Chet  Lubowitz

Chet Lubowitz

1596806280

Control flow basics with Julia

Let’s continue our exploration of Julia basics. Previously I talked about for loops and vectorization. Here, we will talk about how to use control flow operators inside Julia.

What are control flow operators?

As the name suggests control flow operators help us shape the flow of the program. You can return from a function, you can break from a loop, you can skip an iteration of the loop with continue.

A simple task

To understand these concepts, we’ll attempt to solve a problem. Nothing better than some hands-on experience, right? Our challenge is as follows:

Given 2 integers (a, b) print the smallest (up to) 5 integers between a and b such that we’re not printing numbers divisible by 3.

For example if a=5 and b=23 we should print the following numbers:

5
7
8
10
11

If a and b are closer to each other we print everything up to b. Here’s another example with a=2 and b=4:

2
4

If you’re a complete newcomer to programming, you might want to check out my FizzBuzz article [LINK] where I explain for loops and the modulo function.

First, we print

In the spirit of doing this step by step, let’s build up our function:

All this does is print every number between a and b inclusive.

Then, we continue

#programming #python #data-science #code #julia

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Control flow basics with Julia

Jenny Jabde

1621251999

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Christa  Stehr

Christa Stehr

1593396660

Intel Adds Anti-Malware Protection in Tiger Lake CPUs

Intel’s Tiger Lake CPUs will come with Control-flow Enforcement Technology (CET), aimed at battling common control-flow hijacking attacks.

Intel’s upcoming class of mobile CPUs, code named “Tiger Lake,” will feature a long anticipated security layer, called Control-flow Enforcement Technology (CET), which aims to protect against common malware attacks.

CET protects against attacks on processors’ control flow, which refers to the order in which different functions calls are executed. Previously, attackers have targeted control flow in attacks where they hijack the processes and modify the instructions. This could potentially allow them to execute arbitrary code on victims’ systems.

“Intel CET delivers CPU-level security capabilities to help protect against common malware attack methods that have been a challenge to mitigate with software alone,” said Tom Garrison, vice president and general manager of Client Security Strategy and Initiatives with Intel, in a Monday post. “These types of attack methods are part of a class of malware referred to as memory-safety issues, and include tactics such as the corruption of stack buffer overflow and use-after-free.”

Intel’s upcoming Tiger Lake CPUs (which were first announced in January) are the first to come equipped with Intel CET, which will battle control-flow hijacking attacks by adding two types of protection.

The first is Indirect Branch Tracking (IBT), which defends against attacks called call-oriented programming or jump-oriented programming (COP and JOP). These types of code-reuse attacks occur when short code sequences that end in specific call and jump instructions are located and chained into a specific order, in order to execute attackers’ payloads. IBT prevents this by creating a new instruction, ENDBRANCH, which tracks all indirect call and jump instructions to detect any control-flow violations.

The second protection is shadow stack (SS). Shadow stack helps to defend against return-oriented programming (ROP) attacks. These types of attacks center around return instructions in a control flow, which are intended to fetch the address of the next instruction from the stack, and execute instructions from that address. In ROP attacks, an attacker abuses these return instructions to stitch together a malicious code flow.

Shadow stack (separate from the data stack) prevents this by adding return address protection. When shadow stacks are enabled, the CALL instruction on a processor pushes the return address on both the data stack and shadow stack and make sure that they match.

“JOP or ROP attacks can be particularly hard to detect or prevent because the attacker uses existing code running from executable memory in a creative way to change program behavior,” Baiju Patel, fellow with Intel’s client computing group, said. “What makes it hard to detect or prevent ROP/JOP is the fact that attacker uses existing code running from executable memory. Many software-based detection and prevention techniques have been developed and deployed with limited success.”

Intel published the first specification of CET in 2016. Various software makers have added support for the technology into their products, including Microsoft in its Hardware-enforced Stack Protection for Windows.

While CET is launching for Intel’s mobile lineup, the technology will soon be available on desktop and server platforms, according to Garrison. The chip giant is now preparing for volume production of its Tiger Lake chipset, and expects to being shipping the processors to OEMs mid-year.

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#malware #mobile security #anti-malware #buffer overflow #cet #chip level security #control flow #control flow enforcement technology #control flow hijacking #cop #cpu #hardware #intel #intel tiger lake #jop #rop

Chet  Lubowitz

Chet Lubowitz

1596806280

Control flow basics with Julia

Let’s continue our exploration of Julia basics. Previously I talked about for loops and vectorization. Here, we will talk about how to use control flow operators inside Julia.

