Why You Need To Add A Dash of Zero-Knowledge Proof to Your Projects

Advanced technologies such as zero-knowledge proof systems require extensive knowledge from developers, making it difficult for businesses to adopt. Without a deep understanding of the underlying cryptographic logic, it is quite frankly impossible to implement correctly.

“Any sufficiently advanced technology is equivalent to magic”, sir Arthur C. Clarke, science writer, undersea explorer, and co-writer for the 1968 film 2001: A Space Odyssey.

Reading the news, the attentive reader notices that demand for privacy-respecting technology and applications is growing. Even so, it is not an easy job to develop a privacy-respecting application.

Advanced technologies such as zero-knowledge proof systems require extensive knowledge from developers, making it difficult for businesses to adopt. Without a deep understanding of the underlying cryptographic logic, it is quite frankly impossible to implement correctly.

Up until now.

That is why we share our development progress and put in the effort to bring a little bit of magic of our own and help other projects to add a dash of zero-knowledge power with the help of our Dusk-Plonk library.

A quick recap on zero-knowledge

Zero-knowledge proofs allow you to prove that you know a ‘secret’, without actually telling and revealing the secret to the other, and is an extremely powerful tool for all kinds of solutions.

It could be used to prove your income is sufficient to rent the house of your dreams, without actually handing over sensitive information like copies of your ID and income statements.

#neural networks

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Why You Need To Add A Dash of Zero-Knowledge Proof to Your Projects
Autumn  Blick

Autumn Blick


Top Android Projects with Source Code

Android Projects with Source Code – Your entry pass into the world of Android

Hello Everyone, welcome to this article, which is going to be really important to all those who’re in dilemma for their projects and the project submissions. This article is also going to help you if you’re an enthusiast looking forward to explore and enhance your Android skills. The reason is that we’re here to provide you the best ideas of Android Project with source code that you can choose as per your choice.

These project ideas are simple suggestions to help you deal with the difficulty of choosing the correct projects. In this article, we’ll see the project ideas from beginners level and later we’ll move on to intermediate to advance.

top android projects with source code

Android Projects with Source Code

Before working on real-time projects, it is recommended to create a sample hello world project in android studio and get a flavor of project creation as well as execution: Create your first android project

Android Projects for beginners

1. Calculator

build a simple calculator app in android studio source code

Android Project: A calculator will be an easy application if you have just learned Android and coding for Java. This Application will simply take the input values and the operation to be performed from the users. After taking the input it’ll return the results to them on the screen. This is a really easy application and doesn’t need use of any particular package.

To make a calculator you’d need Android IDE, Kotlin/Java for coding, and for layout of your application, you’d need XML or JSON. For this, coding would be the same as that in any language, but in the form of an application. Not to forget creating a calculator initially will increase your logical thinking.

Once the user installs the calculator, they’re ready to use it even without the internet. They’ll enter the values, and the application will show them the value after performing the given operations on the entered operands.

Source Code: Simple Calculator Project

2. A Reminder App

Android Project: This is a good project for beginners. A Reminder App can help you set reminders for different events that you have throughout the day. It’ll help you stay updated with all your tasks for the day. It can be useful for all those who are not so good at organizing their plans and forget easily. This would be a simple application just whose task would be just to remind you of something at a particular time.

To make a Reminder App you need to code in Kotlin/Java and design the layout using XML or JSON. For the functionality of the app, you’d need to make use of AlarmManager Class and Notifications in Android.

In this, the user would be able to set reminders and time in the application. Users can schedule reminders that would remind them to drink water again and again throughout the day. Or to remind them of their medications.

3. Quiz Application

Android Project: Another beginner’s level project Idea can be a Quiz Application in android. Here you can provide the users with Quiz on various general knowledge topics. These practices will ensure that you’re able to set the layouts properly and slowly increase your pace of learning the Android application development. In this you’ll learn to use various Layout components at the same time understanding them better.

To make a quiz application you’ll need to code in Java and set layouts using xml or java whichever you prefer. You can also use JSON for the layouts whichever preferable.

In the app, questions would be asked and answers would be shown as multiple choices. The user selects the answer and gets shown on the screen if the answers are correct. In the end the final marks would be shown to the users.

4. Simple Tic-Tac-Toe

android project tic tac toe game app

Android Project: Tic-Tac-Toe is a nice game, I guess most of you all are well aware of it. This will be a game for two players. In this android game, users would be putting X and O in the given 9 parts of a box one by one. The first player to arrange X or O in an adjacent line of three wins.

To build this game, you’d need Java and XML for Android Studio. And simply apply the logic on that. This game will have a set of three matches. So, it’ll also have a scoreboard. This scoreboard will show the final result at the end of one complete set.

Upon entering the game they’ll enter their names. And that’s when the game begins. They’ll touch one of the empty boxes present there and get their turn one by one. At the end of the game, there would be a winner declared.

Source Code: Tic Tac Toe Game Project

5. Stopwatch

Android Project: A stopwatch is another simple android project idea that will work the same as a normal handheld timepiece that measures the time elapsed between its activation and deactivation. This application will have three buttons that are: start, stop, and hold.

This application would need to use Java and XML. For this application, we need to set the timer properly as it is initially set to milliseconds, and that should be converted to minutes and then hours properly. The users can use this application and all they’d need to do is, start the stopwatch and then stop it when they are done. They can also pause the timer and continue it again when they like.

6. To Do App

Android Project: This is another very simple project idea for you as a beginner. This application as the name suggests will be a To-Do list holding app. It’ll store the users schedules and their upcoming meetings or events. In this application, users will be enabled to write their important notes as well. To make it safe, provide a login page before the user can access it.

