Reid  Rohan

Reid Rohan

1662976740

8 Best Libraries for Natural Language Processing For JavaScript

In today's post we will learn about 8 Best Libraries for Natural Language Processing for JavaScript. 

What is Natural Language Processing (NLP)?

Natural language refers to the way humans communicate with each other.

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is broadly defined as the electronic manipulation of natural language, like speech and text, by software.

NLP is important because we want to open up communication between machines and humans in a more natural way. NLP has various use cases such as running a search engine, sentimental analysis, entity-recognition, voice-based apps, chatbots, and personal assistants.

The history of natural language processing (NLP) generally started in the 1950s. Alan Turing published the article “Computing Machinery and Intelligence,” a pioneer seminal paper on artificial intelligence.

Some of the notably successful NLP systems developed in the 1960s were SHRDLU and ELIZA. Up to the 1980s, most natural language processing systems were based on complex sets of hand-written rules. In the 1980s, the NLP started to pick up after the introduction of machine learning algorithms.

Now, decades later, the world is full of multiple NLP libraries and engines. Let’s look at some of them, especially for the newer languages, such as Node.js and JavaScript.

Table of contents:

  • Natural - general natural language facilities for node
  • nlp_compromise - natural language processing
  • Hanzi - HanziJS is a Chinese character and NLP module for Chinese language processing for Node.js
  • Salient - Machine Learning, Natural Language Processing and Sentiment Analysis Toolkit for Node.js
  • Node-summary - Node module that summarizes text using a naive summarization algorithm
  • Snowball-js - javascript implementation of the popular snowball word stemming nlp algorithm
  • Porter-stemmer - Martin Porter's stemmer for node.js
  • Lunr-languages - A collection of languages stemmers and stopwords for Lunr Javascript library

1 - Natural: General natural language facilities for node.

"Natural" is a general natural language facility for nodejs. It offers a broad range of functionalities for natural language processing. 

Installation

If you’re just looking to use natural without your own node application, you can install via NPM like so:

npm install natural

If you’re interested in contributing to natural, or just hacking on it, then by all means fork away!

Tokenizers

Word, Regexp, and Treebank tokenizers are provided for breaking text up into arrays of tokens:

var natural = require('natural');
var tokenizer = new natural.WordTokenizer();
console.log(tokenizer.tokenize("your dog has fleas."));
// [ 'your', 'dog', 'has', 'fleas' ]

The other tokenizers follow a similar pattern:

tokenizer = new natural.TreebankWordTokenizer();
console.log(tokenizer.tokenize("my dog hasn't any fleas."));
// [ 'my', 'dog', 'has', 'n\'t', 'any', 'fleas', '.' ]

tokenizer = new natural.RegexpTokenizer({pattern: /\-/});
console.log(tokenizer.tokenize("flea-dog"));
// [ 'flea', 'dog' ]

tokenizer = new natural.WordPunctTokenizer();
console.log(tokenizer.tokenize("my dog hasn't any fleas."));
// [ 'my',  'dog',  'hasn',  '\'',  't',  'any',  'fleas',  '.' ]

tokenizer = new natural.OrthographyTokenizer({language: "fi"});
console.log(tokenizer.tokenize("Mikä sinun nimesi on?"));
// [ 'Mikä', 'sinun', 'nimesi', 'on' ]

tokenizer = new natural.SentenceTokenizer();
console.log(tokenizer.tokenize("This is a sentence. This is another sentence"));
// ["This is a sentence.", "This is another sentence."]

In addition to the sentence tokenizer based on regular expressions (called SentenceTokenizer), there is a sentence tokenizer based on parsing (called SentenceTokenizerNew). It is build using PEGjs. It handles more cases, and can be extended in a more structured way (than regular expressions).

