Grokking Call(), Apply() and Bind() Methods in JavaScript

Grokking Call(), Apply() and Bind() Methods in JavaScript

In this article, we will have a look at the call(), apply() and bind() methods of JavaScript. Basically these 3 methods are used to control the invocation of the function.

These functions are very important for every JavaScript Developer and are used in almost every JavaScript Library or Framework. Check out the code snippet below.

Taken from the very popular library Lodash

    * Creates a function that invokes `func` with arguments reversed.
    * @since 4.0.0
    * @category Function
    * @param {Function} func The function to flip arguments for.
    * @returns {Function} Returns the new flipped function.
    * @see reverse
    * @example
    * const flipped = flip((...args) => args)
    * flipped('a', 'b', 'c', 'd')
    * // => ['d', 'c', 'b', 'a']
    function flip(func) {
      if (typeof func !== 'function') {
        throw new TypeError('Expected a function')
      return function(...args) {
        return func.apply(this, args.reverse())

    export default flip

Look at the statement on line 21, return func.apply(this, args.reverse())

In this article, we will have a look at the call()apply() and bind() methods of JavaScript. Basically these 3 methods are used to control the invocation of the function. The call() and apply() were introduced in ECMAScript 3 while bind() was added as a part of ECMAScript 5.

Let us start with an example to understand these.

Suppose you are a student of X university and your professor has asked you to create a math library, for an assignment, which calculates the area of a circle.

const calcArea = {
      pi: 3.14,
      area: function(r) {
        return this.pi * r * r;

calcArea.area(4); // prints 50.24


You test this and verify its result, it is working fine and you upload the library to portal way before the deadline ends. Then you ask your classmates to test and verify as well, you come to know that that your result and their results mismatches the decimals precision. You check the assignment guidelines, Oh no! The professor asked you to use a constant pi with 5 decimals precision. But you used 3.14 and not 3.14159 as the value of pi. Now you cannot re-upload the library as the deadline date was already over. In this situation, call() function will save you.

js javascript-development javascript javascript-interview javascript-tips

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