A Flexible Authentication System Utilizing Rack Middleware for Ruby

OmniAuth: Standardized Multi-Provider Authentication     

This is the documentation for the in-development branch of OmniAuth. You can view the documentation for our latest release v2.1.0 here.

An Introduction

OmniAuth is a library that standardizes multi-provider authentication for web applications. It was created to be powerful, flexible, and do as little as possible. Any developer can create strategies for OmniAuth that can authenticate users via disparate systems. OmniAuth strategies have been created for everything from Facebook to LDAP.

In order to use OmniAuth in your applications, you will need to leverage one or more strategies. These strategies are generally released individually as RubyGems, and you can see a community maintained list on the wiki for this project.

One strategy, called Developer, is included with OmniAuth and provides a completely insecure, non-production-usable strategy that directly prompts a user for authentication information and then passes it straight through. You can use it as a placeholder when you start development and easily swap in other strategies later.

Getting Started

Each OmniAuth strategy is a Rack Middleware. That means that you can use it the same way that you use any other Rack middleware. For example, to use the built-in Developer strategy in a Sinatra application you might do this:

require 'sinatra'
require 'omniauth'

class MyApplication < Sinatra::Base
  use Rack::Session::Cookie
  use OmniAuth::Strategies::Developer
end

Because OmniAuth is built for multi-provider authentication, you may want to leave room to run multiple strategies. For this, the built-in OmniAuth::Builder class gives you an easy way to specify multiple strategies. Note that there is no difference between the following code and using each strategy individually as middleware. This is an example that you might put into a Rails initializer at config/initializers/omniauth.rb:

Rails.application.config.middleware.use OmniAuth::Builder do
  provider :developer unless Rails.env.production?
  provider :twitter, ENV['TWITTER_KEY'], ENV['TWITTER_SECRET']
end

You should look to the documentation for each provider you use for specific initialization requirements.

Integrating OmniAuth Into Your Application

OmniAuth is an extremely low-touch library. It is designed to be a black box that you can send your application's users into when you need authentication and then get information back. OmniAuth was intentionally built not to automatically associate with a User model or make assumptions about how many authentication methods you might want to use or what you might want to do with the data once a user has authenticated. This makes OmniAuth incredibly flexible. To use OmniAuth, you need only to redirect users to /auth/:provider, where :provider is the name of the strategy (for example, developer or twitter). From there, OmniAuth will take over and take the user through the necessary steps to authenticate them with the chosen strategy.

Once the user has authenticated, what do you do next? OmniAuth simply sets a special hash called the Authentication Hash on the Rack environment of a request to /auth/:provider/callback. This hash contains as much information about the user as OmniAuth was able to glean from the utilized strategy. You should set up an endpoint in your application that matches to the callback URL and then performs whatever steps are necessary for your application.

The omniauth.auth key in the environment hash provides an Authentication Hash which will contain information about the just authenticated user including a unique id, the strategy they just used for authentication, and personal details such as name and email address as available. For an in-depth description of what the authentication hash might contain, see the Auth Hash Schema wiki page.

Note that OmniAuth does not perform any actions beyond setting some environment information on the callback request. It is entirely up to you how you want to implement the particulars of your application's authentication flow.

rack_csrf

omniauth is not OOTB-compatible with rack_csrf. In order to do so, the following code needs to be added to the application bootstrapping code:

OmniAuth::AuthenticityTokenProtection.default_options(key: "csrf.token", authenticity_param: "_csrf")

Rails (without Devise)

To get started, add the following gems

Gemfile:

gem 'omniauth'
gem "omniauth-rails_csrf_protection"

Then insert OmniAuth as a middleware

config/initializers/omniauth.rb:

Rails.application.config.middleware.use OmniAuth::Builder do
  provider :developer if Rails.env.development?
end

Additional providers can be added here in the future. Next we wire it all up using routes, a controller and a login view.

config/routes.rb:

  get 'auth/:provider/callback', to: 'sessions#create'
  get '/login', to: 'sessions#new'

app/controllers/sessions_controller.rb:

class SessionsController < ApplicationController
  def new
    render :new
  end

  def create
    user_info = request.env['omniauth.auth']
    raise user_info # Your own session management should be placed here.
  end
end

app/views/sessions/new.html.erb:

<%= form_tag('/auth/developer', method: 'post', data: {turbo: false}) do %>
  <button type='submit'>Login with Developer</button>
<% end %>

Now if you visit /login and click the Login button, you should see the OmniAuth developer login screen. After submitting it, you are returned to your application at Sessions#create. The raise should now display all the Omniauth details you have available to integrate it into your own user management.

