A Beginner’s Guide to Currying in Functional JavaScript

In this article. We will see how currying works and how it will be useful in our work as software developers. In JavaScript, currying is a composition practice that rewrites a function with multiple arguments into a series of functions, in which each function only takes one argument.

In this article. We will see how currying works and how it will be useful in our work as software developers. In JavaScript, currying is a composition practice that rewrites a function with multiple arguments into a series of functions, in which each function only takes one argument.

What is Currying?

Currying is a process in functional programming in which we can transform a function with multiple arguments into a sequence of nesting functions. It returns a new function that expects the next argument inline.

It keeps returning a new function (that expects the current argument, like we said earlier) until all the arguments are exhausted. The arguments are kept "alive"(via closure) and all are used in execution when the final function in the currying chain is returned and executed.

Note: The term arity, refers to the number of arguments a function takes. For example,

``````function fn(a, b) {
//...
}

function _fn(a, b, c) {
//...
}
``````

function fn takes two arguments (2-arity function) and _fn takes three arguments (3-arity function).

So, currying transforms a function with multiple arguments into a sequence/series of functions each taking a single argument.

Let’s look at a simple example:

``````function multiply(a, b, c) {
return a * b * c;
}
``````

This function takes three numbers, multiplies the numbers and returns the result.

``````multiply(1,2,3); // 6
``````

See, how we called the multiply function with the arguments in full. Let’s create a curried version of the function and see how we would call the same function (and get the same result) in a series of calls:

``````function multiply(a) {
return (b) => {
return (c) => {
return a * b * c
}
}
}

log(multiply(1)(2)(3)) // 6
``````

We have turned the multiply(1,2,3) function call to multiply(1)(2)(3) multiple function calls.

One single function has been turned to a series of functions. To get the result of multiplication of the three numbers 1, 2 and 3, the numbers are passed one after the other, each number prefilling the next function inline for invocation.

We could separate this multiply(1)(2)(3) to understand it better:

``````const mul1 = multiply(1);
const mul2 = mul1(2);
const result = mul2(3);
log(result); // 6
``````

Let’s take it one after the other. We passed 1 to the multiply function:

``````let mul1 = multiply(1);
``````

It returns the function:

``````return (b) => {
return (c) => {
return a * b * c
}
}
``````

Now, mul1 holds the above function definition which takes an argument b.

We called the mul1 function, passing in 2:

``````let mul2 = mul1(2);
``````

The mul1 will return the third function:

``````return (c) => {
return a * b * c
}
``````

The returned function is now stored in mul2 variable.

In essence, mul2 will be:

``````mul2 = (c) => {
return a * b * c
}
``````

When mul2 is called with 3 as the parameter,

``````const result = mul2(3);
``````

it does the calculation with the previously passed in parameters: a = 1, b = 2 and returns 6.

``````log(result); // 6
``````

Being a nested function, mul2 has access to the variable scope of the outer functions, multiply and mul1.

This is how mul2 could perform the multiplication operation with variables defined in the already exit-ed functions. Though the functions have long since returned and garbage collected from memory, yet its variables are somehow still kept "alive".

You see that the three numbers were applied one at a time to the function, and at each time, a new function is returned until all the numbers are exhausted.

Currying in Mathematics

I kinda liked the mathematical illustration 👉Wikipedia gave to demonstrate further the concept of currying. Let’s look at it here with our own example.

If we have an equation

``````f(x,y) = x^2 + y = z
``````

There are two variables x and y. If the two variables were given as `x=3` and `y=4`, find the value of `z`.

If we substitute `y` for `4` and `x` for `3` in `f(x,y)`:

``````f(x,y) = f(3,4) = x^2 + y = 3^2 + 4 = 13 = z
``````

We get the result, `13`.

We can curry `f(x,y)` to provide the variables in a series of functions:

``````h = x^2 + y = f(x,y)
hy(x) = x^2 + y = hx(y) = x^2 + y

[hx => w.r.t x] and [hy => w.r.t y]

Note: hx is h subscript x and hy is h subscript y. w.r.t is with respect to.
``````

If we fix `x=3`in equation `hx(y) = x^2 + y` , it will return a new equation that have `y` as the variable:

``````h3(y) = 3^2 + y = 9 + y

Note: h3 is h subscript 3
``````

It is the same as:

``````h3(y) = h(3)(y) = f(3,y) = 3^2 + y = 9 + y
``````

The value hasn’t been resolved, it returned a new equation `9 + y` expecting another variable, `y`.