So, this app will have a login page, sign-up page, logout system, and the area to write their tasks, events, or important notes. You can build it in android studio using Java and XML at ease. Using XML you can build the user interface as user-friendly as you can. And to store the users’ data, you can use SQLite enabling the users to even delete the data permanently.

Now for users, they will sign up and get access to the write section. Here the users can note down the things and store them permanently. Users can also alter the data or delete them. Finally, they can logout and also, login again and again whenever they like.

7. Roman to decimal converter

Android Project: This app is aimed at the conversion of Roman numbers to their significant decimal number. It’ll help to check the meaning of the roman numbers. Moreover, it will be easy to develop and will help you get your hands on coding and Android.

You need to use Android Studio, Java for coding and XML for interface. The application will take input from the users and convert them to decimal. Once it converts the Roman no. into decimal, it will show the results on the screen.

The users are supposed to just enter the Roman Number and they’ll get the decimal values on the screen. This can be a good android project for final year students.

8. Virtual Dice Roller

Android Project: Well, coming to this part that is Virtual Dice or a random no. generator. It is another simple but interesting app for computer science students. The only task that it would need to do would be to generate a number randomly. This can help people who’re often confused between two or more things.

Using a simple random number generator you can actually create something as good as this. All you’d need to do is get you hands-on OnClick listeners. And a good layout would be cherry on the cake.

The user’s task would be to set the range of the numbers and then click on the roll button. And the app will show them a randomly generated number. Isn’t it interesting ? Try soon!

9. A Scientific Calculator App

Android Project: This application is very important for you as a beginner as it will let you use your logical thinking and improve your programming skills. This is a scientific calculator that will help the users to do various calculations at ease.

To make this application you’d need to use Android Studio. Here you’d need to use arithmetic logics for the calculations. The user would need to give input to the application that will be in terms of numbers. After that, the user will give the operator as an input. Then the Application will calculate and generate the result on the user screen.

10. SMS App

Android Project: An SMS app is another easy but effective idea. It will let you send the SMS to various no. just in the same way as you use the default messaging application in your phone. This project will help you with better understanding of SMSManager in Android.

For this application, you would need to implement Java class SMSManager in Android. For the Layout you can use XML or JSON. Implementing SMSManager into the app is an easy task, so you would love this.

The user would be provided with the facility to text to whichever number they wish also, they’d be able to choose the numbers from the contact list. Another thing would be the Textbox, where they’ll enter their message. Once the message is entered they can happily click on the send button.

#android tutorials #android application final year project #android mini projects #android project for beginners #android project ideas #android project ideas for beginners #android projects #android projects for students #android projects with source code #android topics list #intermediate android projects #real-time android projects

Shawn  Durgan

Shawn Durgan


10 Writing steps to create a good project brief - Mobile app development

Developing a mobile application can often be more challenging than it seems at first glance. Whether you’re a developer, UI designer, project lead or CEO of a mobile-based startup, writing good project briefs prior to development is pivotal. According to Tech Jury, 87% of smartphone users spend time exclusively on mobile apps, with 18-24-year-olds spending 66% of total digital time on mobile apps. Of that, 89% of the time is spent on just 18 apps depending on individual users’ preferences, making proper app planning crucial for success.

Today’s audiences know what they want and don’t want in their mobile apps, encouraging teams to carefully write their project plans before they approach development. But how do you properly write a mobile app development brief without sacrificing your vision and staying within the initial budget? Why should you do so in the first place? Let’s discuss that and more in greater detail.

Why a Good Mobile App Project Brief Matters?


It’s worth discussing the significance of mobile app project briefs before we tackle the writing process itself. In practice, a project brief is used as a reference tool for developers to remain focused on the client’s deliverables. Approaching the development process without written and approved documentation can lead to drastic, last-minute changes, misunderstanding, as well as a loss of resources and brand reputation.

For example, developing a mobile app that filters restaurants based on food type, such as Happy Cow, means that developers should stay focused on it. Knowing that such and such features, UI elements, and API are necessary will help team members collaborate better in order to meet certain expectations. Whether you develop an app under your brand’s banner or outsource coding and design services to would-be clients, briefs can provide you with several benefits:

  • Clarity on what your mobile app project “is” and “isn’t” early in development
  • Point of reference for developers, project leads, and clients throughout the cycle
  • Smart allocation of available time and resources based on objective development criteria
  • Streamlined project data storage for further app updates and iterations

Writing Steps to Create a Good Mobile App Project Brief


1. Establish the “You” Behind the App

Depending on how “open” your project is to the public, you will want to write a detailed section about who the developers are. Elements such as company name, address, project lead, project title, as well as contact information, should be included in this introductory segment. Regardless of whether you build an in-house app or outsource developers to a client, this section is used for easy document storage and access.

#android app #ios app #minimum viable product (mvp) #mobile app development #web development #how do you write a project design #how to write a brief #how to write a project summary #how to write project summary #program brief example #project brief #project brief example #project brief template #project proposal brief #simple project brief template

Perl Critic: The Leading Static analyzer for Perl



Perl::Critic - Critique Perl source code for best-practices.


use Perl::Critic;
my $file = shift;
my $critic = Perl::Critic->new();
my @violations = $critic->critique($file);
print @violations;


Perl::Critic is an extensible framework for creating and applying coding standards to Perl source code. Essentially, it is a static source code analysis engine. Perl::Critic is distributed with a number of Perl::Critic::Policy modules that attempt to enforce various coding guidelines. Most Policy modules are based on Damian Conway's book Perl Best Practices. However, Perl::Critic is not limited to PBP and will even support Policies that contradict Conway. You can enable, disable, and customize those Polices through the Perl::Critic interface. You can also create new Policy modules that suit your own tastes.

