George  Koelpin

George Koelpin

1603342800

Zero-Shot Learning the Alphabetic Characters (an experiment with code)

In this article, I would like to explain and practically demonstrate an area of machine learning called zero-shot learning, which I find really fascinating. Let’s start with a little description of what it actually is:

Zero-shot learning is a method of recognising categories, which have not been observed during training.

Compared to the traditional supervised learning approach, which relies on tons of examples for every category, the main idea of zero-shot learning is based on the semantic transfer from observed categories to the newly seen categories.

Imagine that you have never seen the letter “H” in your life. What if I told you that it consists of two vertical lines connected with a horizontal line in the middle? Would you be able to recognise it?

Image for post

10 out of 15 manually designed features. Image by Author.

The key to such a semantic transfer is to encode categories as vectors in a semantic space. This is needed for both training and testing categories, and can be done in a supervised or an unsupervised way.

A supervised way would to manually annotate the categories by coming up with some features e.g. a dog = has tail, has fur, four legs etc. and encoding them into category vectors. The features could be also taken from already existing taxonomies in the given field.

An unsupervised way would be to use the word embeddings for the category names. This is because the word embeddings already capture semantic meaning of the categories, according to the context that the category names appeared in the text (e.g. in the wikipedia corpus).

#data-science #machine-learning #convolutional-network #zero-shot-learning #computer-vision

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Zero-Shot Learning the Alphabetic Characters (an experiment with code)
Monty  Boehm

Monty Boehm

1675304280

How to Use Hotwire Rails

Introduction

We are back with another exciting and much-talked-about Rails tutorial on how to use Hotwire with the Rails application. This Hotwire Rails tutorial is an alternate method for building modern web applications that consume a pinch of JavaScript.

Rails 7 Hotwire is the default front-end framework shipped with Rails 7 after it was launched. It is used to represent HTML over the wire in the Rails application. Previously, we used to add a hotwire-rails gem in our gem file and then run rails hotwire: install. However, with the introduction of Rails 7, the gem got deprecated. Now, we use turbo-rails and stimulus rails directly, which work as Hotwire’s SPA-like page accelerator and Hotwire’s modest JavaScript framework.

What is Hotwire?

Hotwire is a package of different frameworks that help to build applications. It simplifies the developer’s work for writing web pages without the need to write JavaScript, and instead sending HTML code over the wire.

Introduction to The Hotwire Framework:

1. Turbo:

It uses simplified techniques to build web applications while decreasing the usage of JavaScript in the application. Turbo offers numerous handling methods for the HTML data sent over the wire and displaying the application’s data without actually loading the entire page. It helps to maintain the simplicity of web applications without destroying the single-page application experience by using the below techniques:

Turbo Frames: Turbo Frames help to load the different sections of our markup without any dependency as it divides the page into different contexts separately called frames and updates these frames individually.
Turbo Drive: Every link doesn’t have to make the entire page reload when clicked. Only the HTML contained within the tag will be displayed.
Turbo Streams: To add real-time features to the application, this technique is used. It helps to bring real-time data to the application using CRUD actions.

2. Stimulus

It represents the JavaScript framework, which is required when JS is a requirement in the application. The interaction with the HTML is possible with the help of a stimulus, as the controllers that help those interactions are written by a stimulus.

3. Strada

Not much information is available about Strada as it has not been officially released yet. However, it works with native applications, and by using HTML bridge attributes, interaction is made possible between web applications and native apps.

Simple diagrammatic representation of Hotwire Stack:

Hotwire Stack

Prerequisites For Hotwire Rails Tutorial

As we are implementing the Ruby on Rails Hotwire tutorial, make sure about the following installations before you can get started.

  • Ruby on Rails
  • Hotwire gem
  • PostgreSQL/SQLite (choose any one database)
  • Turbo Rails
  • Stimulus.js

Looking for an enthusiastic team of ROR developers to shape the vision of your web project?
Contact Bacancy today and hire Ruby developers to start building your dream project!

Create a new Rails Project

Find the following commands to create a rails application.

mkdir ~/projects/railshotwire
cd ~/projects/railshotwire
echo "source 'https://rubygems.org'" > Gemfile
echo "gem 'rails', '~> 7.0.0'" >> Gemfile
bundle install  
bundle exec rails new . --force -d=postgresql

Now create some files for the project, up till now no usage of Rails Hotwire can be seen.
Fire the following command in your terminal.

