Enforce Kubernetes Container Images To Have Label That is Not “Latest”

The Problem With Using Naked Container Images Or The :latest tag

Let’s examine the following _very _common scenario: you have an application named xyz-app. The developers are constantly updating it, adding features, solving bugs, etc. Every two weeks or so, your CI/CD pipeline pushes the latest image to your Docker registry. By default, Docker registries tag the most recent version of an image with “latest”. If you pull the image without specifying a specific tag (naked image), you will automatically get the latest one. While this workflow sounds fine at first, it’s very risky. How do you know (and ensure) that your Kubernetes cluster is getting the newer image version? This simple diagram demonstrates what happens:

Enforce that all Kubernetes container images must have a label that is not “latest” using OPA 1

As per the diagram, the workflow is as follows:

  1. After passing the tests, the latest code change is pushed to your CI/CD tool of choice.
  2. The pipeline pushes the image to the container registry without specifying the tag, or explicitly appending “:latest” to the image name.
  3. Finally, the pipeline contacts the cluster (perhaps through kubectl, helm, etc.) to make Kubernetes pull and use the new image. But how does Kubernetes know that you need to replace the image if the one it is already running is tagged latest, and the one you’re asking it to run it also _:latest _tagged?

Of course, one possible solution is to set imagePullPolicy to Always to force Kubernetes not to use the cached image and contact the container registry. But, then you need to kill the container so that the Deployment recreates it, and consequently pulls the latest image. Do we need to go that far just to deploy our newest code changes?

From the above undesirable scenario, it’s always strongly recommended that you use the appropriate image tag when building and pushing the container image. CI/CD tools make this very easy as they already provide unique values like the Git commit ID through environment variables. Following this best practice, we can re-depict our workflow as follows:

Enforce that all Kubernetes container images must have a label that is not “latest” using OPA 2

Now, it’s very straightforward to apply the actual latest image to your cluster by just patching the deployment with the changed image tag. The Deployment automatically pulls the newer image and, through rolling-updates, introduces the new application version with zero downtime.

However, this best practice is only valid if it’s applied. So, how do we ensure (and enforce) that no user or service will create a Pod (no matter which parent controller is used) that uses a naked or latest-tagged image? This is where OPA shines.

#devops #kubernetes #opa #open policy agent

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Enforce Kubernetes Container Images To Have Label That is Not “Latest”
Christa  Stehr

Christa Stehr

1602964260

50+ Useful Kubernetes Tools for 2020 - Part 2

Introduction

Last year, we provided a list of Kubernetes tools that proved so popular we have decided to curate another list of some useful additions for working with the platform—among which are many tools that we personally use here at Caylent. Check out the original tools list here in case you missed it.

According to a recent survey done by Stackrox, the dominance Kubernetes enjoys in the market continues to be reinforced, with 86% of respondents using it for container orchestration.

(State of Kubernetes and Container Security, 2020)

And as you can see below, more and more companies are jumping into containerization for their apps. If you’re among them, here are some tools to aid you going forward as Kubernetes continues its rapid growth.

(State of Kubernetes and Container Security, 2020)

#blog #tools #amazon elastic kubernetes service #application security #aws kms #botkube #caylent #cli #container monitoring #container orchestration tools #container security #containers #continuous delivery #continuous deployment #continuous integration #contour #developers #development #developments #draft #eksctl #firewall #gcp #github #harbor #helm #helm charts #helm-2to3 #helm-aws-secret-plugin #helm-docs #helm-operator-get-started #helm-secrets #iam #json #k-rail #k3s #k3sup #k8s #keel.sh #keycloak #kiali #kiam #klum #knative #krew #ksniff #kube #kube-prod-runtime #kube-ps1 #kube-scan #kube-state-metrics #kube2iam #kubeapps #kubebuilder #kubeconfig #kubectl #kubectl-aws-secrets #kubefwd #kubernetes #kubernetes command line tool #kubernetes configuration #kubernetes deployment #kubernetes in development #kubernetes in production #kubernetes ingress #kubernetes interfaces #kubernetes monitoring #kubernetes networking #kubernetes observability #kubernetes plugins #kubernetes secrets #kubernetes security #kubernetes security best practices #kubernetes security vendors #kubernetes service discovery #kubernetic #kubesec #kubeterminal #kubeval #kudo #kuma #microsoft azure key vault #mozilla sops #octant #octarine #open source #palo alto kubernetes security #permission-manager #pgp #rafay #rakess #rancher #rook #secrets operations #serverless function #service mesh #shell-operator #snyk #snyk container #sonobuoy #strongdm #tcpdump #tenkai #testing #tigera #tilt #vert.x #wireshark #yaml

