param_separator=ssv:.
--openapiv2_out=logtostderr=true,repeated_path_param_separator=ssv:.
  • using additional --<tool_suffix>_opt parameters: --<tool_suffix>_opt=<flag>[,<flag>]*
--grpc-gateway_opt logtostderr=true,repeated_path_param_separator=ssv
# or separately
--grpc-gateway_opt logtostderr=true --grpc-gateway_opt repeated_path_param_separator=ssv
--openapiv2_opt logtostderr=true,repeated_path_param_separator=ssv
# or separately
--openapiv2_opt logtostderr=true --openapiv2_opt repeated_path_param_separator=ssv

More examples

More examples are available under the examples directory.

  • proto/examplepb/echo_service.proto, proto/examplepb/a_bit_of_everything.proto, proto/examplepb/unannotated_echo_service.proto: service definition
    • proto/examplepb/echo_service.pb.go, proto/examplepb/a_bit_of_everything.pb.go, proto/examplepb/unannotated_echo_service.pb.go: [generated] stub of the service
    • proto/examplepb/echo_service.pb.gw.go, proto/examplepb/a_bit_of_everything.pb.gw.go, proto/examplepb/uannotated_echo_service.pb.gw.go: [generated] reverse proxy for the service
    • proto/examplepb/unannotated_echo_service.yaml: gRPC API Configuration for unannotated_echo_service.proto
  • server/main.go: service implementation
  • main.go: entrypoint of the generated reverse proxy

To use the same port for custom HTTP handlers (e.g. serving swagger.json), gRPC-Gateway, and a gRPC server, see this example by CoreOS (and its accompanying blog post).

Features

Supported

  • Generating JSON API handlers.
  • Method parameters in the request body.
  • Method parameters in the request path.
  • Method parameters in the query string.
  • Enum fields in the path parameter (including repeated enum fields).
  • Mapping streaming APIs to newline-delimited JSON streams.
  • Mapping HTTP headers with Grpc-Metadata- prefix to gRPC metadata (prefixed with grpcgateway-)
  • Optionally emitting API definitions for OpenAPI (Swagger) v2.
  • Setting gRPC timeouts through inbound HTTP Grpc-Timeout header.
  • Partial support for gRPC API Configuration files as an alternative to annotation.
  • Automatically translating PATCH requests into Field Mask gRPC requests. See the docs for more information.

No plan to support

But patches are welcome.

  • Method parameters in HTTP headers.
  • Handling trailer metadata.
  • Encoding request/response body in XML.
  • True bi-directional streaming.

Mapping gRPC to HTTP

  • How gRPC error codes map to HTTP status codes in the response.
  • HTTP request source IP is added as X-Forwarded-For gRPC request header.
  • HTTP request host is added as X-Forwarded-Host gRPC request header.
  • HTTP Authorization header is added as authorization gRPC request header.
  • Remaining Permanent HTTP header keys (as specified by the IANA here) are prefixed with grpcgateway- and added with their values to gRPC request header.
  • HTTP headers that start with 'Grpc-Metadata-' are mapped to gRPC metadata (prefixed with grpcgateway-).
  • While configurable, the default {un,}marshaling uses protojson.
  • The path template used to map gRPC service methods to HTTP endpoints supports the google.api.http path template syntax. For example, /api/v1/{name=projects/*/topics/*} or /prefix/{path=organizations/**}.

Contribution

See CONTRIBUTING.md.

Download Details:

Author: grpc-ecosystem
Source Code: https://github.com/grpc-ecosystem/grpc-gateway 
License: BSD-3-Clause license

#go #golang #grpc #rest 

amelia jones

1591340335

How To Take Help Of Referencing Generator

APA Referencing Generator

Many students use APA style as the key citation style in their assignment in university or college. Although, many people find it quite difficult to write the reference of the source. You ought to miss the names and dates of authors. Hence, APA referencing generator is important for reducing the burden of students. They can now feel quite easy to do the assignments on time.

