Dayne Nienow

Dayne Nienow

1611192958

A Guide to JavaScript if and else Statements

Learn how you can control the flow of your code execution using both if and else statements. A JavaScript if…else statement evaluates whether a condition is equal to true. If a condition is equal to false, the else statement executes. Otherwise, the contents of the “if” statement run. The else statement appears after all the if conditions in a statement.

As you write your code, you will often find that you want to execute a block of your code according to some defined conditions.

For example, you may want to grant different responses for students depending on their test scores:

  • If a student got an A score, you want to write “Congratulations! You did very well.”
  • If a student got a B score, you want to write “You did great! Keep improving your skills.”

You can write a program for the above requirements by using the if statement:

let score = "A";

if (score === "A") {
  console.log("Congratulations! You did very well.");
}

if (score === "B") {
  console.log("You did great! Keep improving your skills.");
}

#javascript #programming #web-development #developer

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A Guide to JavaScript if and else Statements
Lowa Alice

Lowa Alice

1624402800

JavaScript if else (tutorial). DO NOT MISS!!!

JavaScript if else made simple.

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The origin of the article: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IsG4Xd6LlsM&list=PLTjRvDozrdlxEIuOBZkMAK5uiqp8rHUax&index=7
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#javascript #if else #javascript if else #javascript if else (tutorial)

Cyril  Parisian

Cyril Parisian

1661092140

Udlib: Header-only Series Of C++20 Usermode Utilities

Overview and roadmap

FeatureAvailability
xorstr
stack strings
rot string
signature scans
segment wrappers
module wrappers
shellcode wrappers
constexpr emittion✅ (clang only)
constexpr fnv-1a hashing
lazy importer🟦 (untested)
disassembler engine
memory scanning utility

ud.hpp

#pragma once
#include <optional>
#include <string>
#include <vector>
#include <array>
#include <algorithm>
#include <string_view>
#include <fstream>
#include <unordered_map>

#include <Windows.h>
#include <winternl.h>

#if defined(_MSC_VER)
#define UD_FORCEINLINE __forceinline
#pragma warning( push )
#pragma warning( disable : 4244 4083 )
#else
#define UD_FORCEINLINE __attribute__( ( always_inline ) )
#endif

#define ud_encode_c( str ) ud::rot::decode( ud::rot::rot_t<str>{ } ).data
#define ud_encode( str ) std::string_view( ud::rot::decode( ud::rot::rot_t<str>{ } ) )

#define ud_xorstr_c( str ) ud::xorstr::decrypt( ud::xorstr::xorstr_t< str, __COUNTER__ + 1 ^ 0x90 >{ } ).data
#define ud_xorstr( str ) std::string_view{ ud::xorstr::decrypt( ud::xorstr::xorstr_t< str, __COUNTER__ + 1 ^ 0x90 >{ } ) }

#define ud_stack_str( str ) ud::details::comp_string_t{ str }.data

#define ud_import( mod, func )	reinterpret_cast< decltype( &func ) >( ud::lazy_import::find_module_export< TEXT( mod ), #func >( ) )
#define ud_first_import( func ) reinterpret_cast< decltype( &func ) >( ud::lazy_import::find_first_export< #func >( ) )

// preprocessed settings due to MSVC (not clang or gcc) throwing errors even in `if constexpr` bodies
#define UD_USE_SEH false

namespace ud
{
    namespace details
    {
        struct LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY32
        {
            LIST_ENTRY in_load_order_links;

            std::uint8_t pad[ 16 ];
            std::uintptr_t dll_base;
            std::uintptr_t entry_point;
            std::size_t size_of_image;

            UNICODE_STRING full_name;
            UNICODE_STRING base_name;
        };

        struct LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY64
        {
            LIST_ENTRY in_load_order_links;
            LIST_ENTRY dummy_0;
            LIST_ENTRY dummy_1;

            std::uintptr_t dll_base;
            std::uintptr_t entry_point;
            union {
                unsigned long size_of_image;
                const char* _dummy;
            };

            UNICODE_STRING full_name;
            UNICODE_STRING base_name;
        };

#if defined( _M_X64 )
        using LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY = LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY64;
#else
        using LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY = LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY32;
#endif

        template < std::size_t sz >
        struct comp_string_t
        {
            std::size_t size = sz;
            char data[ sz ]{ };

            comp_string_t( ) = default;
            consteval explicit comp_string_t( const char( &str )[ sz ] )
            {
                std::copy_n( str, sz, data );
            }

            constexpr explicit operator std::string_view( ) const
            {
                return { data, size };
            }
        };

        template < std::size_t sz >
        struct wcomp_string_t
        {
            std::size_t size = sz;
            wchar_t data[ sz ]{ };

            wcomp_string_t( ) = default;
            consteval explicit wcomp_string_t( const wchar_t( &str )[ sz ] )
            {
                std::copy_n( str, sz, data );
            }

            constexpr explicit operator std::wstring_view( ) const
            {
                return { data, size };
            }
        };

        inline constexpr std::uint64_t multiplier = 0x5bd1e995;
        inline consteval std::uint64_t get_seed( )
        {
            constexpr auto time_str = __TIME__;
            constexpr auto time_len = sizeof( __TIME__ ) - 1;

            constexpr auto time_int = [ ] ( const char* const str, const std::size_t len )
            {
                auto res = 0ull;
                for ( auto i = 0u; i < len; ++i )
                    if ( str[ i ] >= '0' && str[ i ] <= '9' )
                        res = res * 10 + str[ i ] - '0';

                return res;
            }( time_str, time_len );

            return time_int;
        }

        template < auto v >
        struct constant_t
        {
            enum : decltype( v )
            {
                value = v
            };
        };

        template < auto v >
        inline constexpr auto constant_v = constant_t< v >::value;