  • For creating a default controller for the application
echo "class HomeController < ApplicationController" > app/controllers/home_controller.rb
echo "end" >> app/controllers/home_controller.rb
  • For creating another controller for the application
echo "class OtherController < ApplicationController" > app/controllers/other_controller.rb
echo "end" >> app/controllers/home_controller.rb
  • For creating routes for the application
echo "Rails.application.routes.draw do" > config/routes.rb
echo '  get "home/index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo '  get "other/index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo '  root to: "home#index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo 'end' >> config/routes.rb
  • For creating a default view for the application
mkdir app/views/home
echo '<h1>This is Rails Hotwire homepage</h1>' > app/views/home/index.html.erb
echo '<div><%= link_to "Enter to other page", other_index_path %></div>' >> app/views/home/index.html.erb
  • For creating another view for the application
mkdir app/views/other
echo '<h1>This is Another page</h1>' > app/views/other/index.html.erb
echo '<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>' >> app/views/other/index.html.erb
  • For creating a database and schema.rb file for the application
bin/rails db:create
bin/rails db:migrate
  • For checking the application run bin/rails s and open your browser, your running application will have the below view.

Rails Hotwire Home Page

Additionally, you can clone the code and browse through the project. Here’s the source code of the repository: Rails 7 Hotwire application

Now, let’s see how Hotwire Rails can work its magic with various Turbo techniques.

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Drive

Go to your localhost:3000 on your web browser and right-click on the Inspect and open a Network tab of the DevTools of the browser.

Now click on go to another page link that appears on the home page to redirect from the home page to another page. In our Network tab, we can see that this action of navigation is achieved via XHR. It appears only the part inside HTML is reloaded, here neither the CSS is reloaded nor the JS is reloaded when the navigation action is performed.

Hotwire Rails Turbo Drive

By performing this action we can see that Turbo Drive helps to represent the HTML response without loading the full page and only follows redirect and reindeer HTML responses which helps to make the application faster to access.

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Frame

This technique helps to divide the current page into different sections called frames that can be updated separately independently when new data is added from the server.
Below we discuss the different use cases of Turbo frame like inline edition, sorting, searching, and filtering of data.

Let’s perform some practical actions to see the example of these use cases.

Make changes in the app/controllers/home_controller.rb file

#CODE

class HomeController < ApplicationController
   def turbo_frame_form
   end
   
   def turbo_frame submit
      extracted_anynumber = params[:any][:anynumber]
      render :turbo_frame_form, status: :ok, locals: {anynumber: extracted_anynumber,      comment: 'turbo_frame_submit ok' }
   end
end

Turbo Frame

Add app/views/home/turbo_frame_form.html.erb file to the application and add this content inside the file.

#CODE

<section>

    <%= turbo_frame_tag 'anyframe' do %>
            
      <div>
          <h2>Frame view</h2>
          <%= form_with scope: :any, url: turbo_frame_submit_path, local: true do |form| %>
              <%= form.label :anynumber, 'Type an integer (odd or even)', 'class' => 'my-0  d-inline'  %>
              <%= form.text_field :anynumber, type: 'number', 'required' => 'true', 'value' => "#{local_assigns[:anynumber] || 0}",  'aria-describedby' => 'anynumber' %>
              <%= form.submit 'Submit this number', 'id' => 'submit-number' %>
          <% end %>
      </div>
      <div>
        <h2>Data of the view</h2>
        <pre style="font-size: .7rem;"><%= JSON.pretty_generate(local_assigns) %></pre> 
      </div>
      
    <% end %>

</section>

Add the content inside file

Make some adjustments in routes.rb

#CODE

Rails.application.routes.draw do
  get 'home/index'
  get 'other/index'

  get '/home/turbo_frame_form' => 'home#turbo_frame_form', as: 'turbo_frame_form'
  post '/home/turbo_frame_submit' => 'home#turbo_frame_submit', as: 'turbo_frame_submit'


  root to: "home#index"
end
  • Next step is to change homepage view in app/views/home/index.html.erb

#CODE

<h1>This is Rails Hotwire home page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to other page", other_index_path %></div>

<%= turbo_frame_tag 'anyframe' do %>        
  <div>
      <h2>Home view</h2>
      <%= form_with scope: :any, url: turbo_frame_submit_path, local: true do |form| %>
          <%= form.label :anynumber, 'Type an integer (odd or even)', 'class' => 'my-0  d-inline'  %>
          <%= form.text_field :anynumber, type: 'number', 'required' => 'true', 'value' => "#{local_assigns[:anynumber] || 0}",  'aria-describedby' => 'anynumber' %>
          <%= form.submit 'Submit this number', 'id' => 'submit-number' %>
      <% end %>
  <div>
<% end %>

Change HomePage

After making all the changes, restart the rails server and refresh the browser, the default view will appear on the browser.

restart the rails serverNow in the field enter any digit, after entering the digit click on submit button, and as the submit button is clicked we can see the Turbo Frame in action in the below screen, we can observe that the frame part changed, the first title and first link didn’t move.

submit button is clicked

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Streams

Turbo Streams deliver page updates over WebSocket, SSE or in response to form submissions by only using HTML and a series of CRUD-like operations, you are free to say that either

  • Update the piece of HTML while responding to all the other actions like the post, put, patch, and delete except the GET action.
  • Transmit a change to all users, without reloading the browser page.