The functioning of APA referencing generator

If you are struggling hard to write the APA referencing then you can take the help of APA referencing generator. It will create an excellent list. You are required to enter the information about the source. Just ensure that the text is credible and original. If you will copy references then it is a copyright violation.

You can use a referencing generator in just a click. It will generate the right references for all the sources. You are required to organize in alphabetical order. The generator will make sure that you will get good grades.

How to use APA referencing generator?

Select what is required to be cited such as journal, book, film, and others. You can choose the type of required citations list and enter all the required fields. The fields are dates, author name, title, editor name, and editions, name of publishers, chapter number, page numbers, and title of journals. You can click for reference to be generated and you will get the desired result.

Chicago Referencing Generator

Do you require the citation style? You can rely on Chicago Referencing Generator and will ensure that you will get the right citation in just a click. The generator is created to provide solutions to students to cite their research paper in Chicago style. It has proved to be the quickest and best citation generator on the market. The generator helps to sort the homework issues in few seconds. It also saves a lot of time and energy.

This tool helps researchers, professional writers, and students to manage and generate text citation essays. It will help to write Chicago style in a fast and easy way. It also provides details and directions for formatting and cites resources.

So, you must stop wasting the time and can go for Chicago Referencing Generator or APA referencing generator. These citation generators will help to solve the problem of citation issues. You can easily create citations by using endnotes and footnotes.

So, you can generate bibliographies, references, in-text citations, and title pages. These are fully automatic referencing style. You are just required to enter certain details about the citation and you will get the citation in the proper and required format.

So, if you are feeling any problem in doing assignment then you can take the help of assignment help.
If you require help for Assignment then livewebtutors is the right place for you. If you see our prices, you will observe that they are actually very affordable. Also, you can always expect a discount. Our team is capable and versatile enough to offer you exactly what you need, the best services for the prices you can afford.

read more:- Are you struggling to write a bibliography? Use Harvard referencing generator

#apa referencing generator #harvard referencing generator #chicago referencing generator #mla referencing generator #deakin referencing generator #oxford referencing generator

Royce  Reinger

Royce Reinger

1658977500

A Ruby Library for Generating Text with Recursive Template Grammars

Calyx

Calyx provides a simple API for generating text with declarative recursive grammars.

Install

Command Line

gem install calyx

Gemfile

gem 'calyx'

Examples

The best way to get started quickly is to install the gem and run the examples locally.

Any Gradient

Requires Roda and Rack to be available.

gem install roda

Demonstrates how to use Calyx to construct SVG graphics. Any Gradient generates a rectangle with a linear gradient of random colours.

Run as a web server and preview the output in a browser (http://localhost:9292):

ruby examples/any_gradient.rb

Or generate SVG files via a command line pipe:

ruby examples/any_gradient > gradient1.xml

Tiny Woodland Bot

Requires the Twitter client gem and API access configured for a specific Twitter handle.

gem install twitter

Demonstrates how to use Calyx to make a minimal Twitter bot that periodically posts unique tweets. See @tiny_woodland on Twitter and the writeup here.

TWITTER_CONSUMER_KEY=XXX-XXX
TWITTER_CONSUMER_SECRET=XXX-XXX
TWITTER_ACCESS_TOKEN=XXX-XXX
TWITTER_CONSUMER_SECRET=XXX-XXX
ruby examples/tiny_woodland_bot.rb

Faker

Faker is a popular library for generating fake names and associated sample data like internet addresses, company names and locations.

This example demonstrates how to use Calyx to reproduce the same functionality using custom lists defined in a YAML configuration file.

ruby examples/faker.rb

Usage

Require the library and inherit from Calyx::Grammar to construct a set of rules to generate a text.

require 'calyx'

class HelloWorld < Calyx::Grammar
  start 'Hello world.'
end

To generate the text itself, initialize the object and call the generate method.

hello = HelloWorld.new
hello.generate
# > "Hello world."