For a command-line interface to Perl::Critic, see the documentation for perlcritic. If you want to integrate Perl::Critic with your build process, Test::Perl::Critic provides an interface that is suitable for test programs. Also, Test::Perl::Critic::Progressive is useful for gradually applying coding standards to legacy code. For the ultimate convenience (at the expense of some flexibility) see the criticism pragma.

If you'd like to try Perl::Critic without installing anything, there is a web-service available at http://perlcritic.com. The web-service does not yet support all the configuration features that are available in the native Perl::Critic API, but it should give you a good idea of what it does.

Also, ActivePerl includes a very slick graphical interface to Perl-Critic called perlcritic-gui. You can get a free community edition of ActivePerl from http://www.activestate.com.


Perl::Critic runs on Perl back to Perl 5.6.1. It relies on the PPI module to do the heavy work of parsing Perl.


The Perl::Critic module is considered to be a public class. Any changes to its interface will go through a deprecation cycle.


new( [ -profile => $FILE, -severity => $N, -theme => $string, -include => \@PATTERNS, -exclude => \@PATTERNS, -top => $N, -only => $B, -profile-strictness => $PROFILE_STRICTNESS_{WARN|FATAL|QUIET}, -force => $B, -verbose => $N ], -color => $B, -pager => $string, -allow-unsafe => $B, -criticism-fatal => $B)


Returns a reference to a new Perl::Critic object. Most arguments are just passed directly into Perl::Critic::Config, but I have described them here as well. The default value for all arguments can be defined in your .perlcriticrc file. See the "CONFIGURATION" section for more information about that. All arguments are optional key-value pairs as follows:

-profile is a path to a configuration file. If $FILE is not defined, Perl::Critic::Config attempts to find a .perlcriticrc configuration file in the current directory, and then in your home directory. Alternatively, you can set the PERLCRITIC environment variable to point to a file in another location. If a configuration file can't be found, or if $FILE is an empty string, then all Policies will be loaded with their default configuration. See "CONFIGURATION" for more information.

-severity is the minimum severity level. Only Policy modules that have a severity greater than $N will be applied. Severity values are integers ranging from 1 (least severe violations) to 5 (most severe violations). The default is 5. For a given -profile, decreasing the -severity will usually reveal more Policy violations. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file. Users can redefine the severity level for any Policy in their .perlcriticrc file. See "CONFIGURATION" for more information.

If it is difficult for you to remember whether severity "5" is the most or least restrictive level, then you can use one of these named values:

  SEVERITY NAME   ...is equivalent to...   SEVERITY NUMBER
  -severity => 'gentle'                     -severity => 5
  -severity => 'stern'                      -severity => 4
  -severity => 'harsh'                      -severity => 3
  -severity => 'cruel'                      -severity => 2
  -severity => 'brutal'                     -severity => 1

The names reflect how severely the code is criticized: a gentle criticism reports only the most severe violations, and so on down to a brutal criticism which reports even the most minor violations.

-theme is special expression that determines which Policies to apply based on their respective themes. For example, the following would load only Policies that have a 'bugs' AND 'pbp' theme:

  my $critic = Perl::Critic->new( -theme => 'bugs && pbp' );

Unless the -severity option is explicitly given, setting -theme silently causes the -severity to be set to 1. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file. See the "POLICY THEMES" section for more information about themes.

-include is a reference to a list of string @PATTERNS. Policy modules that match at least one m/$PATTERN/ixms will always be loaded, irrespective of all other settings. For example:

  my $critic = Perl::Critic->new(-include => ['layout'], -severity => 4);

This would cause Perl::Critic to apply all the CodeLayout::* Policy modules even though they have a severity level that is less than 4. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file. You can also use -include in conjunction with the -exclude option. Note that -exclude takes precedence over -include when a Policy matches both patterns.

-exclude is a reference to a list of string @PATTERNS. Policy modules that match at least one m/$PATTERN/ixms will not be loaded, irrespective of all other settings. For example:

  my $critic = Perl::Critic->new(-exclude => ['strict'], -severity => 1);

This would cause Perl::Critic to not apply the RequireUseStrict and ProhibitNoStrict Policy modules even though they have a severity level that is greater than 1. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file. You can also use -exclude in conjunction with the -include option. Note that -exclude takes precedence over -include when a Policy matches both patterns.

-single-policy is a string PATTERN. Only one policy that matches m/$PATTERN/ixms will be used. Policies that do not match will be excluded. This option has precedence over the -severity, -theme, -include, -exclude, and -only options. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

-top is the maximum number of Violations to return when ranked by their severity levels. This must be a positive integer. Violations are still returned in the order that they occur within the file. Unless the -severity option is explicitly given, setting -top silently causes the -severity to be set to 1. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

-only is a boolean value. If set to a true value, Perl::Critic will only choose from Policies that are mentioned in the user's profile. If set to a false value (which is the default), then Perl::Critic chooses from all the Policies that it finds at your site. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

-profile-strictness is an enumerated value, one of "$PROFILE_STRICTNESS_WARN" in Perl::Critic::Utils::Constants (the default), "$PROFILE_STRICTNESS_FATAL" in Perl::Critic::Utils::Constants, and "$PROFILE_STRICTNESS_QUIET" in Perl::Critic::Utils::Constants. If set to "$PROFILE_STRICTNESS_FATAL" in Perl::Critic::Utils::Constants, Perl::Critic will make certain warnings about problems found in a .perlcriticrc or file specified via the -profile option fatal. For example, Perl::Critic normally only warns about profiles referring to non-existent Policies, but this value makes this situation fatal. Correspondingly, "$PROFILE_STRICTNESS_QUIET" in Perl::Critic::Utils::Constants makes Perl::Critic shut up about these things.

