Perl is Copyright (C) 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018, 2019, 2020, 2021, 2022 by Larry Wall and others.
All rights reserved.
Perl is a general-purpose programming language originally developed for text manipulation and now used for a wide range of tasks including system administration, web development, network programming, GUI development, and more.
The language is intended to be practical (easy to use, efficient, complete) rather than beautiful (tiny, elegant, minimal). Its major features are that it's easy to use, supports both procedural and object-oriented (OO) programming, has powerful built-in support for text processing, and has one of the world's most impressive collections of third-party modules.
For an introduction to the language's features, see pod/perlintro.pod.
For a discussion of the important changes in this release, see pod/perldelta.pod.
There are also many Perl books available, covering a wide variety of topics, from various publishers. See pod/perlbook.pod for more information.
If you're using a relatively modern operating system and want to install this version of Perl locally, run the following commands:
./Configure -des -Dprefix=$HOME/localperl make test make install
This will configure and compile perl for your platform, run the regression tests, and install perl in a subdirectory "localperl" of your home directory.
If you run into any trouble whatsoever or you need to install a customized version of Perl, you should read the detailed instructions in the "INSTALL" file that came with this distribution. Additionally, there are a number of "README" files with hints and tips about building and using Perl on a wide variety of platforms, some more common than others.
Once you have Perl installed, a wealth of documentation is available to you through the 'perldoc' tool. To get started, run this command:
IF YOU RUN INTO TROUBLE
Perl is a large and complex system that's used for everything from knitting to rocket science. If you run into trouble, it's quite likely that someone else has already solved the problem you're facing. Once you've exhausted the documentation, please report bugs to us at the GitHub issue tracker at https://github.com/Perl/perl5/issues
While it was current when we made it available, Perl is constantly evolving and there may be a more recent version that fixes bugs you've run into or adds new features that you might find useful.
You can always find the latest version of perl on a CPAN (Comprehensive Perl Archive Network) site near you at https://www.cpan.org/src/
If you want to submit a simple patch to the perl source, see the "SUPER QUICK PATCH GUIDE" in pod/perlhack.pod.
Just a personal note: I want you to know that I create nice things like this because it pleases the Author of my story. If this bothers you, then your notion of Authorship needs some revision. But you can use perl anyway. :-)
This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of either:
a. the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 1, or (at your option) any later version, or
b. the "Artistic License" which comes with this Kit.
This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See either the GNU General Public License or the Artistic License for more details.
You should have received a copy of the Artistic License with this Kit, in the file named "Artistic". If not, I'll be glad to provide one.
You should also have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program in the file named "Copying". If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor, Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA or visit their web page on the internet at https://www.gnu.org/copyleft/gpl.html.
For those of you that choose to use the GNU General Public License, my interpretation of the GNU General Public License is that no Perl script falls under the terms of the GPL unless you explicitly put said script under the terms of the GPL yourself. Furthermore, any object code linked with perl does not automatically fall under the terms of the GPL, provided such object code only adds definitions of subroutines and variables, and does not otherwise impair the resulting interpreter from executing any standard Perl script. I consider linking in C subroutines in this manner to be the moral equivalent of defining subroutines in the Perl language itself. You may sell such an object file as proprietary provided that you provide or offer to provide the Perl source, as specified by the GNU General Public License. (This is merely an alternate way of specifying input to the program.) You may also sell a binary produced by the dumping of a running Perl script that belongs to you, provided that you provide or offer to provide the Perl source as specified by the GPL. (The fact that a Perl interpreter and your code are in the same binary file is, in this case, a form of mere aggregation.) This is my interpretation of the GPL. If you still have concerns or difficulties understanding my intent, feel free to contact me. Of course, the Artistic License spells all this out for your protection, so you may prefer to use that.
Source Code: https://github.com/Perl/perl5
License: View license
SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is a scripting language expected to store, control, and inquiry information put away in social databases. The main manifestation of SQL showed up in 1974, when a gathering in IBM built up the principal model of a social database. The primary business social database was discharged by Relational Software later turning out to be Oracle.
Models for SQL exist. In any case, the SQL that can be utilized on every last one of the major RDBMS today is in various flavors. This is because of two reasons:
1. The SQL order standard is genuinely intricate, and it isn’t handy to actualize the whole standard.
2. Every database seller needs an approach to separate its item from others.
Right now, contrasts are noted where fitting.