Obviously, this hardcoded sentence isn’t very interesting by itself. Possible variations can be added to the text by adding additional rules which provide a named set of text strings. The rule delimiter syntax ({}) can be used to substitute the generated content of other rules.

class HelloWorld < Calyx::Grammar
  start '{greeting} world.'
  greeting 'Hello', 'Hi', 'Hey', 'Yo'
end

Each time #generate runs, it evaluates the tree and randomly selects variations of rules to construct a resulting string.

hello = HelloWorld.new

hello.generate
# > "Hi world."

hello.generate
# > "Hello world."

hello.generate
# > "Yo world."

By convention, the start rule specifies the default starting point for generating the final text. You can start from any other named rule by passing it explicitly to the generate method.

class HelloWorld < Calyx::Grammar
  hello 'Hello world.'
end

hello = HelloWorld.new
hello.generate(:hello)

Block Constructors

As an alternative to subclassing, you can also construct rules unique to an instance by passing a block when initializing the class:

hello = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start '{greeting} world.'
  greeting 'Hello', 'Hi', 'Hey', 'Yo'
end

hello.generate

Template Expressions

Basic rule substitution uses single curly brackets as delimiters for template expressions:

fruit = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start '{colour} {fruit}'
  colour 'red', 'green', 'yellow'
  fruit 'apple', 'pear', 'tomato'
end

6.times { fruit.generate }
# => "yellow pear"
# => "red apple"
# => "green tomato"
# => "red pear"
# => "yellow tomato"
# => "green apple"

Nesting and Substitution

Rules are recursive. They can be arbitrarily nested and connected to generate larger and more complex texts.

class HelloWorld < Calyx::Grammar
  start '{greeting} {world_phrase}.'
  greeting 'Hello', 'Hi', 'Hey', 'Yo'
  world_phrase '{happy_adj} world', '{sad_adj} world', 'world'
  happy_adj 'wonderful', 'amazing', 'bright', 'beautiful'
  sad_adj 'cruel', 'miserable'
end

Nesting and hierarchy can be manipulated to balance consistency with novelty. The exact same word atoms can be combined in a variety of ways to produce strikingly different resulting texts.

module HelloWorld
  class Sentiment < Calyx::Grammar
    start '{happy_phrase}', '{sad_phrase}'
    happy_phrase '{happy_greeting} {happy_adj} world.'
    happy_greeting 'Hello', 'Hi', 'Hey', 'Yo'
    happy_adj 'wonderful', 'amazing', 'bright', 'beautiful'
    sad_phrase '{sad_greeting} {sad_adj} world.'
    sad_greeting 'Goodbye', 'So long', 'Farewell'
    sad_adj 'cruel', 'miserable'
  end

  class Mixed < Calyx::Grammar
    start '{greeting} {adj} world.'
    greeting 'Hello', 'Hi', 'Hey', 'Yo', 'Goodbye', 'So long', 'Farewell'
    adj 'wonderful', 'amazing', 'bright', 'beautiful', 'cruel', 'miserable'
  end
end

Random Sampling

By default, the outcomes of generated rules are selected with Ruby’s built-in pseudorandom number generator (as seen in methods like Kernel.rand and Array.sample). To seed the random number generator, pass in an integer seed value as the first argument to the constructor:

grammar = Calyx::Grammar.new(seed: 12345) do
  # rules...
end

Alternatively, you can pass a preconfigured instance of Ruby’s stdlib Random class:

random = Random.new(12345)

grammar = Calyx::Grammar.new(rng: random) do
  # rules...
end

When a random seed isn’t supplied, Time.new.to_i is used as the default seed, which makes each run of the generator relatively unique.

Weighted Choices

Choices can be weighted so that some rules have a greater probability of expanding than others.

Weights are defined by passing a hash instead of a list of rules where the keys are strings or symbols representing the grammar rules and the values are weights.

Weights can be represented as floats, integers or ranges.

  • Floats must be in the interval 0..1 and the given weights for a production must sum to 1.
  • Ranges must be contiguous and cover the entire interval from 1 to the maximum value of the largest range.
  • Integers (Fixnums) will produce a distribution based on the sum of all given numbers, with each number being a fraction of that sum.