#undef max
#undef min

        template < std::uint32_t seq >
        consteval std::uint64_t recursive_random( )
        {
            constexpr auto seed = get_seed( );
            constexpr auto mask = std::numeric_limits< std::uint64_t >::max( );

            constexpr auto x = ( ( seq * multiplier ) + seed ) & mask;
            constexpr auto x_prime = ( x >> 0x10 ) | ( x << 0x10 );

            return constant_v< x_prime >;
        }
    }

    namespace rot
    {
        template < details::comp_string_t str >
        struct rot_t
        {
            char rotted[ str.size ];

            [[nodiscard]] consteval const char* encoded( ) const
            {
                return rotted;
            }

            consteval rot_t( )
            {
                for ( auto i = 0u; i < str.size; ++i )
                {
                    const auto c = str.data[ i ];
                    const auto set = c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z' ? 'A' : c >= 'a' && c <= 'z' ? 'a' : c;

                    if ( set == 'a' || set == 'A' )
                        rotted[ i ] = ( c - set - 13 + 26 ) % 26 + set;

                    else
                        rotted[ i ] = c;
                }
            }
        };

        template < details::comp_string_t str >
        UD_FORCEINLINE details::comp_string_t< str.size > decode( rot_t< str > encoded )
        {
            details::comp_string_t< str.size > result{ };

            for ( auto i = 0u; i < str.size; ++i )
            {
                const auto c = encoded.rotted[ i ];
                const auto set = c >= 'A' && c <= 'Z' ? 'A' : c >= 'a' && c <= 'z' ? 'a' : c;

                if ( set == 'a' || set == 'A' )
                    result.data[ i ] = ( c - set - 13 + 26 ) % 26 + set;

                else
                    result.data[ i ] = c;
            }

            return result;
        }
    }

    namespace fnv
    {
        inline constexpr std::uint32_t fnv_1a( const char* const str, const std::size_t size )
        {
            constexpr auto prime = 16777619u;

            std::uint32_t hash = 2166136261;

            for ( auto i = 0u; i < size; ++i )
            {
                hash ^= str[ i ];
                hash *= prime;
            }

            return hash;
        }

        inline constexpr std::uint32_t fnv_1a( const wchar_t* const str, const std::size_t size )
        {
            constexpr auto prime = 16777619u;

            std::uint32_t hash = 2166136261;

            for ( auto i = 0u; i < size; ++i )
            {
                hash ^= static_cast< char >( str[ i ] );
                hash *= prime;
            }

            return hash;
        }

        inline constexpr std::uint32_t fnv_1a( const std::wstring_view str )
        {
            return fnv_1a( str.data( ), str.size( ) );
        }

        inline constexpr std::uint32_t fnv_1a( const std::string_view str )
        {
            return fnv_1a( str.data( ), str.size( ) );
        }

        template < details::comp_string_t str >
        consteval std::uint32_t fnv_1a( )
        {
            return fnv_1a( str.data, str.size );
        }

        template < details::wcomp_string_t str >
        consteval std::uint32_t fnv_1a( )
        {
            return fnv_1a( str.data, str.size );
        }
    }

    namespace xorstr
    {
        template < details::comp_string_t str, std::uint32_t key_multiplier >
        struct xorstr_t
        {
            char xored[ str.size ];

            [[nodiscard]] consteval std::uint64_t xor_key( ) const
            {
                return details::recursive_random< key_multiplier >( );
            }

            consteval xorstr_t( )
            {
                for ( auto i = 0u; i < str.size; ++i )
                    xored[ i ] = str.data[ i ] ^ xor_key( );
            }
        };

        template < details::comp_string_t str, std::uint32_t key_multiplier >
        UD_FORCEINLINE details::comp_string_t< str.size > decrypt( xorstr_t< str, key_multiplier > enc )
        {
            details::comp_string_t< str.size > result{ };

            for ( auto i = 0u; i < str.size; ++i )
            {
                const auto c = enc.xored[ i ];

                result.data[ i ] = c ^ enc.xor_key( );
            }

            return result;
        }
    }

    namespace lazy_import
    {
        UD_FORCEINLINE std::uintptr_t get_module_handle( const std::uint64_t hash )
        {
#if defined( _M_X64 )
            const auto peb = reinterpret_cast< const PEB* >( __readgsqword( 0x60 ) );
#else
            const auto peb = reinterpret_cast< const PEB* >( __readfsdword( 0x30 ) );
#endif