-force is a boolean value that controls whether Perl::Critic observes the magical "## no critic" annotations in your code. If set to a true value, Perl::Critic will analyze all code. If set to a false value (which is the default) Perl::Critic will ignore code that is tagged with these annotations. See "BENDING THE RULES" for more information. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

-verbose can be a positive integer (from 1 to 11), or a literal format specification. See Perl::Critic::Violation for an explanation of format specifications. You can set the default value for this option in your .perlcriticrc file.

-unsafe directs Perl::Critic to allow the use of Policies that are marked as "unsafe" by the author. Such policies may compile untrusted code or do other nefarious things.

-color and -pager are not used by Perl::Critic but is provided for the benefit of perlcritic.

-criticism-fatal is not used by Perl::Critic but is provided for the benefit of criticism.

-color-severity-highest, -color-severity-high, -color-severity- medium, -color-severity-low, and -color-severity-lowest are not used by Perl::Critic, but are provided for the benefit of perlcritic. Each is set to the Term::ANSIColor color specification to be used to display violations of the corresponding severity.

-files-with-violations and -files-without-violations are not used by Perl::Critic, but are provided for the benefit of perlcritic, to cause only the relevant filenames to be displayed.


critique( $source_code )

Runs the $source_code through the Perl::Critic engine using all the Policies that have been loaded into this engine. If $source_code is a scalar reference, then it is treated as a string of actual Perl code. If $source_code is a reference to an instance of PPI::Document, then that instance is used directly. Otherwise, it is treated as a path to a local file containing Perl code. This method returns a list of Perl::Critic::Violation objects for each violation of the loaded Policies. The list is sorted in the order that the Violations appear in the code. If there are no violations, this method returns an empty list.

add_policy( -policy => $policy_name, -params => \%param_hash )

Creates a Policy object and loads it into this Critic. If the object cannot be instantiated, it will throw a fatal exception. Otherwise, it returns a reference to this Critic.

-policy is the name of a Perl::Critic::Policy subclass module. The 'Perl::Critic::Policy' portion of the name can be omitted for brevity. This argument is required.

-params is an optional reference to a hash of Policy parameters. The contents of this hash reference will be passed into to the constructor of the Policy module. See the documentation in the relevant Policy module for a description of the arguments it supports.


Returns a list containing references to all the Policy objects that have been loaded into this engine. Objects will be in the order that they were loaded.


Returns the Perl::Critic::Config object that was created for or given to this Critic.


Returns the Perl::Critic::Statistics object that was created for this Critic. The Statistics object accumulates data for all files that are analyzed by this Critic.


For those folks who prefer to have a functional interface, The critique method can be exported on request and called as a static function. If the first argument is a hashref, its contents are used to construct a new Perl::Critic object internally. The keys of that hash should be the same as those supported by the Perl::Critic::new() method. Here are some examples:

use Perl::Critic qw(critique);

# Use default parameters...
@violations = critique( $some_file );

# Use custom parameters...
@violations = critique( {-severity => 2}, $some_file );

# As a one-liner
%> perl -MPerl::Critic=critique -e 'print critique(shift)' some_file.pm

None of the other object-methods are currently supported as static functions. Sorry.


Most of the settings for Perl::Critic and each of the Policy modules can be controlled by a configuration file. The default configuration file is called .perlcriticrc. Perl::Critic will look for this file in the current directory first, and then in your home directory. Alternatively, you can set the PERLCRITIC environment variable to explicitly point to a different file in another location. If none of these files exist, and the -profile option is not given to the constructor, then all the modules that are found in the Perl::Critic::Policy namespace will be loaded with their default configuration.

The format of the configuration file is a series of INI-style blocks that contain key-value pairs separated by '='. Comments should start with '#' and can be placed on a separate line or after the name-value pairs if you desire.

Default settings for Perl::Critic itself can be set before the first named block. For example, putting any or all of these at the top of your configuration file will set the default value for the corresponding constructor argument.

severity  = 3                                     #Integer or named level
only      = 1                                     #Zero or One
force     = 0                                     #Zero or One
verbose   = 4                                     #Integer or format spec
top       = 50                                    #A positive integer
theme     = (pbp || security) && bugs             #A theme expression
include   = NamingConventions ClassHierarchies    #Space-delimited list
exclude   = Variables  Modules::RequirePackage    #Space-delimited list
criticism-fatal = 1                               #Zero or One
color     = 1                                     #Zero or One
allow-unsafe = 1                                  #Zero or One
pager     = less                                  #pager to pipe output to

The remainder of the configuration file is a series of blocks like this:

severity = 1
set_themes = foo bar
add_themes = baz
maximum_violations_per_document = 57
arg1 = value1
arg2 = value2

Perl::Critic::Policy::Category::PolicyName is the full name of a module that implements the policy. The Policy modules distributed with Perl::Critic have been grouped into categories according to the table of contents in Damian Conway's book Perl Best Practices. For brevity, you can omit the 'Perl::Critic::Policy' part of the module name.

severity is the level of importance you wish to assign to the Policy. All Policy modules are defined with a default severity value ranging from 1 (least severe) to 5 (most severe). However, you may disagree with the default severity and choose to give it a higher or lower severity, based on your own coding philosophy. You can set the severity to an integer from 1 to 5, or use one of the equivalent names:

SEVERITY NAME ...is equivalent to... SEVERITY NUMBER
gentle                                             5
stern                                              4
harsh                                              3
cruel                                              2
brutal                                             1

The names reflect how severely the code is criticized: a gentle criticism reports only the most severe violations, and so on down to a brutal criticism which reports even the most minor violations.

set_themes sets the theme for the Policy and overrides its default theme. The argument is a string of one or more whitespace-delimited alphanumeric words. Themes are case-insensitive. See "POLICY THEMES" for more information.

add_themes appends to the default themes for this Policy. The argument is a string of one or more whitespace-delimited words. Themes are case- insensitive. See "POLICY THEMES" for more information.

maximum_violations_per_document limits the number of Violations the Policy will return for a given document. Some Policies have a default limit; see the documentation for the individual Policies to see whether there is one. To force a Policy to not have a limit, specify "no_limit" or the empty string for the value of this parameter.

