Python has excellent libraries for parsing command-line arguments and running other shell commands, while at the same time you can take advantage of the powerful object-oriented language. Additionally you can verify and document your application with the Python’s unit testing framework.
The Example Application for this text can be found in github.com/mrako/python-example-project.
In my experience the best folder structure for a Python project is to put your executables in a bin folder and your project into a your project name folder (I will use name project in this text). This way you can keep your core functionalities separated and reusable. It is also a standard for other applications.
In project folder you should have main.py as the main access point to your application. Your functionalities should then go to lib and your unitests to tests. This way the skeleton of your project should look like:
+ bin - project + project - main.py + lib + tests
Now your application can be executed by running:
$ bin/project <parameters>
As in all object-oriented programming you should aim to separate your concerns. It’s often forgotten in Python applications because reading the command-line parameters, handling options and running other shell commands is very easy.
Parsing the Command-Line Options
Create a class which defines and collects the command-line parameters. Python provides optparse, for which you can very easily define the options and behavior:
usage = 'bin/project' parser = OptionParser(usage=usage) parser.add_option('-x', '--example', default='example-value', dest='example', help='An example option')
Now you have created a parser which reads a target value to the example variable by running bin/project -x or bin/project --example
Running other Shell Commands
If you want to create an application which depends on other shell commands you should separate the shell execution in its own class. This way your core functionalities can be easily re-used in other environments or applications, and you can more easily collect logs, errors and exceptions that come from external sources. I recommend you to use the Python subprocess for your external shell commands.
Create a classes for the process execution and the process exceptions (see process-class in the example project).
The Core Functionalities
In your project/lib/project.py you can now implement the core functionalities. Since this is an example I’ve only included receiving options(which have been separated from collecting the command-line arguments) and running the date command through your Process-class. See project.py in the example project.
Running your app
Call your project’s main.py from the bin/project executable:
#!/bin/bash BINPATH=`dirname $0` python "$BINPATH/../project/main.py" $@
Don’t forget to change the access rights for execution:
$ chmod 755 bin/project
In main.py you then collect the command-line options and run your application:
import sys from lib import Project from lib import Options if __name__ == '__main__': options = Options() opts, args = options.parse(sys.argv[1:]) v = Project(opts) print v.date()
Finally you are ready to run the application:
$ bin/project <arguments>
As already written in Unit Testing in Python and Short Introduction to Unit Testing, I cannot emphasize the importance of testing enough. With unit tests you can guide the development, verify your functionalities and document the behavior of your application.
Add your tests in the project/tests folder (see tests-folder in the example project). I recommend you to use nose for running your tests.
Testing Command-Line Arguments
import unittest from lib import Options class TestCommandLineArguments(unittest.TestCase): def setUp(self): self.options = Options() def test_defaults_options_are_set(self): opts, args = self.options.parse() self.assertEquals(opts.example, 'example-value')
Running the Tests
$ nosetests ..... Ran 5 tests in 0.054s OK
Originally published by Marko Klemetti at coderwall.com
Install via pip:
$ pip install pytumblr
Install from source:
$ git clone https://github.com/tumblr/pytumblr.git $ cd pytumblr $ python setup.py install
pytumblr.TumblrRestClient is the object you'll make all of your calls to the Tumblr API through. Creating one is this easy:
client = pytumblr.TumblrRestClient( '<consumer_key>', '<consumer_secret>', '<oauth_token>', '<oauth_secret>', ) client.info() # Grabs the current user information
Two easy ways to get your credentials to are:
interactive_console.pytool (if you already have a consumer key & secret)
client.info() # get information about the authenticating user client.dashboard() # get the dashboard for the authenticating user client.likes() # get the likes for the authenticating user client.following() # get the blogs followed by the authenticating user client.follow('codingjester.tumblr.com') # follow a blog client.unfollow('codingjester.tumblr.com') # unfollow a blog client.like(id, reblogkey) # like a post client.unlike(id, reblogkey) # unlike a post
client.blog_info(blogName) # get information about a blog client.posts(blogName, **params) # get posts for a blog client.avatar(blogName) # get the avatar for a blog client.blog_likes(blogName) # get the likes on a blog client.followers(blogName) # get the followers of a blog client.blog_following(blogName) # get the publicly exposed blogs that [blogName] follows client.queue(blogName) # get the queue for a given blog client.submission(blogName) # get the submissions for a given blog
PyTumblr lets you create all of the various types that Tumblr supports. When using these types there are a few defaults that are able to be used with any post type.