Next, we pass in `y=4`:

``````h3(4) = h(3)(4) = f(3,4) = 9 + 4 = 13
``````

`y` being last in the variable chain, The addition op is performed with the previous variable `x = 3` still retained and a value is resolved, `13`.

So basically, we curried the equation `f(x,y) = 3^2 + y` to a sequence of equations:

``````3^2 + y -> 9 + y

f(3,y) = h3(y) = 3^2 + y = 9 + y
f(3,y) = 9 + y
f(3,4) = h3(4) = 9 + 4 = 13
``````

before finally getting the result.

Wow!! That’s some math, if you find this not clear enough 😕. You can read📖 the full details on 👉Wikipedia.

Currying and Partial Function Application

Here is an example of a concatenating function that takes multiple arguments:

``````function greetings (greeting, name) {
return greeting + " " + name
}

greetings('Hello','Tatiana'); // returns Hello Tatiana
``````

The curried version would be as follows:

``````function greetings (greeting) { return function (name) {
return greeting + " " + name
}
``````

Notice the curried function `greetings` only takes one argument and returns another function that also takes one argument and then returns the concatenated results.

In this new form, the power of currying can be demonstrated by creating a `currier` utility with a set targeted piece of data.

If, for example, we always want the `greetings` function to begin with “hello”, we can create a utility `currier` to do so, as follows.

``````var currier = greetings('Hello')

currier('Michael') // returns Hello Michael
``````

Now, if we had an array of names, and we wanted to always send the specific greeting “hello” to the names, we could make use of the `currier` utility.

``````namesArray = ['Tom','Suzy','Bob','John']

let results = []

for(let i = 0; i < namesArray.length; i++) {
results += currier(namesArray[i] + ". ")
}
// returns "hello Tom. hello Suzy. hello Bob. hello John. "
``````

Our function `currier` will always be triggering a “hello” input greeting in this instance to the set of names so that when we execute the function multiple times, we only run the second part of the function. Very cool.

Is Currying Useful?

Of course, currying comes in handy when you want to:

1. Write little code modules that can be reused and configured with ease, much like what we do with npm:

For example, you own a store and you want to give 10% discount to your fav customers:

``````function discount(price, discount) {
return price * discount
}
``````

When a fav customer buys a good worth of \$500, you give him:

``````const price = discount(500,0.10); // \$50
// \$500  - \$50 = \$450
``````

You see that in the long run, we would find ourselves calculating discount with 10% on a daily basis.

``````const price = discount(1500,0.10); // \$150
// \$1,500 - \$150 = \$1,350

const price = discount(2000,0.10); // \$200
// \$2,000 - \$200 = \$1,800

const price = discount(50,0.10); // \$5
// \$50 - \$5 = \$45

const price = discount(5000,0.10); // \$500
// \$5,000 - \$500 = \$4,500

const price = discount(300,0.10); // \$30
// \$300 - \$30 = \$270
``````

We can curry the discount function, so we don’t always add the 0.10 discount:

``````function discount(discount) {
return (price) => {
return price * discount;
}
}

const tenPercentDiscount = discount(0.1);
``````

Now, we can now calculate only with price of the goods bought by your fav customers:

``````tenPercentDiscount(500); // \$50
// \$500 - \$50 = \$450
``````

Again, it happens that, some fav customers are more important than some fav customers- let’s call them super-fav customers. And we want to give 20% discount to our super-fav customers.

We use our curried discount function:

``````const twentyPercentDiscount = discount(0.2);
``````

We setup a new function for our super-fav customers by calling the curry function discount with a `0.2` value , that is `20%`.