The remaining key-value pairs are configuration parameters that will be passed into the constructor for that Policy. The constructors for most Policy objects do not support arguments, and those that do should have reasonable defaults. See the documentation on the appropriate Policy module for more details.

Instead of redefining the severity for a given Policy, you can completely disable a Policy by prepending a '-' to the name of the module in your configuration file. In this manner, the Policy will never be loaded, regardless of the -severity given to the Perl::Critic constructor.

A simple configuration might look like this:

# I think these are really important, so always load them

severity = 5

severity = 5

# I think these are less important, so only load when asked

severity = 2

allow = if unless  # My custom configuration
severity = cruel   # Same as "severity = 2"

# Give these policies a custom theme.  I can activate just
# these policies by saying `perlcritic -theme larry`

add_themes = larry

add_themes = larry curly moe

# I do not agree with these at all, so never load them


# For all other Policies, I accept the default severity,
# so no additional configuration is required for them.

For additional configuration examples, see the perlcriticrc file that is included in this examples directory of this distribution.

Damian Conway's own Perl::Critic configuration is also included in this distribution as examples/perlcriticrc-conway.


A large number of Policy modules are distributed with Perl::Critic. They are described briefly in the companion document Perl::Critic::PolicySummary and in more detail in the individual modules themselves. Say "perlcritic -doc PATTERN" to see the perldoc for all Policy modules that match the regex m/PATTERN/ixms

There are a number of distributions of additional policies on CPAN. If Perl::Critic doesn't contain a policy that you want, some one may have already written it. See the "SEE ALSO" section below for a list of some of these distributions.


Each Policy is defined with one or more "themes". Themes can be used to create arbitrary groups of Policies. They are intended to provide an alternative mechanism for selecting your preferred set of Policies. For example, you may wish disable a certain subset of Policies when analyzing test programs. Conversely, you may wish to enable only a specific subset of Policies when analyzing modules.

The Policies that ship with Perl::Critic have been broken into the following themes. This is just our attempt to provide some basic logical groupings. You are free to invent new themes that suit your needs.

core              All policies that ship with Perl::Critic
pbp               Policies that come directly from "Perl Best Practices"
bugs              Policies that that prevent or reveal bugs
certrec           Policies that CERT recommends
certrule          Policies that CERT considers rules
maintenance       Policies that affect the long-term health of the code
cosmetic          Policies that only have a superficial effect
complexity        Policies that specifically relate to code complexity
security          Policies that relate to security issues
tests             Policies that are specific to test programs

Any Policy may fit into multiple themes. Say "perlcritic -list" to get a listing of all available Policies and the themes that are associated with each one. You can also change the theme for any Policy in your .perlcriticrc file. See the "CONFIGURATION" section for more information about that.

Using the -theme option, you can create an arbitrarily complex rule that determines which Policies will be loaded. Precedence is the same as regular Perl code, and you can use parentheses to enforce precedence as well. Supported operators are:

Operator    Alternative    Example
&&          and            'pbp && core'
||          or             'pbp || (bugs && security)'
!           not            'pbp && ! (portability || complexity)'

Theme names are case-insensitive. If the -theme is set to an empty string, then it evaluates as true all Policies.


Perl::Critic takes a hard-line approach to your code: either you comply or you don't. In the real world, it is not always practical (nor even possible) to fully comply with coding standards. In such cases, it is wise to show that you are knowingly violating the standards and that you have a Damn Good Reason (DGR) for doing so.

To help with those situations, you can direct Perl::Critic to ignore certain lines or blocks of code by using annotations:

require 'LegacyLibaray1.pl';  ## no critic
require 'LegacyLibrary2.pl';  ## no critic

for my $element (@list) {

    ## no critic

    $foo = "";               #Violates 'ProhibitEmptyQuotes'
    $barf = bar() if $foo;   #Violates 'ProhibitPostfixControls'
    #Some more evil code...

    ## use critic

    #Some good code...

The "## no critic" annotations direct Perl::Critic to ignore the remaining lines of code until a "## use critic" annotation is found. If the "## no critic" annotation is on the same line as a code statement, then only that line of code is overlooked. To direct perlcritic to ignore the "## no critic" annotations, use the --force option.

A bare "## no critic" annotation disables all the active Policies. If you wish to disable only specific Policies, add a list of Policy names as arguments, just as you would for the "no strict" or "no warnings" pragmas. For example, this would disable the ProhibitEmptyQuotes and ProhibitPostfixControls policies until the end of the block or until the next "## use critic" annotation (whichever comes first):

## no critic (EmptyQuotes, PostfixControls)

# Now exempt from ValuesAndExpressions::ProhibitEmptyQuotes
$foo = "";

# Now exempt ControlStructures::ProhibitPostfixControls
$barf = bar() if $foo;

# Still subjected to ValuesAndExpression::RequireNumberSeparators
$long_int = 10000000000;

Since the Policy names are matched against the "## no critic" arguments as regular expressions, you can abbreviate the Policy names or disable an entire family of Policies in one shot like this:

## no critic (NamingConventions)

# Now exempt from NamingConventions::Capitalization
my $camelHumpVar = 'foo';

# Now exempt from NamingConventions::Capitalization
sub camelHumpSub {}

The argument list must be enclosed in parentheses or brackets and must contain one or more comma-separated barewords (e.g. don't use quotes). The "## no critic" annotations can be nested, and Policies named by an inner annotation will be disabled along with those already disabled an outer annotation.