View on Github

2 - nlp_compromise: Natural language processing.

compromise tries its best to turn text into data. it makes limited and sensible decisions. it's not as smart as you'd think. 

import nlp from 'compromise'

let doc = nlp('she sells seashells by the seashore.')
doc.verbs().toPastTense()
doc.text()
// ‘she sold seashells by the seashore.’

don't be fancy, at all:

if (doc.has('simon says #Verb')) {
  return true
}

grab parts of the text:

let doc = nlp(entireNovel)
doc.match('the #Adjective of times').text()
// "the blurst of times?"

match docs

and get data:

import plg from 'compromise-speech'
nlp.extend(plg)

let doc = nlp('Milwaukee has certainly had its share of visitors..')
doc.compute('syllables')
doc.places().json()
/*
[{
  "text": "Milwaukee",
  "terms": [{ 
    "normal": "milwaukee",
    "syllables": ["mil", "wau", "kee"]
  }]
}]
*/

json docs

View on Github

3 - Hanzi: HanziJS is a Chinese character and NLP module for Chinese language processing for Node.js.

Install

npm install hanzi

How to use

Initiate HanziJS. Required.

//Require
var hanzi = require("hanzi");
//Initiate
hanzi.start();

Functions

hanzi.decompose(character, type of decomposition);

A function that takes a Chinese character and returns an object with decomposition data. Type of decomposition is optional.

Type of decomposition levels:

  • 1 - "Once" (only decomposes character once),
  • 2 - "Radical" (decomposes character into its lowest radical components),
  • 3 - "Graphical" (decomposes into lowest forms, will be mostly strokes and small indivisable units)
var decomposition = hanzi.decompose('爱');
console.log(decomposition);

{ character: '爱',
  components1: [ 'No glyph available', '友' ],
  components2: [ '爫', '冖', '𠂇', '又' ],
  components3: [ '爫', '冖', '𠂇', '㇇', '㇏' ] }

//Example of forced level decomposition

var decomposition = hanzi.decompose('爱', 2);
console.log(decomposition);

{ character: '爱', components: [ '爫', '冖', '𠂇', '又' ] }

hanzi.decomposeMany(character string, type of decomposition);

View on Github

4 - Salient: Machine Learning, Natural Language Processing and Sentiment Analysis Toolkit for Node.js.

Tokenization

There are plenty of libraries that perform tokenization, this library is no different, the only exception is that this library will also do some tokenization steps necessary to cleanup random HTML, XML, Wiki, Twitter and other sources. More examples are in the specs directory. Tokenizers in salient are built on top of each other and include the following:

  • Tokenizer (lib/salient/tokenizers/tokenizer.js) abstract
  • RegExpTokenizer (lib/salient/tokenizers/regexp_tokenizer.js) extends: Tokenizer
var salient = require('salient');
var tokenizer = new salient.tokenizers.RegExpTokenizer({ pattern: /\W+/ });
tokenizer.tokenize('these are things');
> ['these', 'are', 'things']
  
  • UrlTokenizer (lib/salient/tokenizers/url_tokenizer.js) extends: Tokenizer
var salient = require('salient');
var tokenizer = new salient.tokenizers.UrlTokenizer();
tokenizer.tokenize('Some text a http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool_F.C._(disambiguation) wikipedia url in it.');
> ['http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liverpool_F.C._(disambiguation)']
  
  • WordPunctTokenizer (lib/salient/tokenizers/wordpunct_tokenizer.js) extends: RegExpTokenizer
    • Handles Time, Numerics (including 1st, 2nd..etc), numerics with commas/decimals/percents, $, words with hyphenations, words with and without accepts, with and without apostrophes, punctuations and optional emoticon preservation.
var salient = require('salient');
var tokenizer = new salient.tokenizers.WordPunctTokenizer();
tokenizer.tokenize('From 12:00 am-11:59 pm. on Nov. 12th, you can make donation online to support Wylie Center.')
> [ 'From', '12:00 am', '-', '11:59 pm.', 'on', 'Nov', '.', '12th', ',', 'you', 'can', 'make', 'donation', 'online', 'to', 'support', 'Wylie', 'Center', '.' ]