The returned function `twentyPercentDiscount` will be used to calculate discounts for our super-fav customers:

``````twentyPercentDiscount(500); // 100
// \$500 - \$100 = \$400
twentyPercentDiscount(5000); // 1000
// \$5,000 - \$1,000 = \$4,000
twentyPercentDiscount(1000000); // 200000
// \$1,000,000 - \$200,000 = \$600,000
``````

2. Avoid frequently calling a function with the same argument:

For example, we have a function to calculate the volume of a cylinder:

``````function volume(l, w, h) {
return l * w * h;
}
``````

It happens that all the cylinders in your warehouse🏠 are of height 100m. You will see that you will repeatedly call this function with `h` as `100`:

``````volume(200,30,100) // 2003000l
volume(32,45,100); //144000l
volume(2322,232,100) // 53870400l
``````

To resolve this, you curry the `volume` function(like we did earlier):

``````function volume(h) {
return (w) => {
return (l) => {
return l * w * h
}
}
}
``````

We can define a specific function for a particular cylinder height:

``````const hCylinderHeight = volume(100);

hCylinderHeight(200)(30); // 600,000l
hCylinderHeight(2322)(232); // 53,870,400l
``````
General Curry Function

Let’s develop a function that takes any function and returns a curried version of the function.

To do that we will have this(though you own approach could be different from mine):

``````function curry(fn, ...args) {
return (..._arg) => {
return fn(...args, ..._arg);
}
}
``````

What did we do here? Our curry function accepts a function (fn) that we want to curry and a variable number of parameters(…args). The rest operator is used to gather the number of parameters after `fn` into ...args.

Next, we return a function that also collects the rest of the parameters as …_args. This function invokes the original function fn passing in `...args` and `..._args` through the use of the spread operator as parameters, then, the value is returned to the user.

We can now use our own `curry` function to create specific functions.

Let’s use our `curry` function to create a more specific function (one that calculates the volume of 100m(length) cylinders) of the volume function:

``````function volume(l,h,w) {
return l * h * w
}
const hCy = curry(volume,100);
hCy(200,900); // 18000000l
hCy(70,60); // 420000l
``````
Conclusion

And that about covers it as far as the structure of currying goes in JavaScript, I assure you with time and constant practice, you will start to get the hang of it and see how worthwhile it is. If you can think of some interesting other examples or ideas of currying, please feel free to leave them in a comment below and I’ll check it out.

Thanks for reading and hopefully, you found some of this useful!

Top 19 Front-End Web Development Tools to Consider in 2020

In this post, we are putting curated list of top tools with key features and download links "Top 19 Front End Web Development Tools to Consider in 2020"

Front-End development is one of the critical skill for web developers as there is a lot of demand for programmers with excellent front-end development skills.

If you've never experienced client-side web development, learning the plethora of front-end technologies can be difficult, but you can achieve your target.

The one thing which I want to tell you that a good knowledge of HTML, CSS, and JavaScript is a must for any front-end developer. Even though we are living in the era of frameworks and libraries, but knowledge of these fundamental technologies cannot be undermined.

In this post, we are putting curated list of top tools with key features and download links "Top 19 Front End Web Development Tools to Consider in 2020"

1. TypeScript:

TypeScript is an open-source front end scripting language. It is a strict syntactical superset of JavaScript which adds optional static typing. It is specially designed for development of large applications and compiles to JavaScript.

Features:

• TypeScript supports other JS libraries
• It is possible to use this Typescript on any environment that JavaScript runs on
• It supports definition files that can contain type information of existing JavaScript libraries, such as C/C++ header files
• It is portable across browsers, devices, and operating systems
• It can run on any environment that JavaScript runs on

2. Backbone:

Backbone.js gives structure to web applications by offering models with key-value binding and custom events.

Features:

• Backbone.js allows developers to develop one-page applications
• Backbone.js has a simple library used to separate business and user interface logic
• This tool makes code simple, systematic and organized. It acts as a backbone for any project
• It manages the data model which also includes the user data and display that data on the server side
• It allows developers to create client side web applications or mobile applications

3. jQuery:

jQuery is a widely used JavaScript library. It empowers front-end developers to concentrate on the functionality of different aspects. It makes the things easy like HTML document traversal, manipulation, and Ajax.

Features:

• QueryUI facilitates to make highly interactive web applications
• It is open source and free to use
• It provides a powerful theme mechanism
• It is very stable and maintenance friendly
• It offers an extensive browser support
• Helps to create great documentation

4. AngularJS:

AngularJS is another must-have tool for front-end developers. It is an open-source web application framework. It helps to extend the HTML syntax for web applications. It simplifies front-end development process by developing accessible, readable and expressive environment.