If you want out of the box usermanagement, you should consider using Omniauth through Devise. Please visit the Devise Github page for more information.

Rails API

The following middleware are (by default) included for session management in Rails applications. When using OmniAuth with a Rails API, you'll need to add one of these required middleware back in:

  • ActionDispatch::Session::CacheStore
  • ActionDispatch::Session::CookieStore
  • ActionDispatch::Session::MemCacheStore

The trick to adding these back in is that, by default, they are passed session_options when added (including the session key), so you can't just add a session_store.rb initializer, add use ActionDispatch::Session::CookieStore and have sessions functioning as normal.

To be clear: sessions may work, but your session options will be ignored (i.e. the session key will default to _session_id). Instead of the initializer, you'll have to set the relevant options somewhere before your middleware is built (like application.rb) and pass them to your preferred middleware, like this:

application.rb:

config.session_store :cookie_store, key: '_interslice_session'
config.middleware.use ActionDispatch::Cookies # Required for all session management
config.middleware.use ActionDispatch::Session::CookieStore, config.session_options

(Thanks @mltsy)

Logging

OmniAuth supports a configurable logger. By default, OmniAuth will log to STDOUT but you can configure this using OmniAuth.config.logger:

# Rails application example
OmniAuth.config.logger = Rails.logger

Origin Param

The origin url parameter is typically used to inform where a user came from and where, should you choose to use it, they'd want to return to. Omniauth supports the following settings which can be configured on a provider level:

Default:

provider :twitter, ENV['KEY'], ENV['SECRET']
POST /auth/twitter/?origin=[URL]
# If the `origin` parameter is blank, `omniauth.origin` is set to HTTP_REFERER

Using a differently named origin parameter:

provider :twitter, ENV['KEY'], ENV['SECRET'], origin_param: 'return_to'
POST /auth/twitter/?return_to=[URL]
# If the `return_to` parameter is blank, `omniauth.origin` is set to HTTP_REFERER

Disabled:

provider :twitter, ENV['KEY'], ENV['SECRET'], origin_param: false
POST /auth/twitter
# This means the origin should be handled by your own application. 
# Note that `omniauth.origin` will always be blank.

Resources

The OmniAuth Wiki has actively maintained in-depth documentation for OmniAuth. It should be your first stop if you are wondering about a more in-depth look at OmniAuth, how it works, and how to use it.

OmniAuth for Enterprise

Available as part of the Tidelift Subscription.

The maintainers of OmniAuth and thousands of other packages are working with Tidelift to deliver commercial support and maintenance for the open source packages you use to build your applications. Save time, reduce risk, and improve code health, while paying the maintainers of the exact packages you use. Learn more.

Supported Ruby Versions

OmniAuth is tested under 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, truffleruby, and JRuby.

Versioning

This library aims to adhere to Semantic Versioning 2.0.0. Violations of this scheme should be reported as bugs. Specifically, if a minor or patch version is released that breaks backward compatibility, that version should be immediately yanked and/or a new version should be immediately released that restores compatibility. Breaking changes to the public API will only be introduced with new major versions. As a result of this policy, you can (and should) specify a dependency on this gem using the Pessimistic Version Constraint with two digits of precision. For example:

spec.add_dependency 'omniauth', '~> 1.0'

License

Copyright (c) 2010-2017 Michael Bleigh and Intridea, Inc. See LICENSE for details.


Author: omniauth
Source code: https://github.com/omniauth/omniauth
License: MIT license

#ruby-on-rails #ruby 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

A Flexible Authentication System Utilizing Rack Middleware for Ruby

A Flexible Authentication System Utilizing Rack Middleware for Ruby

OmniAuth: Standardized Multi-Provider Authentication     

This is the documentation for the in-development branch of OmniAuth. You can view the documentation for our latest release v2.1.0 here.

An Introduction

OmniAuth is a library that standardizes multi-provider authentication for web applications. It was created to be powerful, flexible, and do as little as possible. Any developer can create strategies for OmniAuth that can authenticate users via disparate systems. OmniAuth strategies have been created for everything from Facebook to LDAP.

In order to use OmniAuth in your applications, you will need to leverage one or more strategies. These strategies are generally released individually as RubyGems, and you can see a community maintained list on the wiki for this project.