// preserve emoticons
tokenizer = new salient.tokenizers.WordPunctTokenizer({ preserveEmoticons: true })
tokenizer.tokenize('data, here to clean.Wouldn\'t you say so? :D I have $20.45, are you ok? >:(');
> [ 'data', ',', 'here', 'to', 'clean', '.', 'Wouldn', '\'', 't', 'you', 'say', 'so', '? ', ':D', 'I', 'have', ' $', '20.45', ',', 'are', 'you', 'ok', '?', '>:(' ]

View on Github

5 - Node-summary: Node module that summarizes text using a naive summarization algorithm.

Algorithm

The algorithm used is explained here. Essentially

This algorithm extracts the key sentence from each paragraph in the text.

Installation

$ npm install node-summary

Examples

var SummaryTool = require('node-summary');

var title = "Swayy is a beautiful new dashboard for discovering and curating online content [Invites]";
var content = "";
content += "Lior Degani, the Co-Founder and head of Marketing of Swayy, pinged me last week when I was in California to tell me about his startup and give me beta access. I heard his pitch and was skeptical. I was also tired, cranky and missing my kids – so my frame of mind wasn't the most positive.\n";
content += "I went into Swayy to check it out, and when it asked for access to my Twitter and permission to tweet from my account, all I could think was, \"If this thing spams my Twitter account I am going to bitch-slap him all over the Internet.\" Fortunately that thought stayed in my head, and not out of my mouth.\n";
content += "One week later, I'm totally addicted to Swayy and glad I said nothing about the spam (it doesn't send out spam tweets but I liked the line too much to not use it for this article). I pinged Lior on Facebook with a request for a beta access code for TNW readers. I also asked how soon can I write about it. It's that good. Seriously. I use every content curation service online. It really is That Good.\n";
content += "What is Swayy? It's like Percolate and LinkedIn recommended articles, mixed with trending keywords for the topics you find interesting, combined with an analytics dashboard that shows the trends of what you do and how people react to it. I like it for the simplicity and accuracy of the content curation.\n";
content += "Everything I'm actually interested in reading is in one place – I don't have to skip from another major tech blog over to Harvard Business Review then hop over to another major tech or business blog. It's all in there. And it has saved me So Much Time\n\n";
content += "After I decided that I trusted the service, I added my Facebook and LinkedIn accounts. The content just got That Much Better. I can share from the service itself, but I generally prefer reading the actual post first – so I end up sharing it from the main link, using Swayy more as a service for discovery.\n";
content += "I'm also finding myself checking out trending keywords more often (more often than never, which is how often I do it on Twitter.com).\n\n\n";
content += "The analytics side isn't as interesting for me right now, but that could be due to the fact that I've barely been online since I came back from the US last weekend. The graphs also haven't given me any particularly special insights as I can't see which post got the actual feedback on the graph side (however there are numbers on the Timeline side.) This is a Beta though, and new features are being added and improved daily. I'm sure this is on the list. As they say, if you aren't launching with something you're embarrassed by, you've waited too long to launch.\n";
content += "It was the suggested content that impressed me the most. The articles really are spot on – which is why I pinged Lior again to ask a few questions:\n";
content += "How do you choose the articles listed on the site? Is there an algorithm involved? And is there any IP?\n";
content += "Yes, we're in the process of filing a patent for it. But basically the system works with a Natural Language Processing Engine. Actually, there are several parts for the content matching, but besides analyzing what topics the articles are talking about, we have machine learning algorithms that match you to the relevant suggested stuff. For example, if you shared an article about Zuck that got a good reaction from your followers, we might offer you another one about Kevin Systrom (just a simple example).\n";
content += "Who came up with the idea for Swayy, and why? And what's your business model?\n";
content += "Our business model is a subscription model for extra social accounts (extra Facebook / Twitter, etc) and team collaboration.\n";
content += "The idea was born from our day-to-day need to be active on social media, look for the best content to share with our followers, grow them, and measure what content works best.\n";
content += "Who is on the team?\n";
content += "Ohad Frankfurt is the CEO, Shlomi Babluki is the CTO and Oz Katz does Product and Engineering, and I [Lior Degani] do Marketing. The four of us are the founders. Oz and I were in 8200 [an elite Israeli army unit] together. Emily Engelson does Community Management and Graphic Design.\n";
content += "If you use Percolate or read LinkedIn's recommended posts I think you'll love Swayy.\n";
content += "Want to try Swayy out without having to wait? Go to this secret URL and enter the promotion code thenextweb . The first 300 people to use the code will get access.\n";
content += "Image credit: Thinkstock";