This transmit can be represented by a simple example.

  • Make changes in app/controllers/other_controller.rb file of rails application

#CODE

class OtherController < ApplicationController

  def post_something
    respond_to do |format|
      format.turbo_stream {  }
    end
  end

   end

file of rails application

Add the below line in routes.rb file of the application

#CODE

post '/other/post_something' => 'other#post_something', as: 'post_something'
Add the below line

Superb! Rails will now attempt to locate the app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template at any moment the ‘/other/post_something’ endpoint is reached.

For this, we need to add app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template in the rails application.

#CODE

<turbo-stream action="append" target="messages">
  <template>
    <div id="message_1">This changes the existing message!</div>
  </template>
</turbo-stream>
Add template in the rails application

This states that the response will try to append the template of the turbo frame with ID “messages”.

Now change the index.html.erb file in app/views/other paths with the below content.

#CODE

<h1>This is Another page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>

<div style="margin-top: 3rem;">
  <%= form_with scope: :any, url: post_something_path do |form| %>
      <%= form.submit 'Post any message %>
  <% end %>
  <turbo-frame id="messages">
    <div>An empty message</div>
  </turbo-frame>
</div>
change the index.html.erb file
  • After making all the changes, restart the rails server and refresh the browser, and go to the other page.

go to the other page

  • Once the above screen appears, click on the Post any message button

Post any message button

This action shows that after submitting the response, the Turbo Streams help the developer to append the message, without reloading the page.

Another use case we can test is that rather than appending the message, the developer replaces the message. For that, we need to change the content of app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template file and change the value of the action attribute from append to replace and check the changes in the browser.

#CODE

<turbo-stream action="replace" target="messages">
  <template>
    <div id="message_1">This changes the existing message!</div>
  </template>
</turbo-stream>

change the value of the action attributeWhen we click on Post any message button, the message that appear below that button will get replaced with the message that is mentioned in the app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template

click on Post any message button

Stimulus

There are some cases in an application where JS is needed, therefore to cover those scenarios we require Hotwire JS tool. Hotwire has a JS tool because in some scenarios Turbo-* tools are not sufficient. But as we know that Hotwire is used to reduce the usage of JS in an application, Stimulus considers HTML as the single source of truth. Consider the case where we have to give elements on a page some JavaScript attributes, such as data controller, data-action, and data target. For that, a stimulus controller that can access elements and receive events based on those characteristics will be created.

Make a change in app/views/other/index.html.erb template file in rails application

#CODE

<h1>This is Another page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>

<div style="margin-top: 2rem;">
  <%= form_with scope: :any, url: post_something_path do |form| %>
      <%= form.submit 'Post something' %>
  <% end %>
  <turbo-frame id="messages">
    <div>An empty message</div>
  </turbo-frame>
</div>

<div style="margin-top: 2rem;">
  <h2>Stimulus</h2>  
  <div data-controller="hello">
    <input data-hello-target="name" type="text">
    <button data-action="click->hello#greet">
      Greet
    </button>
    <span data-hello-target="output">
    </span>
  </div>
</div>

Make A changeMake changes in the hello_controller.js in path app/JavaScript/controllers and add a stimulus controller in the file, which helps to bring the HTML into life.

#CODE

import { Controller } from "@hotwired/stimulus"

export default class extends Controller {
  static targets = [ "name", "output" ]

  greet() {
    this.outputTarget.textContent =
      `Hello, ${this.nameTarget.value}!`
  }
}

add a stimulus controller in the fileGo to your browser after making the changes in the code and click on Enter to other page link which will navigate to the localhost:3000/other/index page there you can see the changes implemented by the stimulus controller that is designed to augment your HTML with just enough behavior to make it more responsive.

With just a little bit of work, Turbo and Stimulus together offer a complete answer for applications that are quick and compelling.

Using Rails 7 Hotwire helps to load the pages at a faster speed and allows you to render templates on the server, where you have access to your whole domain model. It is a productive development experience in ROR, without compromising any of the speed or responsiveness associated with SPA.

Conclusion

We hope you were satisfied with our Rails Hotwire tutorial. Write to us at service@bacancy.com for any query that you want to resolve, or if you want us to share a tutorial on your query.

For more such solutions on RoR, check out our Ruby on Rails Tutorials. We will always strive to amaze you and cater to your needs.

Original article source at: https://www.bacancytechnology.com/

#rails #ruby 

Learning to Code: How to Boost Up the Process?

Let’s face it: people are impatient by nature and most likely want things to happen faster in their lives. I would apply the same to code learners. Students, when starting to learn programming, first wonder how to speed up the training and make a career as a programmer as soon as possible.