            const auto modules = reinterpret_cast< const LIST_ENTRY* >( peb->Ldr->InMemoryOrderModuleList.Flink );

            for ( auto i = modules->Flink; i != modules; i = i->Flink )
            {
                const auto entry = reinterpret_cast< const details::LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY* >( i );

                const auto name = entry->base_name.Buffer;
                const auto len = entry->base_name.Length;

                if ( fnv::fnv_1a( static_cast< const wchar_t* >( name ), len ) == hash )
                    return entry->dll_base;
            }

            return 0;
        }

        UD_FORCEINLINE void* find_primitive_export( const std::uint64_t dll_hash, const std::uint64_t function_hash )
        {
            const auto module = get_module_handle( dll_hash );

            if ( !module )
                return nullptr;

            const auto dos = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_DOS_HEADER* >( module );
            const auto nt = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_NT_HEADERS* >( module + dos->e_lfanew );

            const auto exports = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY* >( module + nt->OptionalHeader.DataDirectory[ IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXPORT ].VirtualAddress );

            const auto names = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint32_t* >( module + exports->AddressOfNames );
            const auto ordinals = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint16_t* >( module + exports->AddressOfNameOrdinals );
            const auto functions = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint32_t* >( module + exports->AddressOfFunctions );

            for ( auto i = 0u; i < exports->NumberOfNames; ++i )
            {
                const auto name = reinterpret_cast< const char* >( module + names[ i ] );
                std::size_t len = 0;

                for ( ; name[ len ]; ++len );

                if ( fnv::fnv_1a( name, len ) == function_hash )
                    return reinterpret_cast< void* >( module + functions[ ordinals[ i ] ] );
            }

            return nullptr;
        }

        template < details::wcomp_string_t dll_name, details::comp_string_t function_name >
        UD_FORCEINLINE void* find_module_export( )
        {
            return find_primitive_export( fnv::fnv_1a< dll_name >( ), fnv::fnv_1a< function_name >( ) );
        }

        template < details::comp_string_t function_name >
        UD_FORCEINLINE void* find_first_export( )
        {
            constexpr auto function_hash = fnv::fnv_1a< function_name >( );

#if defined( _M_X64 )
            const auto peb = reinterpret_cast< const PEB* >( __readgsqword( 0x60 ) );
#else
            const auto peb = reinterpret_cast< const PEB* >( __readfsdword( 0x30 ) );
#endif

            const auto modules = reinterpret_cast< const LIST_ENTRY* >( peb->Ldr->InMemoryOrderModuleList.Flink );


            for ( auto i = modules->Flink; i != modules; i = i->Flink )
            {
                const auto entry = reinterpret_cast< const details::LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY* >( i );

                const auto name = entry->base_name.Buffer;
                std::size_t len = 0;

                if ( !name )
                    continue;

                for ( ; name[ len ]; ++len );

                if ( const auto exp = find_primitive_export( fnv::fnv_1a( name, len ), function_hash ) )
                    return exp;
            }

            return nullptr;
        }
    }

    template < typename ty = std::uintptr_t >
    std::optional< ty > find_pattern_primitive( const std::uintptr_t start, const std::uintptr_t end, const std::string_view pattern )
    {
        std::vector< std::pair< bool, std::uint8_t > > bytes;

        for ( auto it = pattern.begin( ); it != pattern.end( ); ++it )
        {
            if ( *it == ' ' )
                continue;

            else if ( *it == '?' )
            {
                if ( it + 1 < pattern.end( ) && *( it + 1 ) == '?' )
                {
                    bytes.push_back( { true, 0x00 } );
                    ++it;
                }

                else
                    bytes.push_back( { false, 0x00 } );
            }

            else
            {
                if ( it + 1 == pattern.end( ) )
                    break;

                const auto get_byte = [ ] ( const std::string& x ) -> std::uint8_t
                {
                    return static_cast< std::uint8_t >( std::stoul( x, nullptr, 16 ) );
                };

                bytes.emplace_back( false, get_byte( std::string( it - 1, ( ++it ) + 1 ) ) );
            }
        }

        for ( auto i = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint8_t* >( start ); i < reinterpret_cast< const std::uint8_t* >( end ); )
        {
            auto found = true;
            for ( const auto& [ is_wildcard, byte ] : bytes )
            {
                ++i;

                if ( is_wildcard )
                    continue;

                if ( *i != byte )
                {
                    found = false;
                    break;
                }
            }

            if ( found )
                return ty( i - bytes.size( ) + 1 );
        }

        return std::nullopt;
    }

    struct segment_t
    {
        std::string_view name = "";
        std::uintptr_t start{ }, end{ };
        std::size_t size{ };

        template < typename ty = std::uintptr_t >
        std::optional< ty > find_pattern( const std::string_view pattern ) const
        {
            return find_pattern_primitive< ty >( start, end, pattern );
        }

        explicit segment_t( const std::string_view segment_name )
        {
            init( GetModuleHandle( nullptr ), segment_name );
        }

        segment_t( const void* const module, const std::string_view segment_name )
        {
            init( module, segment_name );
        }

        segment_t( const void* const handle, const IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER* section )
        {
            init( handle, section );
        }