The following definitions produce an equivalent weighting of choices:

Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start 'heads' => 1, 'tails' => 1
end

Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start 'heads' => 0.5, 'tails' => 0.5
end

Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start 'heads' => 1..5, 'tails' => 6..10
end

Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start 'heads' => 50, 'tails' => 50
end

There’s a lot of interesting things you can do with this. For example, you can model the triangular distribution produced by rolling 2d6:

Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start(
    '2' => 1,
    '3' => 2,
    '4' => 3,
    '5' => 4,
    '6' => 5,
    '7' => 6,
    '8' => 5,
    '9' => 4,
    '10' => 3,
    '11' => 2,
    '12' => 1
  )
end

Or reproduce Gary Gygax’s famous generation table from the original Dungeon Master’s Guide (page 171):

Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start(
    :empty => 0.6,
    :monster => 0.1,
    :monster_treasure => 0.15,
    :special => 0.05,
    :trick_trap => 0.05,
    :treasure => 0.05
  )
  empty 'Empty'
  monster 'Monster Only'
  monster_treasure 'Monster and Treasure'
  special 'Special'
  trick_trap 'Trick/Trap.'
  treasure 'Treasure'
end

String Modifiers

Dot-notation is supported in template expressions, allowing you to call any available method on the String object returned from a rule. Formatting methods can be chained arbitrarily and will execute in the same way as they would in native Ruby code.

greeting = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start '{hello.capitalize} there.', 'Why, {hello} there.'
  hello 'hello', 'hi'
end

4.times { greeting.generate }
# => "Hello there."
# => "Hi there."
# => "Why, hello there."
# => "Why, hi there."

You can also extend the grammar with custom modifiers that provide useful formatting functions.

Filters

Filters accept an input string and return the transformed output:

greeting = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  filter :shoutycaps do |input|
    input.upcase
  end

  start '{hello.shoutycaps} there.', 'Why, {hello.shoutycaps} there.'
  hello 'hello', 'hi'
end

4.times { greeting.generate }
# => "HELLO there."
# => "HI there."
# => "Why, HELLO there."
# => "Why, HI there."

Mappings

The mapping shortcut allows you to specify a map of regex patterns pointing to their resulting substitution strings:

green_bottle = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  mapping :pluralize, /(.+)/ => '\\1s'
  start 'One green {bottle}.', 'Two green {bottle.pluralize}.'
  bottle 'bottle'
end

2.times { green_bottle.generate }
# => "One green bottle."
# => "Two green bottles."

Modifier Mixins

In order to use more intricate rewriting and formatting methods in a modifier chain, you can add methods to a module and embed it in a grammar using the modifier classmethod.

Modifier methods accept a single argument representing the input string from the previous step in the expression chain and must return a string, representing the modified output.

module FullStop
  def full_stop(input)
    input << '.'
  end
end

hello = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  modifier FullStop
  start '{hello.capitalize.full_stop}'
  hello 'hello'
end

hello.generate
# => "Hello."

To share custom modifiers across multiple grammars, you can include the module in Calyx::Modifiers. This will make the methods available to all subsequent instances:

module FullStop
  def full_stop(input)
    input << '.'
  end
end

class Calyx::Modifiers
  include FullStop
end

Monkeypatching String

Alternatively, you can combine methods from existing Gems that monkeypatch String:

require 'indefinite_article'

module FullStop
  def full_stop
    self << '.'
  end
end

class String
  include FullStop
end

noun_articles = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start '{fruit.with_indefinite_article.capitalize.full_stop}'
  fruit 'apple', 'orange', 'banana', 'pear'
end

4.times { noun_articles.generate }
# => "An apple."
# => "An orange."
# => "A banana."
# => "A pear."

Memoized Rules

Rule expansions can be ‘memoized’ so that multiple references to the same rule return the same value. This is useful for picking a noun from a list and reusing it in multiple places within a text.

