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Articles of Confederation versus Constitution

Any country in the world is governed by laws which ensure that the acting government is successful and the checks and balances are put in place. The United States of America has two primary documents used for governance: the Constitution and the Articles of Confederation. The Articles of Confederation came into force in 1781 and lasted till 1789, when the Constitution was adopted. Although the Articles of Confederation defined how states related to each other and provided some laws on how the country would be governed, it contained several limitations. These restrictions were associated with their inability to provide centralized authority for adequate governance. Therefore, the Constitution was aimed to correct these shortcomings and make other improvements. Indeed, the Constitution enabled the establishment of a bicameral legislature as opposed to a unilateral one that was provided in the Articles of Confederation. Furthermore, different arms of government were launched including the legislature, the judiciary, and the executive, which helped to create authority and ensure balance in governance. Although there are some similarities between the two documents, their differences are clear, and it is notable that the Constitution helped to address the gaps in the Articles of Confederation as written in primedissertations https://primedissertations.com/

Difference between the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution

The Articles of Confederation were created from the desire to have a policy that would guide Americans during their period of independence. Thirteen states came together in 1776 to draft the document, which underwent Congress scrutiny and debates to be passed in 1781. There was no executive body since all the power to govern the nation was accorded to the Congress. The document further stipulated that Congress delegates were to be appointed once per year from each state. Some articles protected Congress representatives from arrest as they carried out their official duties or participated in debates. Furthermore, the Articles of Confederation did not provide a permanent judiciary; hence, decisions regarding disputes on boundaries were left under the jurisdiction of the Congress. Besides, there was no executive at the national level, and the President had limited executive power.

The American Constitution was created as a solution to the issues that were not addressed in full by the Articles of Confederation. It replaced the latter in 1789 and established independent states that would constitute the United States of America. Each state was to be represented by two senators, and the voting right of each state was influenced by its population. The move was different from what was offered by the Articles of Confederation, where only one vote was allowed per state. Additionally, the Constitution established a centralized executive to lead the country through the representation of the President. Furthermore, the Constitution allowed the founding of interdependent arms that constituted the government. The arms that comprised the judiciary, the executive, and the legislature were meant to keep balance of power and checks on each other. In addition, the adopted constitution identified and emphasized the sovereignty of the American people and established how the country would relate with foreign countries.

Features of the Articles of Confederation and the Constitution

Though there are some similarities between the two documents based on the fact that the same people developed them, their characteristics differ significantly. Thus, both documents recognize America as the United States of America. However, the Articles of Confederation were based on a unicameral congress which bestowed all the power to govern the country. The situation is different in the Constitution, which recognizes a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Articles of Confederation provided that a minimum of two and less than seven members should represent each state in the Congress. However, according to the Constitution, each state should be represented by two senators in the Congress, and the representatives should be appointed in accordance to the population size in the state. Therefore, the Constitution ensures that there is adequate representation of each state in the Congress. In terms of voting, the Articles provided each state with one vote. The situation is different in the Constitution, according to which the votes in the Congress are based on the number of representatives.

The appointment of Congress members in the Confederation was based on the elected state legislature. The method is different in the Constitution, where the representatives’ election is based on voting, and only senators are appointed based on state legislature. The legislative term also varies in the two documents. Thus, a one year term is guaranteed by the Articles as opposed to six years for senators and two years for representatives in the Constitution. The pay for the Congress originated from states in the Articles, and the federal government in the Constitution. Additionally, the Articles of Confederation established no executive arm, which is different in the Constitution, where the President is the head of the executive arm of the government. Furthermore, the maritime judiciary was established by the Confederation as opposed to the institution of the federal judiciary in addition to Supreme Court that was stipulated in the Constitution. According to the Articles of Confederation, state disputes were resolved by the Congress. However, the Constitution recognizes the Supreme Court as the body for resolving disputes arising between states.

Justification of Adoption of the Constitution

The adoption of the Constitution to replace the Articles of Confederation was justified due to the benefits it gave to the American people. The Constitution promoted the establishment of centralized power through granting the President the executive power to rule the country. The move further gave the country a sense of direction towards the goals that were beneficial to the entire population. Through the creation of the Supreme Court, the Constitution helped to reduce conflicts between states that would have divided America. It further removed the bias that was initially expressed by states with higher populations that had equal representation with less densely populated areas. Therefore, it enhanced equal representation based on population size as opposed to recognition of all states as equal. Additionally, the Constitution established different arms of government, which ensured that governance was free from bias. Moreover, all decisions by either of the arms are now based on guidelines given in the Constitution, thereby preventing biased actions. Finally, the Constitution offers a source of reference for the judiciary when interpreting laws and making judgments, thus ensuring free trials.

