Grid: A grid world environment based on openAI-gym

If you are an absolute beginner in the field of reinforcement learning, while leafing through the pages of Sutton & Barto: Introduction to Reinforcement learning(II edition), it is most likely that the first problem you are going to solve is Grid world.

In this post, we will dig deeper into one of the most intriguing problems in reinforcement learning; the grid problem.

Prerequisites-

  1. A good understanding of C++/ Python. (Nah!! I am not hiring, it’s just for you to understand the code)
  2. A good grasp over deep learning, Maths (Algebra & Calculus), and reinforcement learning.

NoteBefore starting the tutorial, I will recommend you’ll to take a look at this post from Jeremy Zhang.

After completing this tutorial you’ll be able to understand-

  1. What is grid world problem ?
  2. Which method is suitable in solving this?

So, Let’s start with the problem statement.


Problem statement

Grids

The Figure uses a rectangular grid to illustrate value functions for a simple finite MDP. The cells of the grid correspond to the states of the environment. At each cell, four actions are possible: north, south, east, and west, which deterministically cause the agent to move one cell in the respective direction on the grid. Actions that would take the agent off the grid leave its location unchanged, but also result in a reward of −1. Other actions result in a reward of 0, except those that move the agent out of the special states A and B. From state A, all four actions yield a reward of +10 and take the agent to A′. From state B, all actions yield a reward of +5 and take the agent to B′.

Logic

Firstly, this problem is a perfect example of what we call a Finite MDP or Markov Decision Process. Now, a task can be classified as MDP when the it strictly follows the Markov’s property shown below

p(s′,r|s,a)=Pr{St+1=s′,Rt+1 =r|St=s,At=a} …….(1)

here p is the probability of an action a followed under a policy to reach from the current state sto successive states’_. On reaching**s’the agent gets the rewardr**. _please note that here by agent we mean a computer program.

Grid with terminal states

In the figure, the grid is shown with light grey region that indicates the terminal states. A terminal state is same as the goal state where the agent is suppose end the game.

Objective

To solve the problem we are suppose to deduce a policy that directs the agent towards the terminal states, the one at the upper left corner and the other at the lower right corner of the grid. By policy we mean π which is nothing but a rule that guides the agent in taking the most suitable action depending on the state in which the agent is. In mathematical terms, π is nothing but mappings from a state S to an action **A **as shown in the figure below.

Mapping from state to actions

#reinforcement-learning #algorithms #artificial-intelligence #algorithms

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Grid: A grid world environment based on openAI-gym

Grid: A grid world environment based on openAI-gym

If you are an absolute beginner in the field of reinforcement learning, while leafing through the pages of Sutton & Barto: Introduction to Reinforcement learning(II edition), it is most likely that the first problem you are going to solve is Grid world.

In this post, we will dig deeper into one of the most intriguing problems in reinforcement learning; the grid problem.

Prerequisites-

  1. A good understanding of C++/ Python. (Nah!! I am not hiring, it’s just for you to understand the code)
  2. A good grasp over deep learning, Maths (Algebra & Calculus), and reinforcement learning.

NoteBefore starting the tutorial, I will recommend you’ll to take a look at this post from Jeremy Zhang.

After completing this tutorial you’ll be able to understand-

  1. What is grid world problem ?
  2. Which method is suitable in solving this?

So, Let’s start with the problem statement.


Problem statement

Grids

The Figure uses a rectangular grid to illustrate value functions for a simple finite MDP. The cells of the grid correspond to the states of the environment. At each cell, four actions are possible: north, south, east, and west, which deterministically cause the agent to move one cell in the respective direction on the grid. Actions that would take the agent off the grid leave its location unchanged, but also result in a reward of −1. Other actions result in a reward of 0, except those that move the agent out of the special states A and B. From state A, all four actions yield a reward of +10 and take the agent to A′. From state B, all actions yield a reward of +5 and take the agent to B′.

Logic

Firstly, this problem is a perfect example of what we call a Finite MDP or Markov Decision Process. Now, a task can be classified as MDP when the it strictly follows the Markov’s property shown below

p(s′,r|s,a)=Pr{St+1=s′,Rt+1 =r|St=s,At=a} …….(1)

here p is the probability of an action a followed under a policy to reach from the current state sto successive states’_. On reaching**s’the agent gets the rewardr**. _please note that here by agent we mean a computer program.

Grid with terminal states

In the figure, the grid is shown with light grey region that indicates the terminal states. A terminal state is same as the goal state where the agent is suppose end the game.

Objective

To solve the problem we are suppose to deduce a policy that directs the agent towards the terminal states, the one at the upper left corner and the other at the lower right corner of the grid. By policy we mean π which is nothing but a rule that guides the agent in taking the most suitable action depending on the state in which the agent is. In mathematical terms, π is nothing but mappings from a state S to an action **A **as shown in the figure below.

Mapping from state to actions

#reinforcement-learning #algorithms #artificial-intelligence #algorithms

Anshu  Banga

Anshu Banga

1592451983

How to Build Q-Learning using Python and OpenAI Gym

In this article, we will build and play our very first reinforcement learning (RL) game using Python and OpenAI Gym environment. The OpenAI Gym library has tons of gaming environments – text based to real time complex environments. More details can be found on their website. To install the gym library is simple, just type this command:

pip install gym

We will be using the gym library to build and play a text based game called FrozenLake-v0. The following description is picked as is from the Gym site about this game:

#python #openai #openai gym

What is Base Protocol (BASE) | What is BASE token

Base Protocol (BASE) is a token whose price is pegged to the total market cap of all cryptocurrencies at a ratio of 1:1 trillion. BASE allows traders to speculate on the entire crypto industry with one token. The Base Protocol is built on the Ethereum blockchain, integrates a (Chainlink) oracle, and is launching on ((Uniswap)

As cryptocurrency enthusiasts, we’re sometimes divided on which digital assets to buy — bullish on certain projects and bearish on others.