    private:
        void init( const void* const handle, const IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER* section )
        {
            name = std::string_view( reinterpret_cast< const char* >( section->Name ), 8 );
            start = reinterpret_cast< std::uintptr_t >( handle ) + section->VirtualAddress;
            end = start + section->Misc.VirtualSize;
            size = section->Misc.VirtualSize;
        }

        void init( const void* const handle, const std::string_view segment_name )
        {
            const auto dos = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_DOS_HEADER* >( handle );
            const auto nt = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_NT_HEADERS* >( reinterpret_cast< const std::uint8_t* >( handle ) + dos->e_lfanew );

            const auto section = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER* >( reinterpret_cast< const std::uint8_t* >( &nt->OptionalHeader ) + nt->FileHeader.SizeOfOptionalHeader );

            for ( auto i = 0u; i < nt->FileHeader.NumberOfSections; ++i )
            {
                if ( std::string_view( reinterpret_cast< const char* >( section[ i ].Name ), 8 ).find( segment_name ) != std::string_view::npos )
                {
                    start = reinterpret_cast< std::uintptr_t >( handle ) + section[ i ].VirtualAddress;
                    end = start + section[ i ].Misc.VirtualSize;
                    size = section[ i ].Misc.VirtualSize;
                    name = segment_name;
                    return;
                }
            }
        }
    };

#pragma code_seg( push, ".text" )
    template < auto... bytes>
    struct shellcode_t
    {
        static constexpr std::size_t size = sizeof...( bytes );
        __declspec( allocate( ".text" ) ) static constexpr std::uint8_t data[ ]{ bytes... };
    };
#pragma code_seg( pop )

    template < typename ty, auto... bytes >
    constexpr ty make_shellcode( )
    {
        return reinterpret_cast< const ty >( &shellcode_t< bytes... >::data );
    }

    template < std::uint8_t... bytes >
    UD_FORCEINLINE constexpr void emit( )
    {
#if defined( __clang__ ) || defined( __GNUC__ )
        constexpr std::uint8_t data[ ]{ bytes... };

        for ( auto i = 0u; i < sizeof...( bytes ); ++i )
            __asm volatile( ".byte %c0\t\n" :: "i" ( data[ i ] ) );
#endif
    }

    template < std::size_t size, std::uint32_t seed = __COUNTER__ + 0x69, std::size_t count = 0 >
    UD_FORCEINLINE constexpr void emit_random( )
    {
        if constexpr ( count < size )
        {
            constexpr auto random = details::recursive_random< seed >( );
            emit< static_cast< std::uint8_t >( random ) >( );
            emit_random< size, static_cast< std::uint32_t >( random )* seed, count + 1 >( );
        }
    }

    inline bool is_valid_page( const void* const data, const std::uint32_t flags = PAGE_READWRITE )
    {
        MEMORY_BASIC_INFORMATION mbi{ };

        if ( !VirtualQuery( data, &mbi, sizeof( mbi ) ) )
            return false;

        return mbi.Protect & flags;
    }

    struct export_t
    {
        std::string_view name;
        std::uint16_t ordinal{ };
        std::uintptr_t address{ };
    };

    struct module_t
    {
        std::string name;
        std::uintptr_t start, end;

        segment_t operator[ ]( const std::string_view segment_name ) const
        {
            return { reinterpret_cast< const void* >( start ), segment_name };
        }

        std::vector< export_t > get_exports( ) const
        {
            const auto dos = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_DOS_HEADER* >( start );
            const auto nt = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_NT_HEADERS* >( start + dos->e_lfanew );

            const auto directory_header = nt->OptionalHeader.DataDirectory[ IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_EXPORT ];
            if ( !directory_header.VirtualAddress )
                return { };

            const auto export_dir = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY* >( start + directory_header.VirtualAddress );
            const auto name_table = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint32_t* >( start + export_dir->AddressOfNames );
            const auto ord_table = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint16_t* >( start + export_dir->AddressOfNameOrdinals );
            const auto addr_table = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint32_t* >( start + export_dir->AddressOfFunctions );

            std::vector< export_t > exports( export_dir->NumberOfNames );

            for ( auto i = 0u; i < export_dir->NumberOfNames; ++i )
            {
                const auto name_str = reinterpret_cast< const char* >( start + name_table[ i ] );
                const auto ord = ord_table[ i ];
                const auto addr = start + addr_table[ ord ];

                exports[ i ] = { name_str, ord, addr };
            }

            return exports;
        }

        [[nodiscard]] std::vector< segment_t > get_segments( ) const
        {
            const auto dos = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_DOS_HEADER* >( start );
            const auto nt = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_NT_HEADERS* >( start + dos->e_lfanew );

            const auto section = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER* >( reinterpret_cast< const std::uint8_t* >( &nt->OptionalHeader ) + nt->FileHeader.SizeOfOptionalHeader );

            std::vector< segment_t > segments;
            segments.reserve( nt->FileHeader.NumberOfSections );

            for ( auto i = 0u; i < nt->FileHeader.NumberOfSections; ++i )
            {
                const segment_t seg( dos, &section[ i ] );
                segments.push_back( seg );
            }