Features:

• It is an is open source, completely free, and used by thousands of developers around the world
• It offers to create RICH Internet Application
• It provides option to write client side application using JavaScript using MVC
• It automatically handles JavaScript code suitable for each browser

5. HTML5 Boilerplate:

HTML5 Boilerplate help in building fast, robust, and adaptable web apps or sites. It is a set of files that developers can download, which provide a foundation for any website.

Features:

• It allows developers to use HTML5 elements
• It is designed by keeping progressive enhancement in mind
• Normalize.css for CSS normalizations and common bug fixes
• Apache Server Configs to improve performance and security
• It offers optimized version of the Google Universal Analytics snippet
• Protection against console statements causing JavaScript errors in older browsers
• Extensive inline and accompanying documentation

6. ONE Subscription

ONE Subscription is an effective web-development kit that allows getting access to a great number of top-quality digital products. It boasts tons of high-quality items that make it possible to launch fully-fledged blogs, online-stores, landing pages, and other websites. In general, you will be provided with thousands of themes and templates, different plugins and graphic elements, additional services, and other advantages.

Features:

• professional support for all items;
• security (you can easily cancel your subscription within 14 days after its starts if you have not downloaded anything from the database);
• useful services (as an example, template customization or installation).

7. Npm:

Npm is the Node package manager for JavaScript. It helps to discover packages of reusable code and assemble them in powerful new ways. This web development tool is a command-line utility for interacting with a said repository that aids in the package.

Features:

• Discover and reuse over 470,000 free code packages in the Registry
• Encourage code discovery and reuse within teams
• Manage public and private code using the same workflow

8. CodeKit:

Codekit is a front-end web development tool. This tool provides support to build websites faster. It combines, minifies and syntax-checks JavaScript. It also optimizes images.

Features:

• CSS changes are injected without need of reloading the entire page
• Combine scripts to reduce HTTP requests.
• Minify code to reduce file sizes
• Works automatically with most languages without trouble

9. Sass:

Sass is the most reliable, mature, and robust CSS extension language. This tool helps to extend the functionality of an existing CSS of a site like variables, inheritance, and nesting with ease.

Features:

• It is straightforward and easy to use front end tool to write any code
• Supports language extensions such as variables, nesting, and mixins
• Many useful functions for manipulating colors and other values
• Advanced features like control directives for libraries
• It offers well-formatted, customizable output

10. WebStorm:

WebStorm brings smart coding assistance for JavaScript. It provides advanced coding assistance for Angular, React.js, Vue.js and Meteo. It also helps developers to code more efficiently when working with large projects

Features:

• WebStorm helps developers to code more efficiently when working with large projects
• It provides built-in tools for debugging, testing and tracing client-side and Node.js applications
• It integrates with popular command line tools for web development
• Spy-js built-in tool allows tracing JavaScript code
• It provides a unified UI for working with many popular Version Control System
• It is extremely customizable to perfectly suite various coding style
• It offers built-in debugger for client-side code and Node.js apps
11. Chrome Developer Tools:

The Chrome Developer Tools are a set of debugging tools built into Chrome. These tools allow developers to do wide varieties of testing which easily saved lots of time.

Features:

• It allows adding custom CSS rules
• Users can view Margin, Border, and Padding
• It helps to Emulate Mobile Devices
• Possible to use dev tools as editor
• User can easily disable browser's caching when dev tool is open

12. Grunt:

Grunt is a popular task runner on NodeJS. It is flexible and widely adopted. It is preferred tool when it comes to task automation. It offers lots of bundled plugins for common tasks.

Features:

• It makes the workflow as easy as writing a setup file
• It allows automating repetitive tasks with minimum effort
• It has a straightforward approach. It includes tasks in JS and config in JSON
• Grunt includes built-in tasks for extending the functionality of plugins and scripts
• It speeds up the development process and increase the performance of projects
• The ecosystem of Grunt is huge; so it is possible to automate anything with very less effort
• This web development tool reduces the chance of getting errors while performing repetitive tasks

13. CodePen:

CodePen is a web development environment for front-end designers and developers. It is all about faster and smoother development. It allows to build, deploy website and build test cases.

Features:

• It offers to build components to use elsewhere later
• It includes some awesome features to write CSS faster.
• Allows live view and live sync
• Prefill API feature allows adding links and demo pages without need to code anything

14. Jasmine:

Jasmine is a behavior-driven js for testing JavaScript code. It does not depend on any other JavaScript frameworks. This open source tool does not require a DOM.