The default supported types are described below.
We'll show examples throughout of these default examples while showcasing all the specific post types.
Creating a photo post
Creating a photo post supports a bunch of different options plus the described default options * caption - a string, the user supplied caption * link - a string, the "click-through" url for the photo * source - a string, the url for the photo you want to use (use this or the data parameter) * data - a list or string, a list of filepaths or a single file path for multipart file upload
#Creates a photo post using a source URL client.create_photo(blogName, state="published", tags=["testing", "ok"], source="https://68.media.tumblr.com/b965fbb2e501610a29d80ffb6fb3e1ad/tumblr_n55vdeTse11rn1906o1_500.jpg") #Creates a photo post using a local filepath client.create_photo(blogName, state="queue", tags=["testing", "ok"], tweet="Woah this is an incredible sweet post [URL]", data="/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg") #Creates a photoset post using several local filepaths client.create_photo(blogName, state="draft", tags=["jb is cool"], format="markdown", data=["/Users/johnb/path/to/my/image.jpg", "/Users/johnb/Pictures/kittens.jpg"], caption="## Mega sweet kittens")
Creating a text post
Creating a text post supports the same options as default and just a two other parameters * title - a string, the optional title for the post. Supports markdown or html * body - a string, the body of the of the post. Supports markdown or html
#Creating a text post client.create_text(blogName, state="published", slug="testing-text-posts", title="Testing", body="testing1 2 3 4")
Creating a quote post
Creating a quote post supports the same options as default and two other parameter * quote - a string, the full text of the qote. Supports markdown or html * source - a string, the cited source. HTML supported
#Creating a quote post client.create_quote(blogName, state="queue", quote="I am the Walrus", source="Ringo")
Creating a link post
#Create a link post client.create_link(blogName, title="I like to search things, you should too.", url="https://duckduckgo.com", description="Search is pretty cool when a duck does it.")
Creating a chat post
Creating a chat post supports the same options as default and two other parameters * title - a string, the title of the chat post * conversation - a string, the text of the conversation/chat, with diablog labels (no html)
#Create a chat post chat = """John: Testing can be fun! Renee: Testing is tedious and so are you. John: Aw. """ client.create_chat(blogName, title="Renee just doesn't understand.", conversation=chat, tags=["renee", "testing"])
Creating an audio post
Creating an audio post allows for all default options and a has 3 other parameters. The only thing to keep in mind while dealing with audio posts is to make sure that you use the external_url parameter or data. You cannot use both at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * external_url - a string, the url of the site that hosts the audio file * data - a string, the filepath of the audio file you want to upload to Tumblr
#Creating an audio file client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Rock out.", data="/Users/johnb/Music/my/new/sweet/album.mp3") #lets use soundcloud! client.create_audio(blogName, caption="Mega rock out.", external_url="https://soundcloud.com/skrillex/sets/recess")
Creating a video post
Creating a video post allows for all default options and has three other options. Like the other post types, it has some restrictions. You cannot use the embed and data parameters at the same time. * caption - a string, the caption for your post * embed - a string, the HTML embed code for the video * data - a string, the path of the file you want to upload
#Creating an upload from YouTube client.create_video(blogName, caption="Jon Snow. Mega ridiculous sword.", embed="http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40pUYLacrj4") #Creating a video post from local file client.create_video(blogName, caption="testing", data="/Users/johnb/testing/ok/blah.mov")
Editing a post
Updating a post requires you knowing what type a post you're updating. You'll be able to supply to the post any of the options given above for updates.