One strategy, called Developer, is included with OmniAuth and provides a completely insecure, non-production-usable strategy that directly prompts a user for authentication information and then passes it straight through. You can use it as a placeholder when you start development and easily swap in other strategies later.

Getting Started

Each OmniAuth strategy is a Rack Middleware. That means that you can use it the same way that you use any other Rack middleware. For example, to use the built-in Developer strategy in a Sinatra application you might do this:

require 'sinatra'
require 'omniauth'

class MyApplication < Sinatra::Base
  use Rack::Session::Cookie
  use OmniAuth::Strategies::Developer
end

Because OmniAuth is built for multi-provider authentication, you may want to leave room to run multiple strategies. For this, the built-in OmniAuth::Builder class gives you an easy way to specify multiple strategies. Note that there is no difference between the following code and using each strategy individually as middleware. This is an example that you might put into a Rails initializer at config/initializers/omniauth.rb:

Rails.application.config.middleware.use OmniAuth::Builder do
  provider :developer unless Rails.env.production?
  provider :twitter, ENV['TWITTER_KEY'], ENV['TWITTER_SECRET']
end

You should look to the documentation for each provider you use for specific initialization requirements.

Integrating OmniAuth Into Your Application

OmniAuth is an extremely low-touch library. It is designed to be a black box that you can send your application's users into when you need authentication and then get information back. OmniAuth was intentionally built not to automatically associate with a User model or make assumptions about how many authentication methods you might want to use or what you might want to do with the data once a user has authenticated. This makes OmniAuth incredibly flexible. To use OmniAuth, you need only to redirect users to /auth/:provider, where :provider is the name of the strategy (for example, developer or twitter). From there, OmniAuth will take over and take the user through the necessary steps to authenticate them with the chosen strategy.

Once the user has authenticated, what do you do next? OmniAuth simply sets a special hash called the Authentication Hash on the Rack environment of a request to /auth/:provider/callback. This hash contains as much information about the user as OmniAuth was able to glean from the utilized strategy. You should set up an endpoint in your application that matches to the callback URL and then performs whatever steps are necessary for your application.

The omniauth.auth key in the environment hash provides an Authentication Hash which will contain information about the just authenticated user including a unique id, the strategy they just used for authentication, and personal details such as name and email address as available. For an in-depth description of what the authentication hash might contain, see the Auth Hash Schema wiki page.

Note that OmniAuth does not perform any actions beyond setting some environment information on the callback request. It is entirely up to you how you want to implement the particulars of your application's authentication flow.

rack_csrf

omniauth is not OOTB-compatible with rack_csrf. In order to do so, the following code needs to be added to the application bootstrapping code:

OmniAuth::AuthenticityTokenProtection.default_options(key: "csrf.token", authenticity_param: "_csrf")

Rails (without Devise)

To get started, add the following gems

Gemfile:

gem 'omniauth'
gem "omniauth-rails_csrf_protection"

Then insert OmniAuth as a middleware

config/initializers/omniauth.rb:

Rails.application.config.middleware.use OmniAuth::Builder do
  provider :developer if Rails.env.development?
end

Additional providers can be added here in the future. Next we wire it all up using routes, a controller and a login view.

config/routes.rb:

  get 'auth/:provider/callback', to: 'sessions#create'
  get '/login', to: 'sessions#new'

app/controllers/sessions_controller.rb:

class SessionsController < ApplicationController
  def new
    render :new
  end

  def create
    user_info = request.env['omniauth.auth']
    raise user_info # Your own session management should be placed here.
  end
end

app/views/sessions/new.html.erb:

<%= form_tag('/auth/developer', method: 'post', data: {turbo: false}) do %>
  <button type='submit'>Login with Developer</button>
<% end %>

Now if you visit /login and click the Login button, you should see the OmniAuth developer login screen. After submitting it, you are returned to your application at Sessions#create. The raise should now display all the Omniauth details you have available to integrate it into your own user management.

If you want out of the box usermanagement, you should consider using Omniauth through Devise. Please visit the Devise Github page for more information.

Rails API

The following middleware are (by default) included for session management in Rails applications. When using OmniAuth with a Rails API, you'll need to add one of these required middleware back in:

  • ActionDispatch::Session::CacheStore
  • ActionDispatch::Session::CookieStore
  • ActionDispatch::Session::MemCacheStore

The trick to adding these back in is that, by default, they are passed session_options when added (including the session key), so you can't just add a session_store.rb initializer, add use ActionDispatch::Session::CookieStore and have sessions functioning as normal.