I am not the one who convinces everyone that learning to program is a lightning-fast journey — the other thing is that it is not as difficult as people think. All boils down to interest, passion, regular practice, and patience, of course. I also often recommend different online and offline resources to my students to make their learning process easier, more effective, and faster. And in this post, I will share a few tips with you.

So, How to Learn Programming Languages Faster?

These tips are not magic pills and probably won’t make you a professional developer in a week, but they will definitely make your life easier, while the learning process won’t be that intimidating, vague, and boring. Besides, following all of them together may speed up training.

So, without any further delay, let’s get to them.

Consolidate Your Knowledge by Practicing More

No matter how simple a new subject is, it still requires you to consolidate your knowledge. Starting to play with code soon after you’ve completed the next section helps you learn the given concepts faster and feel confident when writing your first line of code. Fortunately, the web is full of platforms, where you can start practicing shortly.

Let’s consider them in detail.

#coding #learn-to-code #learning #programming #learning-to-code #machine-learning

George  Koelpin

George Koelpin

1603342800

Zero-Shot Learning the Alphabetic Characters (an experiment with code)

In this article, I would like to explain and practically demonstrate an area of machine learning called zero-shot learning, which I find really fascinating. Let’s start with a little description of what it actually is:

Zero-shot learning is a method of recognising categories, which have not been observed during training.

Compared to the traditional supervised learning approach, which relies on tons of examples for every category, the main idea of zero-shot learning is based on the semantic transfer from observed categories to the newly seen categories.

Imagine that you have never seen the letter “H” in your life. What if I told you that it consists of two vertical lines connected with a horizontal line in the middle? Would you be able to recognise it?

Image for post

10 out of 15 manually designed features. Image by Author.

The key to such a semantic transfer is to encode categories as vectors in a semantic space. This is needed for both training and testing categories, and can be done in a supervised or an unsupervised way.

A supervised way would to manually annotate the categories by coming up with some features e.g. a dog = has tail, has fur, four legs etc. and encoding them into category vectors. The features could be also taken from already existing taxonomies in the given field.

An unsupervised way would be to use the word embeddings for the category names. This is because the word embeddings already capture semantic meaning of the categories, according to the context that the category names appeared in the text (e.g. in the wikipedia corpus).

#data-science #machine-learning #convolutional-network #zero-shot-learning #computer-vision

Kennith  Kuhic

Kennith Kuhic

1624585812

Understanding Zero-Shot Learning — Making ML More Human

Introduction — What is Zero-Shot Learning?

Zero-shot learning allows a model to recognize what it hasn’t seen before.

Imagine you’re tasked with designing the latest and greatest machine learning model that can classify all animals. Yes, all animals.

Using your machine learning knowledge, you immediately understand that we need a labeled dataset with at least one example for every single animal. There’s 1,899,587 described species in the world, so you’re gonna need a dataset with roughly 2 million different classes.

Yikes.

As you’ve probably noticed by now, getting large quantities of high quality labeled data is hard. Very hard.

It doesn’t help when there are a gazillion different classes (i.e. animal species) that your model has to learn.

So how do we solve this problem?

One way is to decrease our models’ reliance on labeled data. This is the motivation behind zero-shot learning,_ in which your model learns how to classify classes that it hasn’t seen before._

In the animal species classification example, your model may be able to predict that the image on the bottom right corner is a “Panda”, even though it didn’t explicitly see a labeled example of a “Panda” during training.

Crazy huh?!

In the next section, we’ll learn how this seemingly magical method works through some examples of models that employ a zero-shot setup.

How does Zero-Shot Learning Work?

Although there are multiple approaches to zero-shot learning in literature, this article focuses on a recent method called Contrastive Language-Image Pretraining (CLIP) proposed by OpenAI that has performed well in a zero-shot setting [2].

Just like traditional supervised models, CLIP has two stages: the training stage and the zero-shot inference stage.

In the training stage, CLIP learns about images by “reading” auxiliary text (i.e. sentences) corresponding to each image like in the example below.

#contrastive-learning #deep-learning #machine-learning #zero-shot-learning #artificial-intelligence

Samanta  Moore

Samanta Moore

1624955940

12 Common Java Mistakes Made by Newcomers

Everyone makes mistakes, not just beginners, but even professionals. This article goes over a dozen common mistakes that Java newbies and newcomers make and how to avoid them. Have you or your colleagues made any of these common Java mistakes early in your career?

Everyone makes mistakes, not only learners or beginners but professionals. As a programming course, the CodeGym team often collects mistakes of newbies to improve our auto validator. This time we decided to interview experienced programmers about mistakes in Java they made closer to their careers start or noticed them among their young colleagues.

We collected their answers and compiled this list of dozen popular mistakes Java beginners make. The order of errors is random and does not carry any special meaning.

#java #learn-java #java-programming #beginners #beginners-to-coding #learning-to-code #learn-to-code #learn-to-code-java