What are control flow operators?

As the name suggests control flow operators help us shape the flow of the program. You can return from a function, you can break from a loop, you can skip an iteration of the loop with continue.

A simple task

To understand these concepts, we’ll attempt to solve a problem. Nothing better than some hands-on experience, right? Our challenge is as follows:

Given 2 integers (a, b) print the smallest (up to) 5 integers between a and b such that we’re not printing numbers divisible by 3.

For example if a=5 and b=23 we should print the following numbers:

5
7
8
10
11

If a and b are closer to each other we print everything up to b. Here’s another example with a=2 and b=4:

2
4

If you’re a complete newcomer to programming, you might want to check out my FizzBuzz article [LINK] where I explain for loops and the modulo function.

First, we print

In the spirit of doing this step by step, let’s build up our function:

All this does is print every number between a and b inclusive.

Then, we continue

#programming #python #data-science #code #julia

Madelyn  Frami

Madelyn Frami

1598438700

10 Open Source/Commercial Control Panels For Virtual Machines (VM's) Management

Automatic creation and management of virtual machines is a topical issue for any company that provides VPS services. If you manage a large number of machines, a command line is definitely not the only tool you may need to perform various operations including client tasks, because such operations may be time-consuming.

In order to simplify routine tasks of server administrators and users, various companies develop control panels for virtual machines management, including interface-based solutions.

Don’t Miss20 Open Source/Commercial Control Panels to Manage Linux Servers

A control panel empowers you to perform any operation with a mouse click, whereas it would take you a good deal of time to complete the same task in the console. With a control panel, you will save your time and effort. However, it’s not all that simple.

Nowadays, VMmanager is the most popular software product for small and medium-sized businesses. VMware, in its turn, is a leading solution for large organizations. Both software products are commercial and rather expensive.

They deliver a large number of functions, however, some companies, especially, startups may need them. Besides, many of them cannot afford such an expensive product. For example, startups and companies in times of crisis may experience financial difficulties. Moreover, one can find interesting, outstanding solutions integrated with billing systems including tools for VM management.

How not to get lost among a great number of offers? We decided to help our users and wrote the following article, in which they will find answers to this question.

In this article, we will describe control panels for virtual machines management, both commercial and open-source, and help you choose the right solution to meet your personal needs.

1. VMmanager

VMmanager is one of the most popular commercial server virtualizations platforms based on QEMU/KVM technology. The solution has a reach feature set, that can suit both IT infrastructure owners and VPS services providers’ needs.

Virtual servers can be created within 2 minutes. Many routine tasks are performed automatically: including migration, cloning, reinstalling the OS, backups, adding and deleting interfaces, virtual server image creation, monitoring, statistics collection, server provisioning, etc.

The main advantages of VMmanager are:

  • Centralized management of various clusters.
  • Fault tolerance due to a microservice architecture.
  • Overselling, which helps to improve VPS provider’s equipment efficiency.
  • Complete control of the infrastructure thanks to a robust system of metrics collection.
  • A modern and intuitive interface.

VMmanager - Virtualization Management Platform

VMmanager – Virtualization Management Platform

2. VMware vSphere

VMware vSphere is the world’s leading server virtualization platform for building cloud infrastructure. With tons of its different powerful features, vSphere is a truely state-of-the-art software virtual machines management software. It is an ideal solution for large VPS providers with appropriate budgets and professional staff.

VMWare vSphere - Server Virtualization Platform

#control panels #virtualization #hosting control panel #linux control panels #virtual mahine control panels #linux

What is Flow Protocol (FLOW) | What is Flow Protocol token | What is FLOW token

Introducing Flow Protocol (FLOW)

Flow is a protocol that establishes an Ethereum based self-distributing token (FLOW). FLOW is designed to facilitate token distribution without dilution.

The protocol distributes inflation of FLOW tokens to all addresses holding it without the need for a single transaction. Inflation happens daily and does not require any action on the side of the FLOW token holder or any other parties. This method of inflation allows for the token to be applied to modern DeFi use cases without diluting the token holders.

Over a period of 10 years, inflation is reduced and ends with a capped supply of FLOW tokens.

Why do we need Flow?

Until now, digital assets like Bitcoin have required participation in mining or staking in order to receive a portion of the inflating supply. This has several problems:

  • When a digital asset is tied to a consensus mechanism, it disproportionately punishes holders as their share of the supply is continuously diluted during the inflation period.
  • The long term value of these assets depends heavily on the ability of the protocol to continue to operate without inflation being paid to miners/stakers, which is a highly debated topic.
  • Protocol coins (BTC, ETH, etc) are tied to the underlying network, which can cause their value to fluctuate wildly due delays in network upgrades, bugs, etc.
  • Assets that require actions such as staking in order to receive a portion of inflation prevent them from being used easily in other applications (lending, collateral, etc.) without being diluted.