Some Policies like Subroutines::ProhibitExcessComplexity apply to an entire block of code. In those cases, the "## no critic" annotation must appear on the line where the violation is reported. For example:

sub complicated_function {  ## no critic (ProhibitExcessComplexity)
    # Your code here...

Policies such as Documentation::RequirePodSections apply to the entire document, in which case violations are reported at line 1.

Use this feature wisely. "## no critic" annotations should be used in the smallest possible scope, or only on individual lines of code. And you should always be as specific as possible about which Policies you want to disable (i.e. never use a bare "## no critic"). If Perl::Critic complains about your code, try and find a compliant solution before resorting to this feature.


Coding standards are deeply personal and highly subjective. The goal of Perl::Critic is to help you write code that conforms with a set of best practices. Our primary goal is not to dictate what those practices are, but rather, to implement the practices discovered by others. Ultimately, you make the rules -- Perl::Critic is merely a tool for encouraging consistency. If there is a policy that you think is important or that we have overlooked, we would be very grateful for contributions, or you can simply load your own private set of policies into Perl::Critic.


The modular design of Perl::Critic is intended to facilitate the addition of new Policies. You'll need to have some understanding of PPI, but most Policy modules are pretty straightforward and only require about 20 lines of code. Please see the Perl::Critic::DEVELOPER file included in this distribution for a step-by-step demonstration of how to create new Policy modules.

If you develop any new Policy modules, feel free to send them to <team@perlcritic.com> and I'll be happy to consider putting them into the Perl::Critic distribution. Or if you would like to work on the Perl::Critic project directly, you can fork our repository at https://github.com/Perl-Critic/Perl-Critic.git.

The Perl::Critic team is also available for hire. If your organization has its own coding standards, we can create custom Policies to enforce your local guidelines. Or if your code base is prone to a particular defect pattern, we can design Policies that will help you catch those costly defects before they go into production. To discuss your needs with the Perl::Critic team, just contact <team@perlcritic.com>.


Perl::Critic requires the following modules:

























You are encouraged to subscribe to the public mailing list at https://groups.google.com/d/forum/perl-critic. At least one member of the development team is usually hanging around in irc://irc.perl.org/#perlcritic and you can follow Perl::Critic on Twitter, at https://twitter.com/perlcritic.


There are a number of distributions of additional Policies available. A few are listed here:







These distributions enable you to use Perl::Critic in your unit tests:



There is also a distribution that will install all the Perl::Critic related modules known to the development team:



Scrutinizing Perl code is hard for humans, let alone machines. If you find any bugs, particularly false-positives or false-negatives from a Perl::Critic::Policy, please submit them at https://github.com/Perl-Critic/Perl-Critic/issues. Thanks.


Adam Kennedy - For creating PPI, the heart and soul of Perl::Critic.

Damian Conway - For writing Perl Best Practices, finally :)

Chris Dolan - For contributing the best features and Policy modules.

Andy Lester - Wise sage and master of all-things-testing.

Elliot Shank - The self-proclaimed quality freak.

Giuseppe Maxia - For all the great ideas and positive encouragement.

and Sharon, my wife - For putting up with my all-night code sessions.

Thanks also to the Perl Foundation for providing a grant to support Chris Dolan's project to implement twenty PBP policies. http://www.perlfoundation.org/april_1_2007_new_grant_awards

Thanks also to this incomplete laundry list of folks who have contributed to Perl::Critic in some way: Gregory Oschwald, Mike O'Regan, Tom Hukins, Omer Gazit, Evan Zacks, Paul Howarth, Sawyer X, Christian Walde, Dave Rolsky, Jakub Wilk, Roy Ivy III, Oliver Trosien, Glenn Fowler, Matt Creenan, Alex Balhatchet, Sebastian Paaske Tørholm, Stuart A Johnston, Dan Book, Steven Humphrey, James Raspass, Nick Tonkin, Harrison Katz, Douglas Sims, Mark Fowler, Alan Berndt, Neil Bowers, Sergey Romanov, Gabor Szabo, Graham Knop, Mike Eldridge, David Steinbrunner, Kirk Kimmel, Guillaume Aubert, Dave Cross, Anirvan Chatterjee, Todd Rinaldo, Graham Ollis, Karen Etheridge, Jonas Brømsø, Olaf Alders, Jim Keenan, Slaven Rezić, Szymon Nieznański.


Jeffrey Ryan Thalhammer jeff@imaginative-software.com


Copyright (c) 2005-2018 Imaginative Software Systems. All rights reserved.

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the same terms as Perl itself. The full text of this license can be found in the LICENSE file included with this module.

Download Details:

Author: Perl-Critic
Source Code: https://github.com/Perl-Critic/Perl-Critic

License: View license


Ray  Patel

Ray Patel


42 Exciting Python Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners [2021]

Python Project Ideas

Python is one of the most popular programming languages currently. It looks like this trend is about to continue in 2021 and beyond. So, if you are a Python beginner, the best thing you can do is work on some real-time Python project ideas.

We, here at upGrad, believe in a practical approach as theoretical knowledge alone won’t be of help in a real-time work environment. In this article, we will be exploring some interesting Python project ideas which beginners can work on to put their Python knowledge to test. In this article, you will find 42 top python project ideas for beginners to get hands-on experience on Python

Moreover, project-based learning helps improve student knowledge. That’s why all of the upGrad courses cover case studies and assignments based on real-life problems. This technique is ideally for, but not limited to, beginners in programming skills.

But first, let’s address the more pertinent question that must be lurking in your mind:

#data science #python project #python project ideas #python project ideas for beginners #python project topics #python projects #python projects for beginners

Thierry  Perret

Thierry Perret


Ajouter En Python - Comment Ajouter à Une Liste Ou à Un Tableau

Dans cet article, vous découvrirez la .append()méthode en Python. Vous verrez également en quoi .append()diffère des autres méthodes utilisées pour ajouter des éléments aux listes.