To be clear: sessions may work, but your session options will be ignored (i.e. the session key will default to _session_id). Instead of the initializer, you'll have to set the relevant options somewhere before your middleware is built (like application.rb) and pass them to your preferred middleware, like this:

application.rb:

config.session_store :cookie_store, key: '_interslice_session'
config.middleware.use ActionDispatch::Cookies # Required for all session management
config.middleware.use ActionDispatch::Session::CookieStore, config.session_options

(Thanks @mltsy)

Logging

OmniAuth supports a configurable logger. By default, OmniAuth will log to STDOUT but you can configure this using OmniAuth.config.logger:

# Rails application example
OmniAuth.config.logger = Rails.logger

Origin Param

The origin url parameter is typically used to inform where a user came from and where, should you choose to use it, they'd want to return to. Omniauth supports the following settings which can be configured on a provider level:

Default:

provider :twitter, ENV['KEY'], ENV['SECRET']
POST /auth/twitter/?origin=[URL]
# If the `origin` parameter is blank, `omniauth.origin` is set to HTTP_REFERER

Using a differently named origin parameter:

provider :twitter, ENV['KEY'], ENV['SECRET'], origin_param: 'return_to'
POST /auth/twitter/?return_to=[URL]
# If the `return_to` parameter is blank, `omniauth.origin` is set to HTTP_REFERER

Disabled:

provider :twitter, ENV['KEY'], ENV['SECRET'], origin_param: false
POST /auth/twitter
# This means the origin should be handled by your own application. 
# Note that `omniauth.origin` will always be blank.

Resources

The OmniAuth Wiki has actively maintained in-depth documentation for OmniAuth. It should be your first stop if you are wondering about a more in-depth look at OmniAuth, how it works, and how to use it.

OmniAuth for Enterprise

Available as part of the Tidelift Subscription.

The maintainers of OmniAuth and thousands of other packages are working with Tidelift to deliver commercial support and maintenance for the open source packages you use to build your applications. Save time, reduce risk, and improve code health, while paying the maintainers of the exact packages you use. Learn more.

Supported Ruby Versions

OmniAuth is tested under 2.5, 2.6, 2.7, truffleruby, and JRuby.

Versioning

This library aims to adhere to Semantic Versioning 2.0.0. Violations of this scheme should be reported as bugs. Specifically, if a minor or patch version is released that breaks backward compatibility, that version should be immediately yanked and/or a new version should be immediately released that restores compatibility. Breaking changes to the public API will only be introduced with new major versions. As a result of this policy, you can (and should) specify a dependency on this gem using the Pessimistic Version Constraint with two digits of precision. For example:

spec.add_dependency 'omniauth', '~> 1.0'

License

Copyright (c) 2010-2017 Michael Bleigh and Intridea, Inc. See LICENSE for details.


Author: omniauth
Source code: https://github.com/omniauth/omniauth
License: MIT license

#ruby-on-rails #ruby 

How To Set Up Two-Factor Authentication in cPanel

What is 2FA
Two-Factor Authentication (or 2FA as it often referred to) is an extra layer of security that is used to provide users an additional level of protection when securing access to an account.
Employing a 2FA mechanism is a vast improvement in security over the Singe-Factor Authentication method of simply employing a username and password. Using this method, accounts that have 2FA enabled, require the user to enter a one-time passcode that is generated by an external application. The 2FA passcode (usually a six-digit number) is required to be input into the passcode field before access is granted. The 2FA input is usually required directly after the username and password are entered by the client.

#tutorials #2fa #access #account security #authentication #authentication method #authentication token #cli #command line #cpanel #feature manager #google authenticator #one time password #otp #otp authentication #passcode #password #passwords #qr code #security #security code #security policy #security practices #single factor authentication #time-based one-time password #totp #two factor authentication #whm

Ruth  Nabimanya

Ruth Nabimanya

1620633584

System Databases in SQL Server

Introduction

In SSMS, we many of may noticed System Databases under the Database Folder. But how many of us knows its purpose?. In this article lets discuss about the System Databases in SQL Server.

System Database

Fig. 1 System Databases

There are five system databases, these databases are created while installing SQL Server.