Features:

• Low overhead, no external dependencies
• Comes out of the box with everything need to test code
• Run browser tests and Node.js tests using the same framework

15. Foundation:

Foundation is front-end framework for any device, medium, and accessibility. This responsive front-end framework makes it easy to design responsive websites, apps, and emails.

Features:

• It offers the cleanest markup without sacrificing the utility and speed of Foundation
• Possible to customize the build to include or remove certain elements. As it defines the size of columns, colors, font size.
• Faster development and page load speed
• Foundation is optimized truly for mobile devices
• Customizability for developers of all levels
• It takes responsive design to the next level, with the much-needed medium grid accommodating for tablets

16. Sublime Text:

Sublime Text is a proprietary cross-platform source code editor. This app development tool natively supports many programming languages and markup languages.

Features:

• Command palette feature allows matching keyboard invocation of arbitrary commands
• Simultaneous editing allows making the same interactive changes to multiple areas
• Offers Python-based plugin API
• Allows developers to give project specific preferences
• Compatible with many language grammars from TextMate

17. Less

Less is a pre-processor that extends the support for CSS language. It allows developers to use techniques to make CSS more maintainable and extendable.

Feature:

• It offers higher-level style syntax, which allows web designers/developers to create advanced CSS
• It easily compiles into standard CSS, before the web browser begins rendering a web page
• Compiled CSS files can be uploaded to the production web server

18. Modaal:

Modal is front end development plugin which gives quality, flexibile, and accessibile modals.

Features:

• Optimized for assistive technologies and screen readers
• Fully responsive, scaling with browser width
• Customizable CSS with SASS options
• It offers full-screen and viewport mode
• Keyboard control for gallery open and closing modal
• Flexible close options and methods

19. Github:

GitHub is a web development platform inspired by the way you work. This tool allows developers to review code, manage projects, and build software.

Features:

• Coordinate easily, stay aligned, and get done with GitHub's project management tools
• It offers right tools for the job
• Easy documentation alongside quality coding
• Allows all code in a single place
• Developers can host their documentation directly from repositories

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Which is JavaScript Frameworks for Front-End Development in 2020

React vs Vue vs Angular vs Ember vs Backbone.js: Which is best JavaScript framework For Front-End Development in 2020?

Front-end developers might know this game already: you type “top JavaScript frameworks” into Google and you get so many JavaScript frameworks from which to choose.

There are always more choices for JavaScript frameworks. And it's always tough to choose a JavaScript framework for front-end development.

So, what are front-end developers looking for in their tech stacks? As a full-time developer, I know it comes down to rapid development and easy-to-make UIs.

Rather than try to be decisive, we, 450+ developers at ValueCoders software development company voted and shortlisted a few of the best JavaScript frameworks.

And, Our Vote Goes to React

I was not surprised to see this.Most of our developers voted for React as one of the best JavaScript frameworks. There have been plenty of projects along the way that our front-end developers are handling that highlighted the strengths of the JS framework. React provides a combination of the following:

• Reusable components
• Synchronization of state and view
• Routing and template system

Our developers implement front-end logic by relying heavily on React. At the same time, I was surprised by how simple it was to create applications with React.

Overview of App

The application is simple. It’s a studio management app for music teachers that helps them focus more on their teaching and less on the management of their music studio.

The key challenge was creating one ‘Activity Dashboard’ for teachers where they could manage all their students' activities and track their progress over time. We overcame this challenge by using Redux libraries to build the platform. We built a teacher’s studio from where they could manage their students' progress, showcase new music lessons, chat with them, compare students music playing with live music, and provide them feedback.

So, this is my experience with React JS. But many would argue that Vue is one of the best front-end JavaScript frameworks with many useful tools.

Front-end developers are the ones deciding which JavaScript framework will do the job. In doing so, they face a lot of challenges because they need to decide what they’ve always needed. Often, we have to choose JavaScript frameworks now, not after a week of research. In that case, most developers go with what they know. But maybe the stacks you’re familiar with are no longer cutting it in terms of performance.

Even just choosing among Angular, React, & Vue, it is difficult for new developers. Rather than making it more exhaustive for you, here is the list of top JavaScript frameworks for front-end developers.

The Big 5

The five JavaScript frameworks that currently dominate the market in terms of popularity and usage are:

• React
• Vue
• Angular
• Ember
• Backbone.js.

