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# Data visualization using ggplot histogram

### What is a histogram?

A histogram is a type of graph commonly used to visualize the univariate distribution of a numeric data. Here the data is displayed in the form of bins which represents the occurrence of datapoints within a range of values. These bins and the distribution thus formed can be used to understand some useful information about the data such as central location, the spread, shape of data etc. It can also be used to find outliers and gaps in data.

A basic histogram for age looks as below.

From the above histogram it can be interpreted that most of the people fall within the age range of 50-60 and there seems to be less number of people for the range 70-80 and 90-100 .There is also a gap in the histogram for the range 80-90 which indicates that the data for the age range 80-90 might be missing or not available. So, a histogram as above can be used to visualize useful information about a continuous numeric variable. Let’s see more about these histograms, how to create them and its various customization options below.

#### Histogram and Bar Charts

Histograms are sometimes confused with bar charts. Although a histogram looks similar to a bar chart, the major difference is that a histogram is only used to plot the frequency of occurrences in a continuous data set that has been divided into classes, called bins. Bar charts, on the other hand, is used to plot categorical data.

#r #ggplot histogram

## Buddha Community

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If you accumulate data on which you base your decision-making as an organization, you should probably think about your data architecture and possible best practices.

If you accumulate data on which you base your decision-making as an organization, you most probably need to think about your data architecture and consider possible best practices. Gaining a competitive edge, remaining customer-centric to the greatest extent possible, and streamlining processes to get on-the-button outcomes can all be traced back to an organization’s capacity to build a future-ready data architecture.

In what follows, we offer a short overview of the overarching capabilities of data architecture. These include user-centricity, elasticity, robustness, and the capacity to ensure the seamless flow of data at all times. Added to these are automation enablement, plus security and data governance considerations. These points from our checklist for what we perceive to be an anticipatory analytics ecosystem.

#big data #data science #big data analytics #data analysis #data architecture #data transformation #data platform #data strategy #cloud data platform #data acquisition

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## How To Blend Data in Google Data Studio For Better Data Analysis

Using data to inform decisions is essential to product management, or anything really. And thankfully, we aren’t short of it. Any online application generates an abundance of data and it’s up to us to collect it and then make sense of it.

Google Data Studio helps us understand the meaning behind data, enabling us to build beautiful visualizations and dashboards that transform data into stories. If it wasn’t already, data literacy is as much a fundamental skill as learning to read or write. Or it certainly will be.

Nothing is more powerful than data democracy, where anyone in your organization can regularly make decisions informed with data. As part of enabling this, we need to be able to visualize data in a way that brings it to life and makes it more accessible. I’ve recently been learning how to do this and wanted to share some of the cool ways you can do this in Google Data Studio.

#google-data-studio #blending-data #dashboard #data-visualization #creating-visualizations #how-to-visualize-data #data-analysis #data-visualisation

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## Getting Started With Data Lakes

### Frameworks for Efficient Enterprise Analytics

The opportunities big data offers also come with very real challenges that many organizations are facing today. Often, it’s finding the most cost-effective, scalable way to store and process boundless volumes of data in multiple formats that come from a growing number of sources. Then organizations need the analytical capabilities and flexibility to turn this data into insights that can meet their specific business objectives.

This Refcard dives into how a data lake helps tackle these challenges at both ends — from its enhanced architecture that’s designed for efficient data ingestion, storage, and management to its advanced analytics functionality and performance flexibility. You’ll also explore key benefits and common use cases.

### Introduction

As technology continues to evolve with new data sources, such as IoT sensors and social media churning out large volumes of data, there has never been a better time to discuss the possibilities and challenges of managing such data for varying analytical insights. In this Refcard, we dig deep into how data lakes solve the problem of storing and processing enormous amounts of data. While doing so, we also explore the benefits of data lakes, their use cases, and how they differ from data warehouses (DWHs).

#big data #data analytics #data analysis #business analytics #data warehouse #data storage #data lake #data lake architecture #data lake governance #data lake management

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## Data Lake and Data Mesh Use Cases

As data mesh advocates come to suggest that the data mesh should replace the monolithic, centralized data lake, I wanted to check in with Dipti Borkar, co-founder and Chief Product Officer at Ahana. Dipti has been a tremendous resource for me over the years as she has held leadership positions at Couchbase, Kinetica, and Alluxio.

#### Definitions

• A data lake is a concept consisting of a collection of storage instances of various data assets. These assets are stored in a near-exact, or even exact, copy of the resource format and in addition to the originating data stores.
• A data mesh is a type of data platform architecture that embraces the ubiquity of data in the enterprise by leveraging a domain-oriented, self-serve design. Mesh is an abstraction layer that sits atop data sources and provides access.

According to Dipti, while data lakes and data mesh both have use cases they work well for, data mesh can’t replace the data lake unless all data sources are created equal — and for many, that’s not the case.

#### Data Sources

All data sources are not equal. There are different dimensions of data:

• Amount of data being stored
• Importance of the data
• Type of data
• Type of analysis to be supported
• Longevity of the data being stored
• Cost of managing and processing the data

Each data source has its purpose. Some are built for fast access for small amounts of data, some are meant for real transactions, some are meant for data that applications need, and some are meant for getting insights on large amounts of data.

#### AWS S3

Things changed when AWS commoditized the storage layer with the AWS S3 object-store 15 years ago. Given the ubiquity and affordability of S3 and other cloud storage, companies are moving most of this data to cloud object stores and building data lakes, where it can be analyzed in many different ways.

Because of the low cost, enterprises can store all of their data — enterprise, third-party, IoT, and streaming — into an S3 data lake. However, the data cannot be processed there. You need engines on top like Hive, Presto, and Spark to process it. Hadoop tried to do this with limited success. Presto and Spark have solved the SQL in S3 query problem.

#big data #big data analytics #data lake #data lake and data mesh #data lake #data mesh

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## Data Mining: Use Cases, Benefits, and Tools

In this article, you will learn about the main use cases of data mining and how it has opened up a world of possibilities for businesses.

In the last decade, advances in processing power and speed have allowed us to move from tedious and time-consuming manual practices to fast and easy automated data analysis. The more complex the data sets collected, the greater the potential to uncover relevant information. Retailers, banks, manufacturers, healthcare companies, etc., are using data mining to uncover the relationships between everything from price optimization, promotions, and demographics to how economics, risk, competition, and online presence affect their business models, revenues, operations, and customer relationships. Today, data scientists have become indispensable to organizations around the world as companies seek to achieve bigger goals than ever before with data science. In this article, you will learn about the main use cases of data mining and how it has opened up a world of possibilities for businesses.

Today, organizations have access to more data than ever before. However, making sense of the huge volumes of structured and unstructured data to implement improvements across the organization can be extremely difficult due to the sheer volume of information.

#big data #data visualization #data mining #data warehouse #data modeling #big data analysis