The governance of the United States was based on the Articles of Confederation since early 1777, but it changed in 1789, when the Constitution was adopted. The Articles of Confederation contained some limitations, such as lack of centralized authority. Moreover, they did not provide executive control, which made it challenging to govern the state. Besides, a unicameral congress failed to offer adequate representation of states. The adoption of the Constitution enabled the formation of a bicameral congress that helped to solve the problem of representation. Furthermore, through the establishment of different arms of government, checks and balance of governance were achieved. Additionally, the Constitution established the judiciary and supreme courts, which could solve state disputes. Indeed, the adoption of the Constitution is justified since it has helped to build a stable country and enhanced proportional representation of people in the Congress.


 

 

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Guide To WordPress Redirects (Steps To Follow)

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You will observe that many of your URLs have been changed whenever you redesign your website. This is also applicable whenever you made certain changes to its permalink structure. Ultimately, it creates a big issue for users as well as search engines.

Here, comes the role of WordPress redirects which contributes to providing a simple solution. Whenever you make use of a redirect, your visitors would not be negatively impacted. This is something that will keep your search engine rankings intact.

If you are thinking about how to do redirects in WordPress, then don’t worry as this article will provide you a detailed guide on this.

What Is A Page Redirect?

This is a set of rules which tells a browser to forward your visitors from a specific link they clicked on to a diverse page.

Whenever you redirect a page, there are mainly two outcomes for your end-users. Either, they will see a redirection message or they will be simply redirected without any notification.

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Adding redirects becomes important whenever you have redesigned your website, made certain updates to your permalinks, or changed your domain. This is necessary to make your pre-existing content accessible to search engines as well as readers.

So, it can be said, that you are forwarding your users to a completed new web page with the help of these redirects.

When You Should Focus On Redirecting A Page?

There are many reasons, for which you may wish to redirect URLs on your website. Some of the most common reasons for this include the following:

  • The URL of the page is changing.
  • A specific page that is no longer relevant.
  • Focusing to move your domain from HTTP to HTTPS.
  • You are deleting or moving your content.
  • You are changing your original domain name or making use of a different domain.

Additionally, redirects can also help you to make sure that if a page is missing or broken, then the users will be sent along with the other content of your website without any sort of interruption.

Different Types Of Redirects To Know About

There are some of how you can make use of a redirect. Not only that but there are many other types as well. Below, you will find some of the most common redirect methods which you might need to use.

(A) 301 Permanent Redirect

If you are permanently deleting or moving a page, then this redirect is generally used. It may be used when you are considering moving your website from one URL to another or you are switching to a new hosting service.

(B) 302 Temporary Redirects

This is a temporary redirect that should be used with caution as well as tested for browser compatibility. Also, this redirect tells the user that the file that you are looking for exists. But, it is not loading for some particular reason.

After that, the users are offered an alternative option. These redirects can again carry SEO penalties specifically for long-term use. So, this is a good option for temporary websites.

© 303 See Other

This is considered to be very important specifically in terms of security. Often, this is used as a replacement for the 302 redirects whenever issues arise. This type of redirect prevents users from submitting the same information more than once.

They will be redirected to a different page once they submit their information. You can also prevent refreshing or bookmarking sensitive data like credit card information. So, this prevents users from making any mistakes like accidentally purchasing the same item twice.

(D)307

This redirect is similar in functionality as well as purpose to the 303 redirects. Here, the main difference lies in the way, in which it receives and sends information.

Only, one data exchange method is used in this case. So, this can be called a true temporary redirect. But, a 303 redirect makes use of two methods.

(E)308

This is known to be a permanent redirect similar to 301 redirects. It is mainly used whenever the location of a file has changed.

The main difference existing between 308 and 301 is that the 308 can only make use of the POST method whereas a 301 can specifically change the HTTP method from POST to GET.

(F) HTTP To HTTPS Redirect

There are several advantages of an HTTPS URL over an HTTP URL both in terms of SEO and security. However, you will need to set up a redirect that forces browsers to display the HTTPS version of your pages.

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Why Use WordPress? What Can You Do With WordPress?