Que sont les listes en Python ? Une définition pour les débutants

Un tableau en programmation est une collection ordonnée d'éléments, et tous les éléments doivent être du même type de données.

Cependant, contrairement à d'autres langages de programmation, les tableaux ne sont pas une structure de données intégrée à Python. Au lieu des tableaux traditionnels, Python utilise des listes.

Les listes sont essentiellement des tableaux dynamiques et sont l'une des structures de données les plus courantes et les plus puissantes de Python.

Vous pouvez les considérer comme des conteneurs commandés. Ils stockent et organisent ensemble des données similaires.

Les éléments stockés dans une liste peuvent être de n'importe quel type de données.

Il peut y avoir des listes d'entiers (nombres entiers), des listes de flottants (nombres à virgule flottante), des listes de chaînes (texte) et des listes de tout autre type de données Python intégré.

Bien qu'il soit possible pour les listes de ne contenir que des éléments du même type de données, elles sont plus flexibles que les tableaux traditionnels. Cela signifie qu'il peut y avoir une variété de types de données différents dans la même liste.

Les listes ont 0 ou plusieurs éléments, ce qui signifie qu'il peut également y avoir des listes vides. À l'intérieur d'une liste, il peut également y avoir des valeurs en double.

Les valeurs sont séparées par une virgule et placées entre crochets, [].

Comment créer des listes en Python

Pour créer une nouvelle liste, donnez d'abord un nom à la liste. Ajoutez ensuite l'opérateur d'affectation ( =) et une paire de crochets ouvrants et fermants. A l'intérieur des parenthèses, ajoutez les valeurs que la liste doit contenir.

#create a new list of names
names = ["Jimmy", "Timmy", "Kenny", "Lenny"]

#print the list to the console

#['Jimmy', 'Timmy', 'Kenny', 'Lenny']

Comment les listes sont indexées en Python

Les listes maintiennent un ordre pour chaque article.

Chaque élément de la collection a son propre numéro d'index, que vous pouvez utiliser pour accéder à l'élément lui-même.

Les index en Python (et tout autre langage de programmation moderne) commencent à 0 et augmentent pour chaque élément de la liste.

Par exemple, la liste créée précédemment avait 4 valeurs :

names = ["Jimmy", "Timmy", "Kenny", "Lenny"]

La première valeur de la liste, "Jimmy", a un indice de 0.

La deuxième valeur de la liste, "Timmy", a un indice de 1.

La troisième valeur de la liste, "Kenny", a un indice de 2.

La quatrième valeur de la liste, "Lenny", a un indice de 3.

Pour accéder à un élément de la liste par son numéro d'index, écrivez d'abord le nom de la liste, puis entre crochets écrivez l'entier de l'index de l'élément.

Par exemple, si vous vouliez accéder à l'élément qui a un index de 2, vous feriez :

names = ["Jimmy", "Timmy", "Kenny", "Lenny"]



Les listes en Python sont modifiables

En Python, lorsque les objets sont mutables , cela signifie que leurs valeurs peuvent être modifiées une fois qu'ils ont été créés.

Les listes sont des objets modifiables, vous pouvez donc les mettre à jour et les modifier après leur création.

Les listes sont également dynamiques, ce qui signifie qu'elles peuvent augmenter et diminuer tout au long de la vie d'un programme.

Des éléments peuvent être supprimés d'une liste existante et de nouveaux éléments peuvent être ajoutés à une liste existante.

Il existe des méthodes intégrées pour ajouter et supprimer des éléments des listes.

Par exemple, pour add articles, il y a les .append(), .insert()et les .extend()méthodes.

Pour supprimer des éléments, il existe les méthodes .remove(), .pop()et .pop(index).

A quoi sert la .append()méthode ?

La .append()méthode ajoute un élément supplémentaire à la fin d'une liste déjà existante.

La syntaxe générale ressemble à ceci :


Décomposons-le :

  • list_name est le nom que vous avez donné à la liste.
  • .append()est la méthode de liste pour ajouter un élément à la fin de list_name.
  • item est l'élément individuel spécifié que vous souhaitez ajouter.

Lors de l'utilisation de .append(), la liste d'origine est modifiée. Aucune nouvelle liste n'est créée.

Si vous souhaitez ajouter un nom supplémentaire à la liste créée précédemment, procédez comme suit :

names = ["Jimmy", "Timmy", "Kenny", "Lenny"]

#add the name Dylan to the end of the list


#['Jimmy', 'Timmy', 'Kenny', 'Lenny', 'Dylan']

Quelle est la différence entre les méthodes .append()et .insert()?

La différence entre les deux méthodes est qu'elle .append()ajoute un élément à la fin d'une liste, alors qu'elle .insert()insère et élément à une position spécifiée dans la liste.

Comme vous l'avez vu dans la section précédente, .append()ajoutera l'élément que vous passez comme argument à la fonction toujours à la fin de la liste.

Si vous ne souhaitez pas simplement ajouter des éléments à la fin d'une liste, vous pouvez spécifier la position à laquelle vous souhaitez les ajouter avec .insert().

La syntaxe générale ressemble à ceci :


Décomposons-le :

  • list_name est le nom de la liste.
  • .insert() est la méthode de liste pour insérer un élément dans une liste.
  • positionest le premier argument de la méthode. C'est toujours un entier - en particulier c'est le numéro d'index de la position où vous voulez que le nouvel élément soit placé.
  • itemest le deuxième argument de la méthode. Ici, vous spécifiez le nouvel élément que vous souhaitez ajouter à la liste.