The @ sigil is used to mark memoized rules. This evaluates the rule and stores it in memory the first time it’s referenced. All subsequent references to the memoized rule use the same stored value.

# Without memoization
grammar = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start '{name} <{name.downcase}>'
  name 'Daenerys', 'Tyrion', 'Jon'
end

3.times { grammar.generate }
# => Daenerys <jon>
# => Tyrion <daenerys>
# => Jon <tyrion>

# With memoization
grammar = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start '{@name} <{@name.downcase}>'
  name 'Daenerys', 'Tyrion', 'Jon'
end

3.times { grammar.generate }
# => Tyrion <tyrion>
# => Daenerys <daenerys>
# => Jon <jon>

Note that the memoization symbol can only be used on the right hand side of a production rule.

Unique Rules

Rule expansions can be marked as ‘unique’, meaning that multiple references to the same rule always return a different value. This is useful for situations where the same result appearing twice would appear awkward and messy.

Unique rules are marked by the $ sigil.

grammar = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start "{$medal}, {$medal}, {$medal}"
  medal 'Gold', 'Silver', 'Bronze'
end

grammar.generate
# => Silver, Bronze, Gold

Dynamically Constructing Rules

Template expansions can be dynamically constructed at runtime by passing a context map of rules to the #generate method:

class AppGreeting < Calyx::Grammar
  start 'Hi {username}!', 'Welcome back {username}...', 'Hola {username}'
end

context = {
  username: UserModel.username
}

greeting = AppGreeting.new
greeting.generate(context)

External File Formats

In addition to defining grammars in pure Ruby, you can load them from external JSON and YAML files:

hello = Calyx::Grammar.load('hello.yml')
hello.generate

The format requires a flat map with keys representing the left-hand side named symbols and the values representing the right hand side substitution rules.

In JSON:

{
  "start": "{greeting} world.",
  "greeting": ["Hello", "Hi", "Hey", "Yo"]
}

In YAML:

---
start: "{greeting} world."
greeting:
  - Hello
  - Hi
  - Hey
  - Yo

Accessing the Raw Generated Tree

Calling #evaluate on the grammar instance will give you access to the raw generated tree structure before it gets flattened into a string.

The tree is encoded as an array of nested arrays, with the leading symbols labeling the choices and rules selected, and the trailing terminal leaves encoding string values.

This may not make a lot of sense unless you’re familiar with the concept of s-expressions. It’s a fairly speculative feature at this stage, but it leads to some interesting possibilities.

grammar = Calyx::Grammar.new do
  start 'Riddle me ree.'
end

grammar.evaluate
# => [:start, [:choice, [:concat, [[:atom, "Riddle me ree."]]]]]

Roadmap

Rough plan for stabilising the API and features for a 1.0 release.

VersionFeatures planned
0.6block constructor
0.7support for template context map passed to generate
0.8method missing metaclass API
0.9return grammar tree from #evaluate, with flattened string from #generate being separate
0.10inject custom string functions for parameterised rules, transforms and mappings
0.11support YAML format (and JSON?)
0.12API documentation
0.13Support for unique rules
0.14Support for Ruby 2.4
0.15Options config and ‘strict mode’ error handling
0.16Improve representation of weighted probability selection
0.17Return result object from #generate calls

Credits

Author & Maintainer

Contributors

Author: Maetl
Source Code: https://github.com/maetl/calyx 
License: MIT license

#ruby #text 

How To Create User-Generated Content? [A Simple Guide To Grow Your Brand]

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In this digital world, online businesses aspire to catch the attention of users in a modern and smarter way. To achieve it, they need to traverse through new approaches. Here comes to spotlight is the user-generated content or UGC.

What is user-generated content?
“ It is the content by users for users.”

Generally, the UGC is the unbiased content created and published by the brand users, social media followers, fans, and influencers that highlight their experiences with the products or services. User-generated content has superseded other marketing trends and fallen into the advertising feeds of brands. Today, more than 86 percent of companies use user-generated content as part of their marketing strategy.