They each have large communities. If you are a front-end developer or are going to start your new project on front-end technologies, these five are your best bets. Here’s a look at the npm trends over the last six months.

1. React

React is a definite leader in the JS world. This JavaScript framework uses a reactive approach and also introduces many of its own concepts for frontend web development.

To use React , you’ll have to learn to use a plethora of additional tools to reach high flexibility in front-end development. For example, here's a less exhaustive list of libraries you can use with React: Redux, MobX, Fluxy, Fluxible, or RefluxJS. React can also be used with jQuery AJAX, fetch API, Superagent, and Axios.

Concurrent Mode

React is constantly working towards improving concurrent mode. To take this forward, React Conf 2019 wrapped up last month where the React team talked about improving Concurrent Mode and the Suspense model. Both the features make React apps more responsive by rendering trees without blocking threads. This allows React to focus on high priority tasks like responding to user input.

Suspense

React also introduced Suspense to improve the developer’s experience when handling asynchronous data fetching on React apps. In short, the new update to Suspense lets the component wait until the condition is met.

The React team is also working on Hooks which was one of the most awaited features of React. As per the latest updates, React hooks will be designed in a way that it supports all the important features: server-side rendering, accessibility, concurrent mode, and suspense.

React applications are divided into multiple components that contain both business logic and HTML markup functions. To improve the communication between components, developers can use either Flux or a similar JavaScript library.

React also introduced objects, like state and props. With the state and props objects, you can simply pass data from a component to the layout or from a parent component to a child component.

Introduction to the React ecosystem:

• The React library plus React router for implementing routes.
• React-DOM for DOM manipulation.
• React developer tools for Firefox and Chrome browsers.
• React JSX, a markup language that mixes HTML into JavaScript.
• React Create App command line interface to set up a React project.
• Redux and Axios libraries to organize communication with the backend team.

No doubt, React is one of the most popular JavaScript frameworks. And, I think that React can be your first choice for creating advanced-grade apps.

2. Angular 2 to Angular 9

Angular 9 will mark a turning point revealed by the Angular team at the recent AngularConnect 2019. According to the update, the team is planning to make the Angular Ivy compiler available for all apps. The main benefit of Angular Ivy is that it is able to reduce the size of applications.

Angular today has become very advanced and modular to use for front-end development. Previously you could insert a link to the AngularJS library in the main HTML file, but now you can do the same by installing separate modules.

Angular's flexibility is commendable. That’s why Angular's 1.x versions are still in demand. However, many current developers rely on Angular 2+ because of its MVC architecture that has substantially changed to a component based architecture.

Angular has a couple of additional challenges. You're almost obliged to use TypeScript to ensure type safety in Angular apps. TypeScript makes the Angular 2+ framework not so pleasant to work with.

Angular’s ecosystem is comprised of:

• For quick project setup, Angular's command line interface is helpful.
• Developers will get a set of modules for Angular projects: @angular/common, @angular/compiler, @angular/core, @angular/forms, @angular/http, @angular/platform-browser, @angular/platform-browser-dynamic, @angular/router, and @angular/upgrade.
• Angular uses Zone.js a JavaScript library to implement zones in Angular apps.
• TypeScript and CoffeeScript both can be used with Angular.
• For communication with server-side apps, Angular uses RxJS and the Observable pattern.
• Angular Augury for debugging Angular apps.
• Angular Universal for creating server-side apps with Angular.

Angular2 is a complete JavaScript framework with all the tools a modern front-end developer needs. You can choose Angular if you don’t like to work with additional libraries as with React.

3. Vue

The Snyk JavaScript framework report for 2019 is out. The report mainly focused on security risks in both React and Angular.

The concept of Vue has been taken from Angular and React, but Vue is better in many ways. I’ll talk about its features, but first check out what the Synk report says about Vue's front-end security. Vue has been downloaded 40 million times this year and records only four direct vulnerabilities. All of them have been fixed.

For any front-end developer unfamiliar with Vue, let’s clarify several points.

With Vue you store component logic and layouts along with stylesheets in one file. This the same way React works, without stylesheets. To let components talk to each other, Vue uses the props and state objects. This approach also existed in React before Vue adopted it.