            return segments;
        }

        [[nodiscard]] std::vector< export_t > get_imports( ) const
        {
            const auto dos = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_DOS_HEADER* >( start );
            const auto nt = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_NT_HEADERS* >( start + dos->e_lfanew );

            const auto directory_header = &nt->OptionalHeader.DataDirectory[ IMAGE_DIRECTORY_ENTRY_IMPORT ];
            if ( !directory_header->VirtualAddress )
                return { };

            const auto import_dir = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR* >( start + directory_header->VirtualAddress );
            std::vector< export_t > imports;

            for ( auto i = 0u;; ++i )
            {
                if ( !import_dir[ i ].OriginalFirstThunk )
                    break;

                const auto directory = &import_dir[ i ];

                const auto name_table = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint32_t* >( start + directory->OriginalFirstThunk );
                const auto addr_table = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint32_t* >( start + directory->FirstThunk );

                for ( auto j = 0u;; ++j )
                {
                    if ( !addr_table[ j ] )
                        break;

                    if ( !name_table[ j ] )
                        continue;

                    std::string_view name_str;

                    constexpr auto name_alignment = 2;

                    const auto addr = &addr_table[ j ];
                    const auto name_ptr = reinterpret_cast< const char* >( start + name_table[ j ] ) + name_alignment;

#if UD_USE_SEH
                    // using SEH here is not a very good solution
					// however, it's faster than querying that page protection to see if it's readable
					__try
					{
						name = name_ptr;
					}
					__except ( EXCEPTION_EXECUTE_HANDLER )
					{
						name = "";
					}
#else
                    // runtime overhead of ~3us compared to SEH on single calls
                    // on bulk calls it can go up to ~300-500us
                    name_str = is_valid_page( name_ptr, PAGE_READONLY ) ? name_ptr : "";
#endif

                    // emplace_back doesn't allow for implicit conversion, so we have to do it manually
                    imports.push_back( { name_str, static_cast< std::uint16_t >( j ), reinterpret_cast< std::uintptr_t >( addr ) } );
                }
            }

            return imports;
        }

        template < typename ty = std::uintptr_t >
        ty get_address( const std::string_view name ) const
        {
            for ( const auto& export_ : get_exports( ) )
            {
                if ( export_.name.find( name ) != std::string_view::npos )
                    return ty( export_.address );
            }

            return 0;
        }

        template < typename ty = std::uintptr_t >
        std::optional< ty > find_pattern( const std::string_view pattern ) const
        {
            return find_pattern_primitive< ty >( start, end, pattern );
        }

        [[nodiscard]] std::vector< std::string_view > get_strings( const std::size_t minimum_size = 0 ) const
        {
            std::vector< std::string_view > result;

            const auto rdata = ( *this )[ ".rdata" ];

            if ( !rdata.size )
                return { };

            const auto start = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint8_t* >( rdata.start );
            const auto end = reinterpret_cast< const std::uint8_t* >( rdata.end );

            for ( auto i = start; i < end; ++i )
            {
                if ( *i == 0 || *i > 127 )
                    continue;

                const auto str = reinterpret_cast< const char* >( i );
                const auto sz = std::strlen( str );

                if ( !sz || sz < minimum_size )
                    continue;

                result.emplace_back( str, sz );
                i += sz;
            }

            return result;
        }

        module_t( )
        {
            init( GetModuleHandle( nullptr ) );
        }

        explicit module_t( void* const handle )
        {
            init( handle );
        }

        explicit module_t( const std::string_view module_name )
        {
            init( GetModuleHandleA( module_name.data( ) ) );
        }

    private:
        void* module;

        void init( void* const handle )
        {
            module = handle;

            const auto dos = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_DOS_HEADER* >( handle );
            const auto nt = reinterpret_cast< const IMAGE_NT_HEADERS* >( reinterpret_cast< const std::uint8_t* >( handle ) + dos->e_lfanew );

            start = reinterpret_cast< std::uintptr_t >( handle );
            end = start + nt->OptionalHeader.SizeOfImage;

            char buffer[ MAX_PATH ];
            const auto sz = GetModuleFileNameA( static_cast< HMODULE >( handle ), buffer, MAX_PATH );

            name = sz ? std::string{ buffer, sz } : std::string{ };
        }
    };

    inline std::vector< module_t > get_modules( )
    {
        std::vector< module_t > result;

#if defined( _M_X64 )
        const auto peb = reinterpret_cast< const PEB* >( __readgsqword( 0x60 ) );
#else
        const auto peb = reinterpret_cast< const PEB* >( __readfsdword( 0x30 ) );
#endif

        const auto modules = reinterpret_cast< const LIST_ENTRY* >( peb->Ldr->InMemoryOrderModuleList.Flink );
        for ( auto i = modules->Flink; i != modules; i = i->Flink )
        {
            const auto entry = reinterpret_cast< const LDR_DATA_TABLE_ENTRY* >( i );

            if ( entry->Reserved2[ 0 ] || entry->DllBase )
                result.emplace_back( entry->Reserved2[ 0 ] ? entry->Reserved2[ 0 ] : entry->DllBase );
        }

