1601550000

In this tutorial I will show you how to model a seasonal time series through a SARIMA model.

Here you can download the Jupyter notebook of the code described in this tutorial.

In this example we will use the number of tourist arrivals to Italy. Data are extracted from the European Statistics: Annual Data on Tourism Industries. Firstly, we import the dataset related to foreign tourists arrivals in Italy from 2012 to 2019 October and then we convert it into a time series.

In order to perform the conversion to time series, two steps are needed:

- the column containing dates must be converted to datetime. This can be done through the function
`to_datetime()`

, which converts a string into a datetime. - set the index of the dataframe to the column containing dates. This can be done through the function
`set_index()`

applied to the dataframe.

#data-analysis #data-science #sarima #time-series-analysis #time-series-forecasting

1601550000

In this tutorial I will show you how to model a seasonal time series through a SARIMA model.

Here you can download the Jupyter notebook of the code described in this tutorial.

In this example we will use the number of tourist arrivals to Italy. Data are extracted from the European Statistics: Annual Data on Tourism Industries. Firstly, we import the dataset related to foreign tourists arrivals in Italy from 2012 to 2019 October and then we convert it into a time series.

In order to perform the conversion to time series, two steps are needed:

- the column containing dates must be converted to datetime. This can be done through the function
`to_datetime()`

, which converts a string into a datetime. - set the index of the dataframe to the column containing dates. This can be done through the function
`set_index()`

applied to the dataframe.

#data-analysis #data-science #sarima #time-series-analysis #time-series-forecasting

1595685600

In this article, we will be discussing an algorithm that helps us analyze past trends and lets us focus on what is to unfold next so this algorithm is time series forecasting.

**What is Time Series Analysis?**

In this analysis, you have one variable -TIME. A time series is a set of observations taken at a specified time usually equal in intervals. It is used to predict future value based on previously observed data points.

**Here some examples where time series is used.**

- Business forecasting
- Understand the past behavior
- Plan future
- Evaluate current accomplishments.

**Components of time series :**

**Trend:**Let’s understand by example, let’s say in a new construction area someone open hardware store now while construction is going on people will buy hardware. but after completing construction buyers of hardware will be reduced. So for some times selling goes high and then low its called uptrend and downtrend.- **Seasonality: **Every year chocolate sell goes high during the end of the year due to Christmas. This same pattern happens every year while in the trend that is not the case. Seasonality is repeating same pattern at same intervals.
**Irregularity:**It is also called noise. When something unusual happens that affects the regularity, for example, there is a natural disaster once in many years lets say it is flooded so people buying medicine more in that period. This what no one predicted and you don’t know how many numbers of sales going to happen.**Cyclic:**It is basically repeating up and down movements so this means it can go more than one year so it doesn’t have fix pattern and it can happen any time and it is much harder to predict.

**Stationarity of a time series:**

A series is said to be “strictly stationary” if the marginal distribution of Y at time t[p(Yt)] is the same as at any other point in time. This implies that the mean, variance, and covariance of the series Yt are time-invariant.

However, a series said to be “weakly stationary” or “covariance stationary” if mean and variance are constant and covariance of two-point Cov(Y1, Y1+k)=Cov(Y2, Y2+k)=const, which depends only on lag k but do not depend on time explicitly.

#machine-learning #time-series-model #machine-learning-ai #time-series-forecasting #time-series-analysis

1616818722

In my last post, I mentioned multiple selecting and filtering in Pandas library. I will talk about time series basics with Pandas in this post. Time series data in different fields such as finance and economy is an important data structure. The measured or observed values over time are in a time series structure. Pandas is very useful for time series analysis. There are tools that we can easily analyze.

In this article, I will explain the following topics.

- What is the time series?
- What are time series data structures?
- How to create a time series?
- What are the important methods used in time series?

Before starting the topic, our Medium page includes posts on data science, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning. Please don’t forget to follow us on ** Medium** 🌱 to see these posts and the latest posts.

Let’s get started.

#what-is-time-series #pandas #time-series-python #timeseries #time-series-data

1616832900

In the last post, I talked about working with time series . In this post, I will talk about important methods in time series. Time series analysis is very frequently used in finance studies. Pandas is a very important library for time series analysis studies.

In summary, I will explain the following topics in this lesson,

- Resampling
- Shifting
- Moving Window Functions
- Time zone

Before starting the topic, our Medium page includes posts on data science, artificial intelligence, machine learning, and deep learning. Please don’t forget to follow us on ** Medium** 🌱 to see these posts and the latest posts.

Let’s get started.

#pandas-time-series #timeseries #time-series-python #time-series-analysis

1623226129

_ is a sequence of time-based data points collected at specific intervals of a given phenomenon that undergoes changes over time. In other words, time series is a sequence taken at consecutive equally spaced points in the time period._Time series

As a example, we can present few time series data sets in different domains such as pollution levels, Birth rates, heart rate monitoring, global temperatures and Consumer Price Index etc. At the processing level, above datasets are tracked, monitored, down sampled, and aggregated over **time.**

There are different kind of time series analysis techniques in the big data analytical field. Among them few are,

- Autoregression (AR)
- Moving Average (MA)
- Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA)
- Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA)
- Seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving-Average (SARIMA)

ARIMA Model

ARIMA Model is simple and flexible enough to capture relationship we would see in the data and It aims to explain the autocorrelation between the data points using past data. We can decompose the ARIMA model as follow to grab the key elements of it.

- **AR: _Auto regression. _**This is a model that uses the dependent relationship between the data and the lagged data.
- **I:_ Integrated. _**The use of differencing of raw observations (e.g. subtracting an observation from an observation at the previous time step) in order to make the time series stationary.
- **MA: _Moving average. _**A model that uses the relationship between the observations and the residual error from the moving average model applied to lagged observations.

Dataset Explanation

Exploratory Analysis

…

#python #time-series-analysis #pandas #forecasting #arima #time series analysis using arima model with python