SummaryTool.summarize(title, content, function(err, summary) {
	if(err) console.log("Something went wrong man!");

	console.log(summary);

	console.log("Original Length " + (title.length + content.length));
	console.log("Summary Length " + summary.length);
	console.log("Summary Ratio: " + (100 - (100 * (summary.length / (title.length + content.length)))));
});


var url = "https://www.forbes.com/sites/viviennedecker/2017/05/14/meet-the-23-year-old-innovating-the-nail-industry-with-static-nails/#4b48c203487d"

SummaryTool.summarizeFromUrl(url, function(err, summary) {
  if(err) {
    console.log("err is ", result)
  }
  else {
    console.log(summary)
  }
})

View on Github

6 - Snowball-js: Javascript implementation of the popular snowball word stemming nlp algorithm.

Install:

npm install snowball

Usage:

var Snowball = require('snowball');
var stemmer = new Snowball('English');
stemmer.setCurrent('abbreviations');
stemmer.stem();
console.log(stemmer.getCurrent());
# => 'abbrebi'

Notes:

To make porting from Java sources easier each stemmer could be validated by Regex:

[^\.]((limit_backward)|(limit)|(cursor)|(bra)|(ket)|(setCurrent)|(getCurrent)|(in_grouping)|(in_grouping_b)|(out_grouping)|(out_grouping_b)|(in_range)|(in_range_b)|(out_range)|(out_range_b)|(eq_s)|(eq_s_b)|(find_among)|(find_among_b)|(replace_s)|(slice_check)|(slice_from)|(slice_del)|(insert)|(slice_to)|(eq_v_b))

Snowball.min.js library was compressed by Google Closure Compiler:

java -jar compiler.jar --js Snowball.js --js_output_file Snowball.min.js

View on Github

7 - Porter-stemmer: Martin Porter's stemmer for node.js.

Installation

For node.js, using npm:

npm install porter-stemmer

or git clone this repo.

Example

> var stemmer = require('porter-stemmer').stemmer
> stemmer('Smurftastic')
'Smurftast'

Test Suite

I have included Dr Porter's sample input and output text in a test suite.

To verify:

npm test

View on Github

8 - Lunr-languages: A collection of languages stemmers and stopwords for Lunr Javascript library.

How to use

Lunr-languages works well with script loaders (Webpack, requirejs) and can be used in the browser and on the server.

In a web browser

The following example is for the German language (de).

Add the following JS files to the page:

<script src="lunr.js"></script> <!-- lunr.js library -->
<script src="lunr.stemmer.support.js"></script>
<script src="lunr.de.js"></script> <!-- or any other language you want -->

then, use the language in when initializing lunr:

var idx = lunr(function () {
  // use the language (de)
  this.use(lunr.de);
  // then, the normal lunr index initialization
  this.field('title', { boost: 10 });
  this.field('body');
  // now you can call this.add(...) to add documents written in German
});

That's it. Just add the documents and you're done. When searching, the language stemmer and stopwords list will be the one you used.