        return result;
    }

    inline std::optional< module_t > get_module_at_address( const std::uintptr_t address )
    {
        for ( const auto& module : get_modules( ) )
        {
            if ( module.start <= address && address < module.end )
                return module;
        }

        return std::nullopt;
    }

    inline std::optional< export_t > get_export( const std::uintptr_t address )
    {
        for ( const auto& module : get_modules( ) )
        {
            if ( module.start <= address && address < module.end )
            {
                const auto exports = module.get_exports( );
                for ( const auto& export_ : exports )
                {
                    if ( export_.address == address )
                        return export_;
                }
            }
        }

        return std::nullopt;
    }

    template < typename rel_t, typename ty = std::uintptr_t >
    ty calculate_relative( const std::uintptr_t address, const std::uint8_t size, const std::uint8_t offset )
    {
        return ty( address + *reinterpret_cast< rel_t* >( address + offset ) + size );
    }
}

template < std::size_t size >
UD_FORCEINLINE std::ostream& operator<<( std::ostream& os, const ud::details::comp_string_t< size >& str )
{
    return os << std::string_view{ str.data, str.size };
}

#if defined( _MSC_VER )
#pragma warning( pop )
#endif

Author: AmJayden
Source code: https://github.com/AmJayden/udlib

#cpluplus 

Hermann  Frami

Hermann Frami

1651383480

A Simple Wrapper Around Amplify AppSync Simulator

This serverless plugin is a wrapper for amplify-appsync-simulator made for testing AppSync APIs built with serverless-appsync-plugin.

Install

npm install serverless-appsync-simulator
# or
yarn add serverless-appsync-simulator

Usage

This plugin relies on your serverless yml file and on the serverless-offline plugin.

plugins:
  - serverless-dynamodb-local # only if you need dynamodb resolvers and you don't have an external dynamodb
  - serverless-appsync-simulator
  - serverless-offline

Note: Order is important serverless-appsync-simulator must go before serverless-offline

To start the simulator, run the following command:

sls offline start

You should see in the logs something like:

...
Serverless: AppSync endpoint: http://localhost:20002/graphql
Serverless: GraphiQl: http://localhost:20002
...

Configuration

Put options under custom.appsync-simulator in your serverless.yml file

| option | default | description | | ------------------------ | -------------------------- | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | --------- | | apiKey | 0123456789 | When using API_KEY as authentication type, the key to authenticate to the endpoint. | | port | 20002 | AppSync operations port; if using multiple APIs, the value of this option will be used as a starting point, and each other API will have a port of lastPort + 10 (e.g. 20002, 20012, 20022, etc.) | | wsPort | 20003 | AppSync subscriptions port; if using multiple APIs, the value of this option will be used as a starting point, and each other API will have a port of lastPort + 10 (e.g. 20003, 20013, 20023, etc.) | | location | . (base directory) | Location of the lambda functions handlers. | | refMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the Ref function | | getAttMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the GetAtt function | | importValueMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the ImportValue function | | functions | {} | A mapping of external functions for providing invoke url for external fucntions | | dynamoDb.endpoint | http://localhost:8000 | Dynamodb endpoint. Specify it if you're not using serverless-dynamodb-local. Otherwise, port is taken from dynamodb-local conf | | dynamoDb.region | localhost | Dynamodb region. Specify it if you're connecting to a remote Dynamodb intance. | | dynamoDb.accessKeyId | DEFAULT_ACCESS_KEY | AWS Access Key ID to access DynamoDB | | dynamoDb.secretAccessKey | DEFAULT_SECRET | AWS Secret Key to access DynamoDB | | dynamoDb.sessionToken | DEFAULT_ACCESS_TOKEEN | AWS Session Token to access DynamoDB, only if you have temporary security credentials configured on AWS | | dynamoDb.* | | You can add every configuration accepted by DynamoDB SDK | | rds.dbName | | Name of the database | | rds.dbHost | | Database host | | rds.dbDialect | | Database dialect. Possible values (mysql | postgres) | | rds.dbUsername | | Database username | | rds.dbPassword | | Database password | | rds.dbPort | | Database port | | watch | - *.graphql
- *.vtl | Array of glob patterns to watch for hot-reloading. |

Example:

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    location: '.webpack/service' # use webpack build directory
    dynamoDb:
      endpoint: 'http://my-custom-dynamo:8000'

Hot-reloading

By default, the simulator will hot-relad when changes to *.graphql or *.vtl files are detected. Changes to *.yml files are not supported (yet? - this is a Serverless Framework limitation). You will need to restart the simulator each time you change yml files.

Hot-reloading relies on watchman. Make sure it is installed on your system.

You can change the files being watched with the watch option, which is then passed to watchman as the match expression.

e.g.

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    watch:
      - ["match", "handlers/**/*.vtl", "wholename"] # => array is interpreted as the literal match expression
      - "*.graphql"                                 # => string like this is equivalent to `["match", "*.graphql"]`

Or you can opt-out by leaving an empty array or set the option to false

Note: Functions should not require hot-reloading, unless you are using a transpiler or a bundler (such as webpack, babel or typescript), un which case you should delegate hot-reloading to that instead.