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The course will lead you from beginning level to advance in Python Programming Language. You do not need any prior knowledge on Python or any programming language or even programming to join the course and become an expert on the topic.
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This article will introduce the concepts and topics common to all programming languages, that beginners and experts must know!
Do you want to learn a programming language for the first time?
Do you want to improve as a Programmer?
Well, then you’re in the right place to start. Learn any programming language without difficulty by learning the concepts and topics common to all programming languages.
Let me start by answering the following questions:
Programming develops creative thinking
Programmers solve a problem by breaking it down into workable pieces to understand it better. When you start learning to program, you develop the habit of working your way out in a very structured format. You analyze the problem and start thinking logically and this gives rise to more creative solutions you’ve ever given.
Whether you want to uncover the secrets of the universe, or you just want to pursue a career in the 21st century, basic computer programming is an essential skill to learn.
_– _Stephen Hawking
Everybody in this country should learn how to program a computer… because it teaches you how to think.
_- _Steve Jobs
Programming Provides Life-Changing Experiences
Programming always provides you with a new challenge to take risks every time and that teaches you to take risks in your personal life too. The world is filled up with websites, apps, software and when you build these yourself you’ll feel more confident. When a programmer solves a problem that no one has ever solved before it becomes a life-changing experience for them.
A program is a set of instructions to perform a task on a computer.
Programming is the process of designing and building an executable computer program to accomplish a specific task.
Well, according to me programming is like raising a baby. We provide knowledge (data) to help understand a baby what’s happening around. We teach a baby to be disciplined (and much more) by making rules.
Similarly, a computer is like a baby. We set rules and provide data to the computer through executable programs with the help of a Programming Language.
That’s it👍. If you can understand this basic concept of programming, you’re good to go. Pick up a programming language and start learning. Read the following section to get an idea of where to start.
My recommendation is to choose Python Programming Language as a start, because it’s beginner-friendly.
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In this video, you will know the top 5 Programming languages to learn in 2021. It is always confusing for a beginner to choose a programming language from the pool of tens of languages. So we have come up with this video to help you out chose the best one to start your career with and learn programming fast.
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C may be a middle-level programing language developed by Dennis Ritchie during the first 1970s while performing at AT&T Bell Labs within the USA. the target of its development was within the context of the re-design of the UNIX OS to enable it to be used on multiple computers.
Earlier the language B was now used for improving the UNIX. Being an application-oriented language, B allowed a much faster production of code than in programming language. Still, B suffered from drawbacks because it didn’t understand data-types and didn’t provide the utilization of “structures”.
These drawbacks became the drive for Ritchie for the development of a replacement programing language called C. He kept most of the language B’s syntax and added data-types and lots of other required changes. Eventually, C was developed during 1971-73, containing both high-level functionality and therefore the detailed features required to program an OS. Hence, many of the UNIX components including the UNIX kernel itself were eventually rewritten in C.
Benefits of C language
As a middle-level language, C combines the features of both high-level and low-level languages. It is often used for low-level programmings, like scripting for it also supports functions of high-level C programming languages, like scripting for software applications, etc.
C may be a structured programing language that allows a posh program to be broken into simpler programs called functions. It also allows free movement of knowledge across these functions.
Various features of C including direct access to machine level hardware APIs, the presence of C compilers, deterministic resource use, and dynamic memory allocation make C language an optimum choice for scripting applications and drivers of embedded systems.
C language is case-sensitive which suggests lowercase and uppercase letters are treated differently.
C is very portable and is employed for scripting system applications which form a serious a part of Windows, UNIX, and Linux OS.
C may be a general-purpose programing language and may efficiently work on enterprise applications, games, graphics, and applications requiring calculations, etc.
C language features a rich library that provides a variety of built-in functions. It also offers dynamic memory allocation.
C implements algorithms and data structures swiftly, facilitating faster computations in programs. This has enabled the utilization of C in applications requiring higher degrees of calculations like MATLAB and Mathematica.
Riding on these advantages, C became dominant and spread quickly beyond Bell Labs replacing many well-known languages of that point, like ALGOL, B, PL/I, FORTRAN, etc. C language has become available on a really wide selection of platforms, from embedded microcontrollers to supercomputers.
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