But we all agree on one thing, which is that the overall cryptocurrency industry will achieve long-term growth and future adoption.

The Base Protocol makes it possible to invest with this consensus. BASE allows traders to speculate on the entire industry with one token.

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The Base Protocol is the world’s first and only tokenized cryptocurrency market tracker. By holding BASE tokens, users can get exposure to the performance of the entire cryptocurrency market. Unlike the index trackers currently operating in the traditional markets, there is no entry or exit fee or brokerage charges.

Index funds have consistently outperformed actively managed mutual funds. Until the launch of BASE, there was no real cryptocurrency market tracker that tracked the performance of the entire digital asset market. BASE will be useful for institutional investors and traders to diversify and hedge their crypto portfolios. BASE will also help new and existing retail investors to take out the guesswork and get exposed to the growth of all current and future digital assets entering the market.

The BASE token’s underlying protocol creates several additional use cases in DeFi, trading, venture capital, hedge funds and many other business sectors.

The Base Protocol mission is simple — to make it easy for everyone to benefit from the performance of the entire cryptocurrency market in a secure, decentralized and future-proof way.

Why BASE?

It’s no doubt that a crypto industry ETF would be a valuable product for investors. But it is very challenging to create such a product through traditional means, as it would be almost impossible to manage portfolio ownership of 5,000+ assets. How would the portfolio manager weigh ownership of each asset as market cap dominance changes? How would they account for newly entering/exiting assets? Who would take on all the associated transaction and custodial fees? There are also various legal limitations that restrict the formation of such an instrument in many countries — and even if it could be formed, it would be a highly centralized product.

By simply pegging price to the total market capitalization of all cryptocurrencies, the Base Protocol cuts through all of these problems. BASE gives holders the same function as a traditional industry ETF without all of the centralized challenges that make such an ETF impossible.

BASE will offer new value for investors in the cryptocurrency ecosystem through an elegantly simple protocol — so valuable and so simple that you might be asking yourself:

How has this not been done before?

The answer is that it wasn’t possible until recently. This project couldn’t be achieved without a robust decentralized blockchain, proven oracle integrations, and new developments in the DeFi space. We founded the Base Protocol to build on these innovations and create BASE; one tokenized asset that represents speculation on all cryptocurrencies.

Vision

We’ve seen that there are many individuals who want to invest in cryptocurrencies, but don’t necessarily understand how they work. While the overview for each different crypto asset can be difficult to understand for a new user, the pitch for BASE is simple: it’s the way to invest in all of those crypto assets simultaneously. In this way, the Base Protocol can become an instrumental force in driving new adoption in the blockchain space.

We’ve also noticed that institutional investors have been introducing cryptocurrency investments to their portfolios. These institutions typically invest at a high level with great diversification covering multiple industries. Their cryptocurrency holdings are usually composed of just Bitcoin, or some handful mix of “blue chip” digital assets. By holding BASE, these institutions will gain exposure to the entire cryptocurrency industry — an objectively more diversified alternative.

In the same way that Bitcoin is the household name of cryptocurrencies, the Base Protocol aims to become the household name for general cryptocurrency investing. BASE’s vision is to become the primary channel of investment for new/existing cryptocurrency traders and institutional investors.

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#blockchain #bitcoin #crypto #base protocol #base

13 Cool Simple CSS Grid layout examples

Collection of free hand-picked simple CSS grid examples. Also, it includes a bunch of front-end techniques, tips, and tricks for your future reference. Hope you will like these freebies and find them useful. Happy coding!

  • Styling the last row of a grid with CSS selectors
  • Grid Animation Effects
  • Simple grid mixin
  • Simple Grid CSS Grid
  • Simple CSS Grid Hover
  • Simple css Grid – Responsive
  • Simple css grid system using scss
  • CSS variables simple CSS grid
  • Super Simple CSS Grid
  • 3D Grid UI
  • Aspect ratio Grid boxes with CSS Variables
  • Simple grid system
  • Simple Grid template

#layouts #css grid #grid #layouts #css #css grid layout

Gps Location Based App Development

In the search for trends, more and more geo-dependent mobile applications have been appearing on the market. Some of them cannot work without locating the user, while others are taking advantage of the geolocation feature to make their services more accessible. Navigators, guides, social networks with geotagged photos, fitness applications with route tracking belong to so-called Location-Based Services.

DataIT Solutions development expertise helps you get the most accurate GPS location-based solutions with highly-reliable GPS tracking modules including driving estimations, dynamic condition filtering, yielding the best consumer experience.

Location-Based App Development Helps In:

  • Identifying the position of a person or an object
  • Measurement of distance between two objects
  • Building optimum routes from one point to another

A location-based app needs an interactive UI along with strong backend server functionalities such as:

  • GPS coordinates of the location
  • Receiving the current location of the user
  • Serving the nearby locations
  • Directions for driving or walking
  • Map integration

We build innovative mobile apps that are instantly deployable for navigation & search, weather, field services, asset-tracking, proximity-based marketing, geofencing services, and more. Our beacon-compatible mobile applications deliver engaging UX for indoor-outdoor locations while enhancing existing business processes, productivity, and revenues.

Location-based apps are a great mobile development segment. It is still possible to come up with an innovative idea and become a giant in this enterprise.

Hire a Dedicated Development Team to develop your location-based apps and set your business apart from your competition.

#gps location based app development #app development #location based app development #gps location-based solutions #location-based app development #mobile-apps