Maud  Rosenbaum

Maud Rosenbaum

1601051854

Kubernetes in the Cloud: Strategies for Effective Multi Cloud Implementations

Kubernetes is a highly popular container orchestration platform. Multi cloud is a strategy that leverages cloud resources from multiple vendors. Multi cloud strategies have become popular because they help prevent vendor lock-in and enable you to leverage a wide variety of cloud resources. However, multi cloud ecosystems are notoriously difficult to configure and maintain.

This article explains how you can leverage Kubernetes to reduce multi cloud complexities and improve stability, scalability, and velocity.

Kubernetes: Your Multi Cloud Strategy

Maintaining standardized application deployments becomes more challenging as your number of applications and the technologies they are based on increase. As environments, operating systems, and dependencies differ, management and operations require more effort and extensive documentation.

In the past, teams tried to get around these difficulties by creating isolated projects in the data center. Each project, including its configurations and requirements were managed independently. This required accurately predicting performance and the number of users before deployment and taking down applications to update operating systems or applications. There were many chances for error.

Kubernetes can provide an alternative to the old method, enabling teams to deploy applications independent of the environment in containers. This eliminates the need to create resource partitions and enables teams to operate infrastructure as a unified whole.

In particular, Kubernetes makes it easier to deploy a multi cloud strategy since it enables you to abstract away service differences. With Kubernetes deployments you can work from a consistent platform and optimize services and applications according to your business needs.

The Compelling Attributes of Multi Cloud Kubernetes

Multi cloud Kubernetes can provide multiple benefits beyond a single cloud deployment. Below are some of the most notable advantages.

Stability

In addition to the built-in scalability, fault tolerance, and auto-healing features of Kubernetes, multi cloud deployments can provide service redundancy. For example, you can mirror applications or split microservices across vendors. This reduces the risk of a vendor-related outage and enables you to create failovers.

#kubernetes #multicloud-strategy #kubernetes-cluster #kubernetes-top-story #kubernetes-cluster-install #kubernetes-explained #kubernetes-infrastructure #cloud

Free Resources: Kubernetes & Containers

Advanced Kubernetes [Refcard Update]

Kubernetes is a distributed cluster technology that manages container-based systems in a declarative manner using an API. There are currently many learning resources to get started with the fundamentals of Kubernetes, but there is less information on how to manage Kubernetes infrastructure on an ongoing basis. This Refcard aims to deliver quick, accessible information for operators using any Kubernetes product.

Download the Refcard >>

Managing Kubernetes: From a Small Fleet to a Navy of Clusters

To keep pace with the ever-changing digital landscape, organizations are adopting open source and cloud native technologies at an incredible pace. But as the number of clusters and workloads grow, it can become increasingly difficult to know where clusters exist and how they are performing. And if multiple teams are provisioning and using clusters with different policies, roles, and configurations, you might as well jump ship. Because before you know it, you’ll begin to experience cluster sprawl, and your multi-cluster operations will potentially capsize before you reach shore. So how do you effectively monitor and manage disparate clusters and contain the chaos of sprawl?

In this eBook, you’ll learn:

  • The causes and consequences of cluster sprawl
  • How to build or evolve your cluster governance policies
  • How D2iQ’s Kommander can deliver centralized governance and contain sprawl

Download the eBook >>

Forrester Report: Leveraging Production Kubernetes for Digital Transformation in the Enterprise

Forrester Has Named D2iQ as a Strong Performer in The Forrester Wave™: Multicloud Container Development Platforms, Q3 2020

In this report, Forrester assesses emerging multi-cloud container development platform providers, and identifies the top vendors in the market.