client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="text", title="Updated") client.edit_post(blogName, id=post_id, type="photo", data="/Users/johnb/mega/awesome.jpg")
Reblogging a Post
Reblogging a post just requires knowing the post id and the reblog key, which is supplied in the JSON of any post object.
client.reblog(blogName, id=125356, reblog_key="reblog_key")
Deleting a post
Deleting just requires that you own the post and have the post id
client.delete_post(blogName, 123456) # Deletes your post :(
A note on tags: When passing tags, as params, please pass them as a list (not a comma-separated string):
client.create_text(blogName, tags=['hello', 'world'], ...)
Getting notes for a post
In order to get the notes for a post, you need to have the post id and the blog that it is on.
data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456')
The results include a timestamp you can use to make future calls.
data = client.notes(blogName, id='123456', before_timestamp=data["_links"]["next"]["query_params"]["before_timestamp"])
# get posts with a given tag client.tagged(tag, **params)
This client comes with a nice interactive console to run you through the OAuth process, grab your tokens (and store them for future use).
pyyaml installed to run it, but then it's just:
$ python interactive-console.py
and away you go! Tokens are stored in
~/.tumblr and are also shared by other Tumblr API clients like the Ruby client.
The tests (and coverage reports) are run with nose, like this:
python setup.py test
Python is one of the most popular programming languages currently. It looks like this trend is about to continue in 2021 and beyond. So, if you are a Python beginner, the best thing you can do is work on some real-time Python project ideas.
We, here at upGrad, believe in a practical approach as theoretical knowledge alone won’t be of help in a real-time work environment. In this article, we will be exploring some interesting Python project ideas which beginners can work on to put their Python knowledge to test. In this article, you will find 42 top python project ideas for beginners to get hands-on experience on Python
Moreover, project-based learning helps improve student knowledge. That’s why all of the upGrad courses cover case studies and assignments based on real-life problems. This technique is ideally for, but not limited to, beginners in programming skills.
But first, let’s address the more pertinent question that must be lurking in your mind:
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Welcome to my Blog, In this article, we will learn python lambda function, Map function, and filter function.
Lambda function in python: Lambda is a one line anonymous function and lambda takes any number of arguments but can only have one expression and python lambda syntax is
Syntax: x = lambda arguments : expression
Now i will show you some python lambda function examples:
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No programming language is pretty much as diverse as Python. It enables building cutting edge applications effortlessly. Developers are as yet investigating the full capability of end-to-end Python development services in various areas.
By areas, we mean FinTech, HealthTech, InsureTech, Cybersecurity, and that's just the beginning. These are New Economy areas, and Python has the ability to serve every one of them. The vast majority of them require massive computational abilities. Python's code is dynamic and powerful - equipped for taking care of the heavy traffic and substantial algorithmic capacities.
Programming advancement is multidimensional today. Endeavor programming requires an intelligent application with AI and ML capacities. Shopper based applications require information examination to convey a superior client experience. Netflix, Trello, and Amazon are genuine instances of such applications. Python assists with building them effortlessly.
Python can do such numerous things that developers can't discover enough reasons to admire it. Python application development isn't restricted to web and enterprise applications. It is exceptionally adaptable and superb for a wide range of uses.
Python is known for its tools and frameworks. There's a structure for everything. Django is helpful for building web applications, venture applications, logical applications, and mathematical processing. Flask is another web improvement framework with no conditions.
Web2Py, CherryPy, and Falcon offer incredible capabilities to customize Python development services. A large portion of them are open-source frameworks that allow quick turn of events.
Simple to read and compose
Python has an improved sentence structure - one that is like the English language. New engineers for Python can undoubtedly understand where they stand in the development process. The simplicity of composing allows quick application building.
The motivation behind building Python, as said by its maker Guido Van Rossum, was to empower even beginner engineers to comprehend the programming language. The simple coding likewise permits developers to roll out speedy improvements without getting confused by pointless subtleties.