Can you use WordPress for anything other than blogging? To your surprise, yes. WordPress is more than just a blogging tool, and it has helped thousands of websites and web applications to thrive. The use of WordPress powers around 40% of online projects, and today in our blog, we would visit some amazing uses of WordPress other than blogging.
What Is The Use Of WordPress?

WordPress is the most popular website platform in the world. It is the first choice of businesses that want to set a feature-rich and dynamic Content Management System. So, if you ask what WordPress is used for, the answer is – everything. It is a super-flexible, feature-rich and secure platform that offers everything to build unique websites and applications. Let’s start knowing them:

1. Multiple Websites Under A Single Installation
WordPress Multisite allows you to develop multiple sites from a single WordPress installation. You can download WordPress and start building websites you want to launch under a single server. Literally speaking, you can handle hundreds of sites from one single dashboard, which now needs applause.
It is a highly efficient platform that allows you to easily run several websites under the same login credentials. One of the best things about WordPress is the themes it has to offer. You can simply download them and plugin for various sites and save space on sites without losing their speed.

2. WordPress Social Network
WordPress can be used for high-end projects such as Social Media Network. If you don’t have the money and patience to hire a coder and invest months in building a feature-rich social media site, go for WordPress. It is one of the most amazing uses of WordPress. Its stunning CMS is unbeatable. And you can build sites as good as Facebook or Reddit etc. It can just make the process a lot easier.
To set up a social media network, you would have to download a WordPress Plugin called BuddyPress. It would allow you to connect a community page with ease and would provide all the necessary features of a community or social media. It has direct messaging, activity stream, user groups, extended profiles, and so much more. You just have to download and configure it.
If BuddyPress doesn’t meet all your needs, don’t give up on your dreams. You can try out WP Symposium or PeepSo. There are also several themes you can use to build a social network.

3. Create A Forum For Your Brand’s Community
Communities are very important for your business. They help you stay in constant connection with your users and consumers. And allow you to turn them into a loyal customer base. Meanwhile, there are many good technologies that can be used for building a community page – the good old WordPress is still the best.
It is the best community development technology. If you want to build your online community, you need to consider all the amazing features you get with WordPress. Plugins such as BB Press is an open-source, template-driven PHP/ MySQL forum software. It is very simple and doesn’t hamper the experience of the website.
Other tools such as wpFoRo and Asgaros Forum are equally good for creating a community blog. They are lightweight tools that are easy to manage and integrate with your WordPress site easily. However, there is only one tiny problem; you need to have some technical knowledge to build a WordPress Community blog page.

4. Shortcodes
Since we gave you a problem in the previous section, we would also give you a perfect solution for it. You might not know to code, but you have shortcodes. Shortcodes help you execute functions without having to code. It is an easy way to build an amazing website, add new features, customize plugins easily. They are short lines of code, and rather than memorizing multiple lines; you can have zero technical knowledge and start building a feature-rich website or application.
There are also plugins like Shortcoder, Shortcodes Ultimate, and the Basics available on WordPress that can be used, and you would not even have to remember the shortcodes.

5. Build Online Stores
If you still think about why to use WordPress, use it to build an online store. You can start selling your goods online and start selling. It is an affordable technology that helps you build a feature-rich eCommerce store with WordPress.
WooCommerce is an extension of WordPress and is one of the most used eCommerce solutions. WooCommerce holds a 28% share of the global market and is one of the best ways to set up an online store. It allows you to build user-friendly and professional online stores and has thousands of free and paid extensions. Moreover as an open-source platform, and you don’t have to pay for the license.
Apart from WooCommerce, there are Easy Digital Downloads, iThemes Exchange, Shopify eCommerce plugin, and so much more available.

6. Security Features
WordPress takes security very seriously. It offers tons of external solutions that help you in safeguarding your WordPress site. While there is no way to ensure 100% security, it provides regular updates with security patches and provides several plugins to help with backups, two-factor authorization, and more.
By choosing hosting providers like WP Engine, you can improve the security of the website. It helps in threat detection, manage patching and updates, and internal security audits for the customers, and so much more.

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Hire WordPress Developer

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HourlyDeveloper.io is a distinguished leader in the WordPress development market. Hire WordPress Developer that develop easy-to-manage and high-performance WordPress websites that deliver the kind of results you have always wished for!

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Juned Ghanchi

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Wordpress Development India, Hire Wordpress Developers

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