Flow solves these problems by applying the single-responsibility principle (SRP) from software engineering. The Flow protocol takes responsibility only for essential distribution functions, allowing the Ethereum network to manage everything outside that scope.

Designed for DeFI

As DeFi rapidly grows, so does the demand for collateral assets that fill specific roles. FLOW (Store of Value) can help diversify collateral by being combined with digital assets that fill other roles such as ETH (Protocol) and AMPL (Elastic Supply).

FLOW does not need to be staked or locked into a contract to receive inflation, therefore it can be applied to the full range of DeFi applications while still achieving its distribution target

The FLOW Inflation Schedule

FLOW inflation is governed by Eras. The daily inflation applied to the token supply starts at 1% during the Genesis Era and is halved at the end of every Era.

The first era, called the Genesis Era, lasts for 60 days. After the Genesis Era there are 10 additional Eras, each lasting for 365 days.

Inflation stops upon completion of the final Era and the supply becomes capped.

The initial supply of tokens started at 10,000,000 FLOW. As the daily inflation occurs over a period of 10 years, the supply will increase to just under 700,000,000 FLOW.

Image for post

You can see the total supply, current inflation rate and the next halving at https://app.flowprotocol.io/dashboard

Flow Token (FLOW)

The FLOW token and its distribution would be governed by Eras. At the end of each Era, it is expected that the inflation rate would be halved, just like how the mining rewards in Bitcoin are always halved after a certain period.

The First Era of the would-be was called the Genesis Era, and it would last for a mere 60 days. Subsequent eras would last for 356 days, and there would only be ten of them.

During the Genesis Era, the daily inflation rate would start at 1%, and at the end, it would be halved.

Benefits of Inflation with FLOW

Inflation occurs in most other cryptocurrencies, including Bitcoin and Ether. However, in almost all other cases the inflation is only paid to miners or stakers. This harms holders of the token by diluting their ownership of the total token supply.

With FLOW, your share of the total supply can **never **be diluted. This means that no dilution occurs as the supply inflates. Even if you are using your tokens for yield farming or any other DeFi application, the inflation will still be applied!

FLOW inflation has several other benefits that help achieve the goal of becoming a widely adopted store of value.

As the token supply inflates, some holders may choose to sell the additional tokens. This helps achieve the wide distribution required to become a robust store of value as inflation decreases and eventually stops. This effect can already be observed by the impressive number of FLOW holders.

Demand for FLOW can also be partially absorbed by inflation rather than just by increasing price alone. This results in a different price action than a typical token, making FLOW more difficult to manipulate based on traditional metrics.

How Does it Work?

Simply put, anyone who holds FLOW tokens can become a liquidity provider on Uniswap by pooling their FLOW tokens combined with an equivalent USD value of ETH.

Upon successfully pooling, the liquidity provider will receive UNI-V2 tokens which represent their stake in the Uniswap liquidity pool.

UNI-V2 tokens can then be staked to earn additional FLOW.

How are Rewards Determined?

There are several factors that determine the amount of FLOW you will receive for staking:

The unlock rate — The total rewards will be unlocked evenly over 90 days.

The amount you have staked — The amount of FLOW rewards you receive over time depends on the percentage of the total staked tokens that belong to you. If you were the only one staking you would receive all of the rewards!

The amount of time you remain staked — The rewards you earn will have a multiplier applied to them the longer you remained staked. To achieve the full multiplier (3x), you need to remain staked for at least 60 days.

How can I participate?

You will need both FLOW and ETH to provide liquidity and earn rewards from The Tap.

For example, if you have 10 ETH total that you want to stake in The Tap, you would buy 5 ETH worth of FLOW and then add liquidity on Uniswap with the resulting ETH/FLOW.

Here are the steps required to participate:

  1. Buy FLOW:  https://app.uniswap.org/#/swap?outputCurrency=0xC6e64729931f60D2c8Bc70A27D66D9E0c28D1BF9
  2. **Provide Liquidity on Uniswap: ** https://app.uniswap.org/#/add/ETH/0xC6e64729931f60D2c8Bc70A27D66D9E0c28D1BF9
  3. **Stake your liquidity tokens at The Tap: ** https://app.flowprotocol.io/

Looking for more information…

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#bitcoin #crypto #flow protocol #flow