Resource CloudFormation functions resolution

This plugin supports some resources resolution from the Ref, Fn::GetAtt and Fn::ImportValue functions in your yaml file. It also supports some other Cfn functions such as Fn::Join, Fb::Sub, etc.

Note: Under the hood, this features relies on the cfn-resolver-lib package. For more info on supported cfn functions, refer to the documentation

Basic usage

You can reference resources in your functions' environment variables (that will be accessible from your lambda functions) or datasource definitions. The plugin will automatically resolve them for you.

provider:
  environment:
    BUCKET_NAME:
      Ref: MyBucket # resolves to `my-bucket-name`

resources:
  Resources:
    MyDbTable:
      Type: AWS::DynamoDB::Table
      Properties:
        TableName: myTable
      ...
    MyBucket:
      Type: AWS::S3::Bucket
      Properties:
        BucketName: my-bucket-name
    ...

# in your appsync config
dataSources:
  - type: AMAZON_DYNAMODB
    name: dynamosource
    config:
      tableName:
        Ref: MyDbTable # resolves to `myTable`

Override (or mock) values

Sometimes, some references cannot be resolved, as they come from an Output from Cloudformation; or you might want to use mocked values in your local environment.

In those cases, you can define (or override) those values using the refMap, getAttMap and importValueMap options.

  • refMap takes a mapping of resource name to value pairs
  • getAttMap takes a mapping of resource name to attribute/values pairs
  • importValueMap takes a mapping of import name to values pairs

Example:

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    refMap:
      # Override `MyDbTable` resolution from the previous example.
      MyDbTable: 'mock-myTable'
    getAttMap:
      # define ElasticSearchInstance DomainName
      ElasticSearchInstance:
        DomainEndpoint: 'localhost:9200'
    importValueMap:
      other-service-api-url: 'https://other.api.url.com/graphql'

# in your appsync config
dataSources:
  - type: AMAZON_ELASTICSEARCH
    name: elasticsource
    config:
      # endpoint resolves as 'http://localhost:9200'
      endpoint:
        Fn::Join:
          - ''
          - - https://
            - Fn::GetAtt:
                - ElasticSearchInstance
                - DomainEndpoint

Key-value mock notation

In some special cases you will need to use key-value mock nottation. Good example can be case when you need to include serverless stage value (${self:provider.stage}) in the import name.

This notation can be used with all mocks - refMap, getAttMap and importValueMap

provider:
  environment:
    FINISH_ACTIVITY_FUNCTION_ARN:
      Fn::ImportValue: other-service-api-${self:provider.stage}-url

custom:
  serverless-appsync-simulator:
    importValueMap:
      - key: other-service-api-${self:provider.stage}-url
        value: 'https://other.api.url.com/graphql'

Limitations

This plugin only tries to resolve the following parts of the yml tree:

  • provider.environment
  • functions[*].environment
  • custom.appSync

If you have the need of resolving others, feel free to open an issue and explain your use case.

For now, the supported resources to be automatically resovled by Ref: are:

  • DynamoDb tables
  • S3 Buckets

Feel free to open a PR or an issue to extend them as well.

External functions

When a function is not defined withing the current serverless file you can still call it by providing an invoke url which should point to a REST method. Make sure you specify "get" or "post" for the method. Default is "get", but you probably want "post".

custom:
  appsync-simulator:
    functions:
      addUser:
        url: http://localhost:3016/2015-03-31/functions/addUser/invocations
        method: post
      addPost:
        url: https://jsonplaceholder.typicode.com/posts
        method: post

Supported Resolver types

This plugin supports resolvers implemented by amplify-appsync-simulator, as well as custom resolvers.

From Aws Amplify:

  • NONE
  • AWS_LAMBDA
  • AMAZON_DYNAMODB
  • PIPELINE

Implemented by this plugin

  • AMAZON_ELASTIC_SEARCH
  • HTTP
  • RELATIONAL_DATABASE

Relational Database

Sample VTL for a create mutation

#set( $cols = [] )
#set( $vals = [] )
#foreach( $entry in $ctx.args.input.keySet() )
  #set( $regex = "([a-z])([A-Z]+)")
  #set( $replacement = "$1_$2")
  #set( $toSnake = $entry.replaceAll($regex, $replacement).toLowerCase() )
  #set( $discard = $cols.add("$toSnake") )
  #if( $util.isBoolean($ctx.args.input[$entry]) )
      #if( $ctx.args.input[$entry] )
        #set( $discard = $vals.add("1") )
      #else
        #set( $discard = $vals.add("0") )
      #end
  #else
      #set( $discard = $vals.add("'$ctx.args.input[$entry]'") )
  #end
#end
#set( $valStr = $vals.toString().replace("[","(").replace("]",")") )
#set( $colStr = $cols.toString().replace("[","(").replace("]",")") )
#if ( $valStr.substring(0, 1) != '(' )
  #set( $valStr = "($valStr)" )
#end
#if ( $colStr.substring(0, 1) != '(' )
  #set( $colStr = "($colStr)" )
#end
{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["INSERT INTO <name-of-table> $colStr VALUES $valStr", "SELECT * FROM    <name-of-table> ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 1"]
}

