Python Selenium Web Driver Navigation Command

This is our third article in Python Selenium, in this article we are going to learn about Selenium Web Driver Navigation Command in Python. so using Selenium Navigation Command we are able to open a web page URL, navigate to other web page by clicking any element, Back, Forward and Refresh web page using browser’s history. also you can read the previous articles about Python Selenium in the below links.

#python selenium #python tutorials #python #selenium

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Python Selenium Web Driver Navigation Command

Python Selenium Web Driver Navigation Command

This is our third article in Python Selenium, in this article we are going to learn about Selenium Web Driver Navigation Command in Python. so using Selenium Navigation Command we are able to open a web page URL, navigate to other web page by clicking any element, Back, Forward and Refresh web page using browser’s history. also you can read the previous articles about Python Selenium in the below links.

#python selenium #python tutorials #python #selenium

August  Larson

August Larson


Automating WhatsApp Web with Alright and Python

Alright is a python wrapper that helps you automate WhatsApp web using python, giving you the capability to send messages, images, video, and files to both saved and unsaved contacts without having to rescan the QR code every time.

Why Alright?

I was looking for a way to control and automate WhatsApp web with Python; I came across some very nice libraries and wrappers implementations, including:

  1. pywhatkit
  2. pywhatsapp
  3. PyWhatsapp
  4. WebWhatsapp-Wrapper

So I tried

pywhatkit, a well crafted to be used, but its implementations require you to open a new browser tab and scan QR code every time you send a message, no matter if it’s the same person, which was a deal-breaker for using it.

I then tried

pywhatsapp,which is based onyowsupand require you to do some registration withyowsupbefore using it of which after a bit of googling, I got scared of having my number blocked. So I went for the next option.

I then went for WebWhatsapp-Wrapper. It has some good documentation and recent commits so I had hoped it is going to work. But It didn’t for me, and after having a couple of errors, I abandoned it to look for the next alternative.

PyWhatsapp by shauryauppal, which was more of a CLI tool than a wrapper, surprisingly worked. Its approach allows you to dynamically send WhatsApp messages to unsaved contacts without rescanning QR-code every time.

So what I did is refactoring the implementation of that tool to be more of a wrapper to easily allow people to run different scripts on top of it. Instead of just using it as a tool, I then thought of sharing the codebase with people who might struggle to do this as I did.

#python #python-programming #python-tutorials #python-programming-lists #selenium #python-dev-tips #python-developers #programming #web-monetization

Shardul Bhatt

Shardul Bhatt


Why use Python for Software Development

No programming language is pretty much as diverse as Python. It enables building cutting edge applications effortlessly. Developers are as yet investigating the full capability of end-to-end Python development services in various areas. 

By areas, we mean FinTech, HealthTech, InsureTech, Cybersecurity, and that's just the beginning. These are New Economy areas, and Python has the ability to serve every one of them. The vast majority of them require massive computational abilities. Python's code is dynamic and powerful - equipped for taking care of the heavy traffic and substantial algorithmic capacities. 

Programming advancement is multidimensional today. Endeavor programming requires an intelligent application with AI and ML capacities. Shopper based applications require information examination to convey a superior client experience. Netflix, Trello, and Amazon are genuine instances of such applications. Python assists with building them effortlessly. 

5 Reasons to Utilize Python for Programming Web Apps 

Python can do such numerous things that developers can't discover enough reasons to admire it. Python application development isn't restricted to web and enterprise applications. It is exceptionally adaptable and superb for a wide range of uses.

Robust frameworks 

Python is known for its tools and frameworks. There's a structure for everything. Django is helpful for building web applications, venture applications, logical applications, and mathematical processing. Flask is another web improvement framework with no conditions. 

Web2Py, CherryPy, and Falcon offer incredible capabilities to customize Python development services. A large portion of them are open-source frameworks that allow quick turn of events. 

Simple to read and compose 

Python has an improved sentence structure - one that is like the English language. New engineers for Python can undoubtedly understand where they stand in the development process. The simplicity of composing allows quick application building. 