In a web browser, with RequireJS

Add require.js to the page:

<script src="lib/require.js"></script>

then, use the language in when initializing lunr:

require(['lib/lunr.js', '../lunr.stemmer.support.js', '../lunr.de.js'], function(lunr, stemmerSupport, de) {
  // since the stemmerSupport and de add keys on the lunr object, we'll pass it as reference to them
  // in the end, we will only need lunr.
  stemmerSupport(lunr); // adds lunr.stemmerSupport
  de(lunr); // adds lunr.de key

  // at this point, lunr can be used
  var idx = lunr(function () {
  // use the language (de)
  this.use(lunr.de);
  // then, the normal lunr index initialization
  this.field('title', { boost: 10 })
  this.field('body')
  // now you can call this.add(...) to add documents written in German
  });
});

View on Github

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Related videos:

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8 Best Libraries for Natural Language Processing For JavaScript
bindu singh

bindu singh

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Ray  Patel

Ray Patel

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Introduction to Natural Language Processing

We’re officially a part of a digitally dominated world where our lives revolve around technology and its innovations. Each second the world produces an incomprehensible amount of data, a majority of which is unstructured. And ever since Big Data and Data Science have started gaining traction both in the IT and business domains, it has become crucial to making sense of this vast trove of raw, unstructured data to foster data-driven decisions and innovations. But how exactly are we able to give coherence to the unstructured data?

The answer is simple – through Natural Language Processing (NLP).

Natural Language Processing (NLP)

In simple terms, NLP refers to the ability of computers to understand human speech or text as it is spoken or written. In a more comprehensive way, natural language processing can be defined as a branch of Artificial Intelligence that enables computers to grasp, understand, interpret, and also manipulate the ways in which computers interact with humans and human languages. It draws inspiration both from computational linguistics and computer science to bridge the gap that exists between human language and a computer’s understanding.

Deep Learning: Dive into the World of Machine Learning!

The concept of natural language processing isn’t new – nearly seventy years ago, computer programmers made use of ‘punch cards’ to communicate with the computers. Now, however, we have smart personal assistants like Siri and Alexa with whom we can easily communicate in human terms. For instance, if you ask Siri, “Hey, Siri, play me the song Careless Whisper”, Siri will be quick to respond to you with an “Okay” or “Sure” and play the song for you! How cool is that?

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Paula  Hall

Paula Hall

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Structured natural language processing with Pandas and spaCy

Accelerate analysis by bringing structure to unstructured data

Working with natural language data can often be challenging due to its lack of structure. Most data scientists, analysts and product managers are familiar with structured tables, consisting of rows and columns, but less familiar with unstructured documents, consisting of sentences and words. For this reason, knowing how to approach a natural language dataset can be quite challenging. In this post I want to demonstrate how you can use the awesome Python packages, spaCy and Pandas, to structure natural language and extract interesting insights quickly.

Introduction to Spacy

spaCy is a very popular Python package for advanced NLP — I have a beginner friendly introduction to NLP with SpaCy here. spaCy is the perfect toolkit for applied data scientists when working on NLP projects. The api is very intuitive, the package is blazing fast and it is very well documented. It’s probably fair to say that it is the best general purpose package for NLP available. Before diving into structuring NLP data, it is useful to get familiar with the basics of the spaCy library and api.

After installing the package, you can load a model (in this case I am loading the simple Engilsh model, which is optimized for efficiency rather than accuracy) — i.e. the underlying neural network has fewer parameters.

import spacy
nlp = spacy.load("en_core_web_sm")

We instantiate this model as nlp by convention. Throughout this post I’ll work with this dataset of famous motivational quotes. Let’s apply the nlp model to a single quote from the data and store it in a variable.

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Sival Alethea

Sival Alethea

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Natural Language Processing (NLP) Tutorial with Python & NLTK

This video will provide you with a comprehensive and detailed knowledge of Natural Language Processing, popularly known as NLP. You will also learn about the different steps involved in processing the human language like Tokenization, Stemming, Lemmatization and more. Python, NLTK, & Jupyter Notebook are used to demonstrate the concepts.

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