Sample VTL for an update mutation

#set( $update = "" )
#set( $equals = "=" )
#foreach( $entry in $ctx.args.input.keySet() )
  #set( $cur = $ctx.args.input[$entry] )
  #set( $regex = "([a-z])([A-Z]+)")
  #set( $replacement = "$1_$2")
  #set( $toSnake = $entry.replaceAll($regex, $replacement).toLowerCase() )
  #if( $util.isBoolean($cur) )
      #if( $cur )
        #set ( $cur = "1" )
      #else
        #set ( $cur = "0" )
      #end
  #end
  #if ( $util.isNullOrEmpty($update) )
      #set($update = "$toSnake$equals'$cur'" )
  #else
      #set($update = "$update,$toSnake$equals'$cur'" )
  #end
#end
{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["UPDATE <name-of-table> SET $update WHERE id=$ctx.args.input.id", "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=$ctx.args.input.id"]
}

Sample resolver for delete mutation

{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["UPDATE <name-of-table> set deleted_at=NOW() WHERE id=$ctx.args.id", "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=$ctx.args.id"]
}

Sample mutation response VTL with support for handling AWSDateTime

#set ( $index = -1)
#set ( $result = $util.parseJson($ctx.result) )
#set ( $meta = $result.sqlStatementResults[1].columnMetadata)
#foreach ($column in $meta)
    #set ($index = $index + 1)
    #if ( $column["typeName"] == "timestamptz" )
        #set ($time = $result["sqlStatementResults"][1]["records"][0][$index]["stringValue"] )
        #set ( $nowEpochMillis = $util.time.parseFormattedToEpochMilliSeconds("$time.substring(0,19)+0000", "yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ssZ") )
        #set ( $isoDateTime = $util.time.epochMilliSecondsToISO8601($nowEpochMillis) )
        $util.qr( $result["sqlStatementResults"][1]["records"][0][$index].put("stringValue", "$isoDateTime") )
    #end
#end
#set ( $res = $util.parseJson($util.rds.toJsonString($util.toJson($result)))[1][0] )
#set ( $response = {} )
#foreach($mapKey in $res.keySet())
    #set ( $s = $mapKey.split("_") )
    #set ( $camelCase="" )
    #set ( $isFirst=true )
    #foreach($entry in $s)
        #if ( $isFirst )
          #set ( $first = $entry.substring(0,1) )
        #else
          #set ( $first = $entry.substring(0,1).toUpperCase() )
        #end
        #set ( $isFirst=false )
        #set ( $stringLength = $entry.length() )
        #set ( $remaining = $entry.substring(1, $stringLength) )
        #set ( $camelCase = "$camelCase$first$remaining" )
    #end
    $util.qr( $response.put("$camelCase", $res[$mapKey]) )
#end
$utils.toJson($response)

Using Variable Map

Variable map support is limited and does not differentiate numbers and strings data types, please inject them directly if needed.

Will be escaped properly: null, true, and false values.

{
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   [
    "UPDATE <name-of-table> set deleted_at=NOW() WHERE id=:ID",
    "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=:ID and unix_timestamp > $ctx.args.newerThan"
  ],
  variableMap: {
    ":ID": $ctx.args.id,
##    ":TIMESTAMP": $ctx.args.newerThan -- This will be handled as a string!!!
  }
}

Requires

Author: Serverless-appsync
Source Code: https://github.com/serverless-appsync/serverless-appsync-simulator 
License: MIT License

#serverless #sync #graphql 

Rahul Jangid

1622207074

What is JavaScript - Stackfindover - Blog

Who invented JavaScript, how it works, as we have given information about Programming language in our previous article ( What is PHP ), but today we will talk about what is JavaScript, why JavaScript is used The Answers to all such questions and much other information about JavaScript, you are going to get here today. Hope this information will work for you.

Who invented JavaScript?

JavaScript language was invented by Brendan Eich in 1995. JavaScript is inspired by Java Programming Language. The first name of JavaScript was Mocha which was named by Marc Andreessen, Marc Andreessen is the founder of Netscape and in the same year Mocha was renamed LiveScript, and later in December 1995, it was renamed JavaScript which is still in trend.

What is JavaScript?

JavaScript is a client-side scripting language used with HTML (Hypertext Markup Language). JavaScript is an Interpreted / Oriented language called JS in programming language JavaScript code can be run on any normal web browser. To run the code of JavaScript, we have to enable JavaScript of Web Browser. But some web browsers already have JavaScript enabled.

Today almost all websites are using it as web technology, mind is that there is maximum scope in JavaScript in the coming time, so if you want to become a programmer, then you can be very beneficial to learn JavaScript.

JavaScript Hello World Program

In JavaScript, ‘document.write‘ is used to represent a string on a browser.

<script type="text/javascript">
	document.write("Hello World!");
</script>

How to comment JavaScript code?

  • For single line comment in JavaScript we have to use // (double slashes)
  • For multiple line comments we have to use / * – – * /
<script type="text/javascript">

//single line comment

/* document.write("Hello"); */

</script>

Advantages and Disadvantages of JavaScript

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