Par exemple, supposons que vous disposiez de la liste suivante de langages de programmation :

programming_languages = ["JavaScript", "Java", "C++"]


#['JavaScript', 'Java', 'C++']

Si vous vouliez insérer "Python" au début de la liste, en tant que nouvel élément de la liste, vous utiliseriez la .insert()méthode et spécifieriez la position comme 0. (Rappelez-vous que la première valeur d'une liste a toujours un indice de 0.)

programming_languages = ["JavaScript", "Java", "C++"]

programming_languages.insert(0, "Python")


#['Python', 'JavaScript', 'Java', 'C++']

Si vous aviez plutôt voulu que "JavaScript" soit le premier élément de la liste, puis ajoutez "Python" comme nouvel élément, vous spécifieriez la position comme suit1 :

programming_languages = ["JavaScript", "Java", "C++"]



#['JavaScript', 'Python', 'Java', 'C++']

La .insert()méthode vous donne un peu plus de flexibilité par rapport à la .append()méthode qui ajoute uniquement un nouvel élément à la fin de la liste.

Quelle est la différence entre les méthodes .append()et .extend()?

Que faire si vous souhaitez ajouter plusieurs éléments à une liste à la fois, au lieu de les ajouter un à la fois ?

Vous pouvez utiliser la .append()méthode pour ajouter plusieurs éléments à la fin d'une liste.

Supposons que vous ayez une liste qui ne contient que deux langages de programmation :

programming_languages = ["JavaScript", "Java"]


#['JavaScript', 'Java']

Vous souhaitez ensuite ajouter deux autres langues, à la fin.

Dans ce cas, vous passez une liste contenant les deux nouvelles valeurs que vous souhaitez ajouter, en argument à .append():

programming_languages = ["JavaScript", "Java"]

#add two new items to the end of the list


#['JavaScript', 'Java', ['Python', 'C++']]

Si vous regardez de plus près la sortie ci-dessus, ['JavaScript', 'Java', ['Python', 'C++']]vous verrez qu'une nouvelle liste a été ajoutée à la fin de la liste déjà existante.

Donc, .append() ajoute une liste à l'intérieur d'une liste .

Les listes sont des objets, et lorsque vous utilisez .append()pour ajouter une autre liste dans une liste, les nouveaux éléments seront ajoutés en tant qu'objet unique (élément).

Supposons que vous ayez déjà deux listes, comme ceci :

names = ["Jimmy", "Timmy"]
more_names = ["Kenny", "Lenny"]

Et si vous vouliez combiner le contenu des deux listes en une seule, en ajoutant le contenu de more_namesto names?

Lorsque la .append()méthode est utilisée à cette fin, une autre liste est créée à l'intérieur de names:

names = ["Jimmy", "Timmy"]
more_names = ["Kenny", "Lenny"]

#add contents of more_names to names


#['Jimmy', 'Timmy', ['Kenny', 'Lenny']]

Donc, .append()ajoute les nouveaux éléments comme une autre liste, en ajoutant l'objet à la fin.

Pour réellement concaténer (ajouter) des listes et combiner tous les éléments d'une liste à une autre , vous devez utiliser la .extend()méthode.

La syntaxe générale ressemble à ceci :


Décomposons-le :

  • list_name est le nom de l'une des listes.
  • .extend() est la méthode pour ajouter tout le contenu d'une liste à une autre.
  • iterablepeut être n'importe quel itérable tel qu'une autre liste, par exemple, another_list_name. Dans ce cas, another_list_nameest une liste qui sera concaténée avec list_name, et son contenu sera ajouté un par un à la fin de list_name, en tant qu'éléments séparés.

Ainsi, en reprenant l'exemple précédent, lorsque .append()est remplacé par .extend(), la sortie ressemblera à ceci :

names = ["Jimmy", "Timmy"]
more_names = ["Kenny", "Lenny"]



#['Jimmy', 'Timmy', 'Kenny', 'Lenny']

Lorsque nous avons utilisé .extend(), la namesliste s'est allongée et sa longueur a été augmentée de 2.

La façon dont cela .extend()fonctionne est qu'il prend une liste (ou un autre itérable) comme argument, itère sur chaque élément, puis chaque élément de l'itérable est ajouté à la liste.

Il existe une autre différence entre .append()et .extend().

Lorsque vous souhaitez ajouter une chaîne, comme vu précédemment, .append()ajoutez l'élément entier et unique à la fin de la liste :

names = ["Jimmy", "Timmy", "Kenny", "Lenny"]

#add the name Dylan to the end of the list


#['Jimmy', 'Timmy', 'Kenny', 'Lenny', 'Dylan']

Si vous aviez .extend()plutôt l' habitude d'ajouter une chaîne à la fin d'une liste, chaque caractère de la chaîne serait ajouté en tant qu'élément individuel à la liste.

C'est parce que les chaînes sont un itérable et .extend()qu'elles itèrent sur l'argument itérable qui lui est transmis.

Ainsi, l'exemple ci-dessus ressemblerait à ceci :

names = ["Jimmy", "Timmy", "Kenny", "Lenny"]

#pass a string(iterable) to .extend()


#['Jimmy', 'Timmy', 'Kenny', 'Lenny', 'D', 'y', 'l', 'a', 'n']


En résumé, la .append()méthode est utilisée pour ajouter un élément à la fin d'une liste existante, sans créer de nouvelle liste.

Lorsqu'il est utilisé pour ajouter une liste à une autre liste, il crée une liste dans une liste.

Si vous souhaitez en savoir plus sur Python, consultez la certification Python de freeCodeCamp . Vous commencerez à apprendre de manière interactive et conviviale pour les débutants. Vous construirez également cinq projets à la fin pour mettre en pratique ce que vous avez appris.

Merci d'avoir lu et bon codage!

Link: https://www.freecodecamp.org/news/append-in-python-how-to-append-to-a-list-or-an-array/