Similar to Angular, Vue wants you to mix HTML layouts with JavaScript. You have to use Vue directives such as v-bind or v-if to interpolate values from the component logic to templates.

One of the reasons why Vue is worth considering instead of React is because of the Redux library that’s often used in large-scale React applications. As explained in the React section, when a React+Redux app grows bigger, you’ll spend a lot of time applying small changes to multiple files instead of actually working on features. The Vuex library – a Flux-like state management tool designed for Vue – seems less unwieldy than Redux.

If you're choosing between Vue and Angular, the reasons to opt for Vue over Angular can be reduced to the following: Angular is an over-complicated, full-fledged framework with a restrictive nature; Vue is much simpler and less restrictive than Angular.

Another advantage of Vue over Angular and React is that you don’t have to learn JavaScript once more.

An introduction to the VueJS ecosystem:

• Vuex comes with a dedicated library for application management.
• Vuex is similar to the concept of Flux.
• You will get Vue-loader for components and vue.js devtools for Chrome and Firefox browsers.
• Vue-resource and Axios tools for communication between Vue and the backend source.
• Vue.js support Nuxt.js for creating server-side applications with Vue; Nuxt.js is basically a competitor to Angular Universal.
• You will get a Weex JavaScript library with Vue syntax that is used for mobile app development.

Vue is excellent in terms of its workflow to other frameworks. I might opt for Vue because it’s less complicated than React and Angular JS and a great choice for developing enterprise-level apps.

4. Ember

Ember 3.13 released this year with some new updates and features. Ember is just like Backbone and AngularJS, and is also one of the oldest JavaScript frameworks. But with the new update, Ember 3.13 is compatible with new bug fixes, performance improvements, and deprecation. Tracked property updates have also been introduced that allow simpler ways of tracking state change in the ergonomic system of Ember apps.

Ember has a relatively intricate architecture, which will allow you to quickly build huge client-side applications. It realizes a typical MVC JavaScript framework, and Ember’s architecture comprises the following parts: adapters, components, controllers, helpers, models, routes, services, templates, utils, and addons.

One of Ember’s best features is its command line interface tool. The Ember CLI helps front-end developers be highly productive and lets them complete projects on time. You can not only create new projects with ready setups, but you can also create controllers, components, and project files using automatic generation.

The EmberJS ecosystem is comprised of:

• Ember CLI tool for quick prototyping and managing dependencies.
• Ember server built into the framework for the development of apps.
• You'll get Ember.js library and Ember Data for data management.
• Handlebars template engine for Ember applications.
• QUnit testing framework for Ember.
• Ember Inspector development tool for Chrome and Firefox browsers.
• Ember Observer for public storage and Ember addons to implement generic functionalities.

Although Ember is underrated, it's perfect for creating complex client-side apps.

5. Backbone.js

Backbone is a JavaScript framework based on the MVC architecture. Backbone’s View part carries out the responsibilities of the Controller. The View helps implement component logic similarly to a Controller in MVC. Backbone view can use engines like Mustache and Underscore.js.

Backbone is an easy to use JavaScript framework that allows for quick development of single page applications. To use Backbone.js to the fullest extent, you’ll have to choose tools: Chaplin, Marionette, Thorax, Handlebars or Mustache, and so on.

If you need to design an app that has different type of users, Backbone collections (arrays) can be used here to separate the models. Backbone.Events, can be used with Backbone models, collections, routes, and views.

Introducing the BackboneJS ecosystem:

• The Backbone library consists of events, models, collections, views, and router.
• Underscore.js, a JavaScript library with helper functions that you can use to write cross-browser JavaScript.
• You can use template engines such as Mustache and jQuery-tmpl.
• BackPlug online repository with a lot of ready solutions for Backbone-based apps.
• Backbone generator CLI for building Backbone apps.
• Marionette, Thorax, and Chaplin JavaScript libraries to develop an advanced architecture for Backbone apps.

Backbone.js is a perfect choice for frontend and backend development as it supports REST APIs that are used to synchronize the frontend and backend.

Need More Help?

All front-end developers out there, if you need help with JavaScript frameworks, feel free to get in touch. Or, you can also contact us to hire ReactJS developers, Vue developers or Angular developers.

Remember this article gives you a general roadmap on JavaScript frameworks. Tell me if I have missed something, and we can discuss that. I hope it will also help achieve your front-end development goals.