The motivation behind building Python, as said by its maker Guido Van Rossum, was to empower even beginner engineers to comprehend the programming language. The simple coding likewise permits developers to roll out speedy improvements without getting confused by pointless subtleties. 

Utilized by the best 

Alright - Python isn't simply one more programming language. It should have something, which is the reason the business giants use it. Furthermore, that too for different purposes. Developers at Google use Python to assemble framework organization systems, parallel information pusher, code audit, testing and QA, and substantially more. Netflix utilizes Python web development services for its recommendation algorithm and media player. 

Massive community support 

Python has a steadily developing community that offers enormous help. From amateurs to specialists, there's everybody. There are a lot of instructional exercises, documentation, and guides accessible for Python web development solutions. 

Today, numerous universities start with Python, adding to the quantity of individuals in the community. Frequently, Python designers team up on various tasks and help each other with algorithmic, utilitarian, and application critical thinking. 

Progressive applications 

Python is the greatest supporter of data science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence at any enterprise software development company. Its utilization cases in cutting edge applications are the most compelling motivation for its prosperity. Python is the second most well known tool after R for data analytics.

The simplicity of getting sorted out, overseeing, and visualizing information through unique libraries makes it ideal for data based applications. TensorFlow for neural networks and OpenCV for computer vision are two of Python's most well known use cases for Machine learning applications.


Thinking about the advances in programming and innovation, Python is a YES for an assorted scope of utilizations. Game development, web application development services, GUI advancement, ML and AI improvement, Enterprise and customer applications - every one of them uses Python to its full potential. 

The disadvantages of Python web improvement arrangements are regularly disregarded by developers and organizations because of the advantages it gives. They focus on quality over speed and performance over blunders. That is the reason it's a good idea to utilize Python for building the applications of the future.

#python development services #python development company #python app development #python development #python in web development #python software development

Arvel  Parker

Arvel Parker


Basic Data Types in Python | Python Web Development For Beginners

At the end of 2019, Python is one of the fastest-growing programming languages. More than 10% of developers have opted for Python development.

In the programming world, Data types play an important role. Each Variable is stored in different data types and responsible for various functions. Python had two different objects, and They are mutable and immutable objects.

Table of Contents  hide

I Mutable objects

II Immutable objects

III Built-in data types in Python

Mutable objects

The Size and declared value and its sequence of the object can able to be modified called mutable objects.

Mutable Data Types are list, dict, set, byte array

Immutable objects

The Size and declared value and its sequence of the object can able to be modified.

Immutable data types are int, float, complex, String, tuples, bytes, and frozen sets.

id() and type() is used to know the Identity and data type of the object







Built-in data types in Python

a**=str(“Hello python world”)****#str**














Numbers (int,Float,Complex)

Numbers are stored in numeric Types. when a number is assigned to a variable, Python creates Number objects.

#signed interger




Python supports 3 types of numeric data.

int (signed integers like 20, 2, 225, etc.)

float (float is used to store floating-point numbers like 9.8, 3.1444, 89.52, etc.)

complex (complex numbers like 8.94j, 4.0 + 7.3j, etc.)

A complex number contains an ordered pair, i.e., a + ib where a and b denote the real and imaginary parts respectively).


The string can be represented as the sequence of characters in the quotation marks. In python, to define strings we can use single, double, or triple quotes.

# String Handling

‘Hello Python’

#single (') Quoted String

“Hello Python”

# Double (") Quoted String

“”“Hello Python”“”

‘’‘Hello Python’‘’

# triple (‘’') (“”") Quoted String

In python, string handling is a straightforward task, and python provides various built-in functions and operators for representing strings.

The operator “+” is used to concatenate strings and “*” is used to repeat the string.


output**:****‘Hello python’**

"python "*****2

'Output : Python python ’

#python web development #data types in python #list of all python data types #python data types #python datatypes #python types #python variable type

Introduction to Browser Drivers in Selenium

Drivers in Selenium are a vital rather a must for Browser automation. Selenium library in Python or in any other programming language uses the particular Browser’s driver to control browsers with their actions, add functionality to it, and in all manipulate data (webpage) in it.