In this article, we have explained the ten best ideas to create wonderful user-generated content for your brand. Let’s start without any further ado.

  1. Content From Social Media Platforms
    In the year 2020, there are 3.81 million people actively using social media around the globe. That is the reason social media content matters. Whenever users look at the content on social media that is posted by an individual, then they may be influenced by their content. Perhaps, it can be used to gain more customers or followers on your social media platforms.

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Generally, social media platforms help the brand to generate content for your users. Any user content that promotes your brand on the social media platform is the user-generated content for your business. When users create and share content on social media, they get 28% higher engagement than a standard company post.

Furthermore, you can embed your social media feed on your website also. you can use the Social Stream Designer WordPress plugin that will integrate various social media feeds from different social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and many more. With this plugin, you can create a responsive wall on your WordPress website or blog in a few minutes. In addition to this, the plugin also provides more than 40 customization options to make your social stream feeds more attractive.

  1. Consumer Survey
    The customer survey provides powerful insights you need to make a better decision for your business. Moreover, it is great user-generated content that is useful for identifying unhappy consumers and those who like your product or service.

In general, surveys can be used to figure out attitudes, reactions, to evaluate customer satisfaction, estimate their opinions about different problems. Another benefit of customer surveys is that collecting outcomes can be quick. Within a few minutes, you can design and load a customer feedback survey and send it to your customers for their response. From the customer survey data, you can find your strengths, weaknesses, and get the right way to improve them to gain more customers.

  1. Run Contests
    A contest is a wonderful way to increase awareness about a product or service. Contest not just helps you to enhance the volume of user-generated content submissions, but they also help increase their quality. However, when you create a contest, it is important to keep things as simple as possible.

Additionally, it is the best way to convert your brand leads to valuable customers. The key to running a successful contest is to make sure that the reward is fair enough to motivate your participation. If the product is relevant to your participant, then chances are they were looking for it in the first place, and giving it to them for free just made you move forward ahead of your competitors. They will most likely purchase more if your product or service satisfies them.

Furthermore, running contests also improve the customer-brand relationship and allows more people to participate in it. It will drive a real result for your online business. If your WordPress website has Google Analytics, then track contest page visits, referral traffic, other website traffic, and many more.

  1. Review And Testimonials
    Customer reviews are a popular user-generated content strategy. One research found that around 68% of customers must see at least four reviews before trusting a brand. And, approximately 40 percent of consumers will stop using a business after they read negative reviews.

The business reviews help your consumers to make a buying decision without any hurdle. While you may decide to remove all the negative reviews about your business, those are still valuable user-generated content that provides honest opinions from real users. Customer feedback can help you with what needs to be improved with your products or services. This thing is not only beneficial to the next customer but your business as a whole.

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Reviews are powerful as the platform they are built upon. That is the reason it is important to gather reviews from third-party review websites like Google review, Facebook review, and many more, or direct reviews on a website. It is the most vital form of feedback that can help brands grow globally and motivate audience interactions.

However, you can also invite your customers to share their unique or successful testimonials. It is a great way to display your products while inspiring others to purchase from your website.

  1. Video Content
    A great video is a video that is enjoyed by visitors. These different types of videos, such as 360-degree product videos, product demo videos, animated videos, and corporate videos. The Facebook study has demonstrated that users spend 3x more time watching live videos than normal videos. With the live video, you can get more user-created content.

Moreover, Instagram videos create around 3x more comments rather than Instagram photo posts. Instagram videos generally include short videos posted by real customers on Instagram with the tag of a particular brand. Brands can repost the stories as user-generated content to engage more audiences and create valid promotions on social media.

Similarly, imagine you are browsing a YouTube channel, and you look at a brand being supported by some authentic customers through a small video. So, it will catch your attention. With the videos, they can tell you about the branded products, especially the unboxing videos displaying all the inside products and how well it works for them. That type of video is enough to create a sense of desire in the consumers.

Continue Reading

#how to get more user generated content #importance of user generated content #user generated content #user generated content advantages #user generated content best practices #user generated content pros and cons