Utilized by the best
Alright - Python isn't simply one more programming language. It should have something, which is the reason the business giants use it. Furthermore, that too for different purposes. Developers at Google use Python to assemble framework organization systems, parallel information pusher, code audit, testing and QA, and substantially more. Netflix utilizes Python web development services for its recommendation algorithm and media player.
Massive community support
Python has a steadily developing community that offers enormous help. From amateurs to specialists, there's everybody. There are a lot of instructional exercises, documentation, and guides accessible for Python web development solutions.
Today, numerous universities start with Python, adding to the quantity of individuals in the community. Frequently, Python designers team up on various tasks and help each other with algorithmic, utilitarian, and application critical thinking.
Python is the greatest supporter of data science, Machine Learning, and Artificial Intelligence at any enterprise software development company. Its utilization cases in cutting edge applications are the most compelling motivation for its prosperity. Python is the second most well known tool after R for data analytics.
The simplicity of getting sorted out, overseeing, and visualizing information through unique libraries makes it ideal for data based applications. TensorFlow for neural networks and OpenCV for computer vision are two of Python's most well known use cases for Machine learning applications.
Thinking about the advances in programming and innovation, Python is a YES for an assorted scope of utilizations. Game development, web application development services, GUI advancement, ML and AI improvement, Enterprise and customer applications - every one of them uses Python to its full potential.
The disadvantages of Python web improvement arrangements are regularly disregarded by developers and organizations because of the advantages it gives. They focus on quality over speed and performance over blunders. That is the reason it's a good idea to utilize Python for building the applications of the future.
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Android Projects with Source Code – Your entry pass into the world of Android
Hello Everyone, welcome to this article, which is going to be really important to all those who’re in dilemma for their projects and the project submissions. This article is also going to help you if you’re an enthusiast looking forward to explore and enhance your Android skills. The reason is that we’re here to provide you the best ideas of Android Project with source code that you can choose as per your choice.
These project ideas are simple suggestions to help you deal with the difficulty of choosing the correct projects. In this article, we’ll see the project ideas from beginners level and later we’ll move on to intermediate to advance.
Before working on real-time projects, it is recommended to create a sample hello world project in android studio and get a flavor of project creation as well as execution: Create your first android project
Android Project: A calculator will be an easy application if you have just learned Android and coding for Java. This Application will simply take the input values and the operation to be performed from the users. After taking the input it’ll return the results to them on the screen. This is a really easy application and doesn’t need use of any particular package.
To make a calculator you’d need Android IDE, Kotlin/Java for coding, and for layout of your application, you’d need XML or JSON. For this, coding would be the same as that in any language, but in the form of an application. Not to forget creating a calculator initially will increase your logical thinking.
Once the user installs the calculator, they’re ready to use it even without the internet. They’ll enter the values, and the application will show them the value after performing the given operations on the entered operands.
Source Code: Simple Calculator Project
Android Project: This is a good project for beginners. A Reminder App can help you set reminders for different events that you have throughout the day. It’ll help you stay updated with all your tasks for the day. It can be useful for all those who are not so good at organizing their plans and forget easily. This would be a simple application just whose task would be just to remind you of something at a particular time.
To make a Reminder App you need to code in Kotlin/Java and design the layout using XML or JSON. For the functionality of the app, you’d need to make use of AlarmManager Class and Notifications in Android.
In this, the user would be able to set reminders and time in the application. Users can schedule reminders that would remind them to drink water again and again throughout the day. Or to remind them of their medications.
Android Project: Another beginner’s level project Idea can be a Quiz Application in android. Here you can provide the users with Quiz on various general knowledge topics. These practices will ensure that you’re able to set the layouts properly and slowly increase your pace of learning the Android application development. In this you’ll learn to use various Layout components at the same time understanding them better.
To make a quiz application you’ll need to code in Java and set layouts using xml or java whichever you prefer. You can also use JSON for the layouts whichever preferable.