Contrary to the most common way of declaring a Browser’s Driver which is most common, but often may result in incompatibility issues. There are multiple ways (not so common) to install, initialize web drivers in your Python code.

Downloading the Drivers

The foremost point of error in Selenium occurs when the browser’s driver’s version doesn’t match with the browser’s version, for which compatibility issue arises. So, to start with, you must always use the driver with the same version as that of the Web Browser(Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, or any other) which you intend to use for automation.

Downloading and installing Web Drivers is completely safe because these drivers are maintained by the Official Browser Companies and updated accordingly, for testing and automation purposes of their browser and webpages.

Check with your browser which you intend to automate for its version and download the driver from the below references accordingly:

Web BrowserDriver Download Reference
Google Chrome/ChromiumDownload
Mozilla FirefoxDownload
Microsoft EdgeDownload
Apple SafariAlready built-in

Ways to use Drivers

Let’s now look at how we can use the selenium web drivers.

1. Entering the Direct Location

  • The most popular method to use a web driver in Python Selenium code for browser automation. The reason for its popularity is the direct approach it uses, to define a driver in a script.
  • This method requires manual downloading of the web driver.

Advantage: No need to care about lengthy setup or figuring out of Environment variable
Disadvantage: Makes the code less flexible and subject to manual changes for every update

driver = webdriver.Chrome('path/to/chromedriver") 
driver = webdriver.Chrome('C://software/chromedriver.exe') #driver located at the specified location
driver = webdriver.Chrome('chromedriver.exe')  #driver located in the same directory as of the python script file
#other way
service = Service(executable_path="/path/to/chromedriver")
driver = webdriver.Chrome(service=service)

2. Environment Variable

  • If you have tried the above-mentioned method, then you may have noticed how tiring it is to note/remember the location of your installed web driver in some directory of your computer.
  • To tackle for this problem, we define the location or path of our driver in Environment Variable, once and for all. After successful definition, we do not require specifying the path location in our code, and we can code effortlessly.
  • This method also requires manual installation of the driver, as you might have known this method is used for the issue of path variable.

Advantage: No hassle of specifying the path to the driver
Disadvantage: No update functionality

To set the Environment Path Variable, go to your command prompt and type in the following command:In place of “C:\WebDriver\bin” in the below command, use the path (install location) of the driver.

setx PATH "%PATH%;C:\WebDriver\bin"

If you find this way difficult, then you may search for Environment Variable in your Windows Start Menu and click open -“Edit the system environment variables“. After that, from the pop-up window select “Environment Variables” to open another pop-up window.

From the System Variables option, select open Path and now click on New to introduce a new path variable. Paste the location of your web driver in it, then OK, OK, and finally again OK, in all windows.

Environment VariableEnvironment Variable

3. Driver Manager

The last and probably the most useful method to use is the Web Driver in your Python code. On selecting, automatic updating in Web Browser, the device only updates the browser and not the installed driver, in this case upon execution of python script the code gives error for not equal versions of the browser and driver.

Advantage: No version compatibility issues and help easily switch between multiple browsers
Disadvantage: Maybe a bit difficult to set up for beginners

Install the driver manager

pip install webdriver-manager

Import the manager

from selenium import webdriver
from import ChromeDriverManager            # --> for Chrome
#from webdriver_manager.firefox import GeckoDriverManager               # --> for Firefox

Now as we have installed and imported the manager, we use it in our code like –

Use the install() method to get the location used by the manager and pass it into a loc_service class. This method informs about the location of the installed web driver by itself.

driver = webdriver.Chrome(ChromeDriverManager().install())   # --> for Chrome
#driver = webdriver.Firefox(executable_path=GeckoDriverManager().install())     #--> for Firefox

For any other browser, you may check the official GitHub repository of the driver manager software.


That’s it for the tutorial. Contrary to the popular methods of using the web drivers in Selenium, in this tutorial you learned about the other and maybe advantageous methods to perform the same.  


#python #selenium