The Forrester Wave™ report states that D2iQ “focuses on simplifying open source cloud-native operations.” The D2iQ Kubernetes Platform provides you with a differentiated approach and unique set of enterprise grade technologies and expert services, training, and support offerings to ensure Day 2 operational success.

Download the report >>

Six Steps to Comprehensive Container Security

An application or service that you develop once to run in multiple clouds has a clear advantage over one that is bound to a single OS or runtime environment. Container technology makes it possible, but container security vulnerabilities are beginning to surface. We describe 6 steps you can take to ensure that container security doesn’t become a DevOps roadblock.

#kubernetes #containers #cloud-native #container security #cluster management #kubernetes cluser #forrester wave

Mitchel  Carter

Mitchel Carter

1601305200

Microsoft Announces General Availability Of Bridge To Kubernetes

Recently, Microsoft announced the general availability of Bridge to Kubernetes, formerly known as Local Process with Kubernetes. It is an iterative development tool offered in Visual Studio and VS Code, which allows developers to write, test as well as debug microservice code on their development workstations while consuming dependencies and inheriting the existing configuration from a Kubernetes environment.

Nick Greenfield, Program Manager, Bridge to Kubernetes stated in an official blog post, “Bridge to Kubernetes is expanding support to any Kubernetes. Whether you’re connecting to your development cluster running in the cloud, or to your local Kubernetes cluster, Bridge to Kubernetes is available for your end-to-end debugging scenarios.”

Bridge to Kubernetes provides a number of compelling features. Some of them are mentioned below-

#news #bridge to kubernetes #developer tools #kubernetes #kubernetes platform #kubernetes tools #local process with kubernetes #microsoft

Enforce Kubernetes Container Images To Have Label That is Not “Latest”

The Problem With Using Naked Container Images Or The :latest tag

Let’s examine the following _very _common scenario: you have an application named xyz-app. The developers are constantly updating it, adding features, solving bugs, etc. Every two weeks or so, your CI/CD pipeline pushes the latest image to your Docker registry. By default, Docker registries tag the most recent version of an image with “latest”. If you pull the image without specifying a specific tag (naked image), you will automatically get the latest one. While this workflow sounds fine at first, it’s very risky. How do you know (and ensure) that your Kubernetes cluster is getting the newer image version? This simple diagram demonstrates what happens:

Enforce that all Kubernetes container images must have a label that is not “latest” using OPA 1

As per the diagram, the workflow is as follows:

  1. After passing the tests, the latest code change is pushed to your CI/CD tool of choice.
  2. The pipeline pushes the image to the container registry without specifying the tag, or explicitly appending “:latest” to the image name.
  3. Finally, the pipeline contacts the cluster (perhaps through kubectl, helm, etc.) to make Kubernetes pull and use the new image. But how does Kubernetes know that you need to replace the image if the one it is already running is tagged latest, and the one you’re asking it to run it also _:latest _tagged?

Of course, one possible solution is to set imagePullPolicy to Always to force Kubernetes not to use the cached image and contact the container registry. But, then you need to kill the container so that the Deployment recreates it, and consequently pulls the latest image. Do we need to go that far just to deploy our newest code changes?

From the above undesirable scenario, it’s always strongly recommended that you use the appropriate image tag when building and pushing the container image. CI/CD tools make this very easy as they already provide unique values like the Git commit ID through environment variables. Following this best practice, we can re-depict our workflow as follows:

Enforce that all Kubernetes container images must have a label that is not “latest” using OPA 2

Now, it’s very straightforward to apply the actual latest image to your cluster by just patching the deployment with the changed image tag. The Deployment automatically pulls the newer image and, through rolling-updates, introduces the new application version with zero downtime.

However, this best practice is only valid if it’s applied. So, how do we ensure (and enforce) that no user or service will create a Pod (no matter which parent controller is used) that uses a naked or latest-tagged image? This is where OPA shines.

#devops #kubernetes #opa #open policy agent