In the app, questions would be asked and answers would be shown as multiple choices. The user selects the answer and gets shown on the screen if the answers are correct. In the end the final marks would be shown to the users.
Android Project: Tic-Tac-Toe is a nice game, I guess most of you all are well aware of it. This will be a game for two players. In this android game, users would be putting X and O in the given 9 parts of a box one by one. The first player to arrange X or O in an adjacent line of three wins.
To build this game, you’d need Java and XML for Android Studio. And simply apply the logic on that. This game will have a set of three matches. So, it’ll also have a scoreboard. This scoreboard will show the final result at the end of one complete set.
Upon entering the game they’ll enter their names. And that’s when the game begins. They’ll touch one of the empty boxes present there and get their turn one by one. At the end of the game, there would be a winner declared.
Source Code: Tic Tac Toe Game Project
Android Project: A stopwatch is another simple android project idea that will work the same as a normal handheld timepiece that measures the time elapsed between its activation and deactivation. This application will have three buttons that are: start, stop, and hold.
This application would need to use Java and XML. For this application, we need to set the timer properly as it is initially set to milliseconds, and that should be converted to minutes and then hours properly. The users can use this application and all they’d need to do is, start the stopwatch and then stop it when they are done. They can also pause the timer and continue it again when they like.
Android Project: This is another very simple project idea for you as a beginner. This application as the name suggests will be a To-Do list holding app. It’ll store the users schedules and their upcoming meetings or events. In this application, users will be enabled to write their important notes as well. To make it safe, provide a login page before the user can access it.
So, this app will have a login page, sign-up page, logout system, and the area to write their tasks, events, or important notes. You can build it in android studio using Java and XML at ease. Using XML you can build the user interface as user-friendly as you can. And to store the users’ data, you can use SQLite enabling the users to even delete the data permanently.
Now for users, they will sign up and get access to the write section. Here the users can note down the things and store them permanently. Users can also alter the data or delete them. Finally, they can logout and also, login again and again whenever they like.
Android Project: This app is aimed at the conversion of Roman numbers to their significant decimal number. It’ll help to check the meaning of the roman numbers. Moreover, it will be easy to develop and will help you get your hands on coding and Android.
You need to use Android Studio, Java for coding and XML for interface. The application will take input from the users and convert them to decimal. Once it converts the Roman no. into decimal, it will show the results on the screen.
The users are supposed to just enter the Roman Number and they’ll get the decimal values on the screen. This can be a good android project for final year students.
Android Project: Well, coming to this part that is Virtual Dice or a random no. generator. It is another simple but interesting app for computer science students. The only task that it would need to do would be to generate a number randomly. This can help people who’re often confused between two or more things.
Using a simple random number generator you can actually create something as good as this. All you’d need to do is get you hands-on OnClick listeners. And a good layout would be cherry on the cake.
The user’s task would be to set the range of the numbers and then click on the roll button. And the app will show them a randomly generated number. Isn’t it interesting ? Try soon!
Android Project: This application is very important for you as a beginner as it will let you use your logical thinking and improve your programming skills. This is a scientific calculator that will help the users to do various calculations at ease.
To make this application you’d need to use Android Studio. Here you’d need to use arithmetic logics for the calculations. The user would need to give input to the application that will be in terms of numbers. After that, the user will give the operator as an input. Then the Application will calculate and generate the result on the user screen.
Android Project: An SMS app is another easy but effective idea. It will let you send the SMS to various no. just in the same way as you use the default messaging application in your phone. This project will help you with better understanding of SMSManager in Android.
For this application, you would need to implement Java class SMSManager in Android. For the Layout you can use XML or JSON. Implementing SMSManager into the app is an easy task, so you would love this.
The user would be provided with the facility to text to whichever number they wish also, they’d be able to choose the numbers from the contact list. Another thing would be the Textbox, where they’ll enter their message. Once the message is entered they can happily click on the send button.
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