Charity  Ferry

Charity Ferry


Roles, Groups, and Policies in PostgreSQL

What is the difference between a Role and a Group in PostgreSQL? What is their relationship, and which one(s) can be assigned to whom?


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Roles, Groups, and Policies in PostgreSQL
Charity  Ferry

Charity Ferry


Roles, Groups, and Policies in PostgreSQL

What is the difference between a Role and a Group in PostgreSQL? What is their relationship, and which one(s) can be assigned to whom?


Improving Kubernetes Security with Open Policy Agent (OPA)

Many multinational organizations now run their applications on microservice architecture inside their cloud environments, and (many) administrators are responsible for defining multiple policies on those environments. These giant IT organizations have extensive infrastructure systems and their systems have their own policy modules or their own built-in authorization systems. This is an excellent solution to a policy issue at enterprise scale (especially if you have the investment and resources to ensure best practice implementation), but such an overall ecosystem can be fragmented, which means if you want to improve control and visibility over who can do what across the stack, you would face a lot of complexity.

Why We Need OPA

Doing a lot of policy enforcement manually is the problem of the past. This does not work in today’s modern environments where everything is very dynamic and ephemeral, where the technology stack is very heterogeneous, where every development team could use a different language. So, the question is, how do you gain granular control over manual policies to automate and streamline their implementation? And the answer is with Open Policy Agent (OPA).

OPA provides technology that helps unify policy enforcement across a wide range of software and enable or empower administrators with more control over their systems. These policies are incredibly helpful in maintaining security, compliance, standardization across environments where we need to define and enforce such policies in a declarative way.

#blog #kubernetes #security #kubernetes open policy agent #opa #open policy agent #policy enforcement #policy implementation

PostgreSQL Connection Pooling: Part 4 – PgBouncer vs. Pgpool-II

In our previous posts in this series, we spoke at length about using PgBouncer  and Pgpool-II , the connection pool architecture and pros and cons of leveraging one for your PostgreSQL deployment. In our final post, we will put them head-to-head in a detailed feature comparison and compare the results of PgBouncer vs. Pgpool-II performance for your PostgreSQL hosting !

The bottom line – Pgpool-II is a great tool if you need load-balancing and high availability. Connection pooling is almost a bonus you get alongside. PgBouncer does only one thing, but does it really well. If the objective is to limit the number of connections and reduce resource consumption, PgBouncer wins hands down.

It is also perfectly fine to use both PgBouncer and Pgpool-II in a chain – you can have a PgBouncer to provide connection pooling, which talks to a Pgpool-II instance that provides high availability and load balancing. This gives you the best of both worlds!

Using PgBouncer with Pgpool-II - Connection Pooling Diagram

PostgreSQL Connection Pooling: Part 4 – PgBouncer vs. Pgpool-II


Performance Testing

While PgBouncer may seem to be the better option in theory, theory can often be misleading. So, we pitted the two connection poolers head-to-head, using the standard pgbench tool, to see which one provides better transactions per second throughput through a benchmark test. For good measure, we ran the same tests without a connection pooler too.

Testing Conditions

All of the PostgreSQL benchmark tests were run under the following conditions:

  1. Initialized pgbench using a scale factor of 100.
  2. Disabled auto-vacuuming on the PostgreSQL instance to prevent interference.
  3. No other workload was working at the time.
  4. Used the default pgbench script to run the tests.
  5. Used default settings for both PgBouncer and Pgpool-II, except max_children*. All PostgreSQL limits were also set to their defaults.
  6. All tests ran as a single thread, on a single-CPU, 2-core machine, for a duration of 5 minutes.
  7. Forced pgbench to create a new connection for each transaction using the -C option. This emulates modern web application workloads and is the whole reason to use a pooler!

We ran each iteration for 5 minutes to ensure any noise averaged out. Here is how the middleware was installed:

  • For PgBouncer, we installed it on the same box as the PostgreSQL server(s). This is the configuration we use in our managed PostgreSQL clusters. Since PgBouncer is a very light-weight process, installing it on the box has no impact on overall performance.
  • For Pgpool-II, we tested both when the Pgpool-II instance was installed on the same machine as PostgreSQL (on box column), and when it was installed on a different machine (off box column). As expected, the performance is much better when Pgpool-II is off the box as it doesn’t have to compete with the PostgreSQL server for resources.

Throughput Benchmark

Here are the transactions per second (TPS) results for each scenario across a range of number of clients:

#database #developer #performance #postgresql #connection control #connection pooler #connection pooler performance #connection queue #high availability #load balancing #number of connections #performance testing #pgbench #pgbouncer #pgbouncer and pgpool-ii #pgbouncer vs pgpool #pgpool-ii #pooling modes #postgresql connection pooling #postgresql limits #resource consumption #throughput benchmark #transactions per second #without pooling

brian john

brian john


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Jerod  Mante

Jerod Mante


SQL Group By Example | Group By Clause In SQL

SQL GROUP BY clause in SQL is used to arrange the same data into groups with the help of some functions. The GROUP BY clause group rows that have the same values into summary rows, like “find the number of customers in each city.” The Group By statement allows you to arrange the rows of a  query in the groups. The groups are determined by the table columns that you specify in a GROUP BY clause.

SQL Group By Example

GROUP BY in SQL is also used with the aggregate functions ( COUNT, MAX, MIN, SUM, AVG) to group the result by one or more columns. Its main work is to summarize the data from the database.

If you want to build some kind of chart then the GROUP BY clause will be helpful to fetch the summarize the data and then draw the chart based on the fetched data.

The queries that contain the GROUP BY clause are called grouped queries and only return a single row for every grouped item.

#sql #sql group by #group by