  • Master
  • Model
  • MSDB
  • Tempdb
  • Resource
Master
  • This database contains all the System level Information in SQL Server. The Information in form of Meta data.
  • Because of this master database, we are able to access the SQL Server (On premise SQL Server)
Model
  • This database is used as a template for new databases.
  • Whenever a new database is created, initially a copy of model database is what created as new database.
MSDB
  • This database is where a service called SQL Server Agent stores its data.
  • SQL server Agent is in charge of automation, which includes entities such as jobs, schedules, and alerts.
TempDB
  • The Tempdb is where SQL Server stores temporary data such as work tables, sort space, row versioning information and etc.
  • User can create their own version of temporary tables and those are stored in Tempdb.
  • But this database is destroyed and recreated every time when we restart the instance of SQL Server.
Resource
  • The resource database is a hidden, read only database that holds the definitions of all system objects.
  • When we query system object in a database, they appear to reside in the sys schema of the local database, but in actually their definitions reside in the resource db.

#sql server #master system database #model system database #msdb system database #sql server system databases #ssms #system database #system databases in sql server #tempdb system database

Ruby on Rails Development Services | Ruby on Rails Development

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#ruby on rails development services #ruby on rails development #ruby on rails web development company #ruby on rails development company #hire ruby on rails developer #hire ruby on rails developers

Shardul Bhatt

Shardul Bhatt

1626850869

7 Reasons to Trust Ruby on Rails

Ruby on Rails is an amazing web development framework. Known for its adaptability, it powers 3,903,258 sites internationally. Ruby on Rails development speeds up the interaction within web applications. It is productive to such an extent that a Ruby on Rails developer can develop an application 25% to 40% quicker when contrasted with different frameworks. 

Around 2.1% (21,034) of the best 1 million sites utilize Ruby on Rails. The framework is perfect for creating web applications in every industry. Regardless of whether it's medical services or vehicles, Rails carries a higher degree of dynamism to each application. 

Be that as it may, what makes the framework so mainstream? Some say that it is affordable, some say it is on the grounds that the Ruby on Rails improvement environment is simple and basic. There are numerous reasons that make it ideal for creating dynamic applications.

Read more: Best Ruby on Rails projects Examples

7 reasons Ruby on Rails is preferred

There are a few other well-known backend services for web applications like Django, Flask, Laravel, and that's only the tip of the iceberg. So for what reason should organizations pick Ruby on Rails application development? We believe the accompanying reasons will feature why different organizations trust the framework -

Quick prototyping 

Rails works on building MVPs in a couple of months. Organizations incline toward Ruby on Rails quick application development as it offers them more opportunity to showcase the elements. Regular development groups accomplish 25% to 40% higher efficiency when working with Rails. Joined with agile, Ruby on Rails empowers timely delivery.

Basic and simple 

Ruby on Rails is easy to arrange and work with. It is not difficult to learn also. Both of these things are conceivable as a result of Ruby. The programming language has one of the most straightforward sentence structures, which is like the English language. Ruby is a universally useful programming language, working on things for web applications. 

Cost-effective 

Probably the greatest advantage of Rails is that it is very reasonable. The system is open-source, which implies there is no licensing charge included. Aside from that, engineers are additionally effectively accessible, that too at a lower cost. There are a large number of Ruby on Rails engineers for hire at an average compensation of $107,381 each year. 

Startup-friendly

Ruby on Rails is regularly known as "the startup technology." It offers adaptable, fast, and dynamic web improvement to new companies. Most arising organizations and new businesses lean toward this as a direct result of its quick application improvement capacities. It prompts quicker MVP development, which permits new companies to rapidly search for venture investment. 

Adaptable framework 

Ruby on Rails is profoundly adaptable and versatile. In any event, when engineers miss adding any functions, they can utilize different modules to add highlights into the application. Aside from that, they can likewise reclassify components by eliminating or adding them during the development environment. Indeed, even individual projects can be extended and changed. 

Convention over configuration

Regardless of whether it's Ruby on Rails enterprise application development or ecommerce-centered applications, the system utilizes convention over configuration. Developers don't have to go through hours attempting to set up the Ruby on Rails improvement environment. The standard conventions cover everything, improving on things for engineers on the task. The framework likewise utilizes the standard of "Don't Repeat Yourself" to guarantee there are no redundancies. 

Versatile applications 

At the point when organizations scale, applications regularly slack. However, this isn't the situation with Ruby on Rails web application development. The system powers sites with high traffic, It can deal with a huge load of worker demands immediately. Adaptability empowers new businesses to keep utilizing the structure even after they prepare their first model for dispatch. 

Checkout Pros and Cons of Ruby on Rails for Web Development

Bottom Line 

Ruby on Rails is as yet a significant framework utilized by organizations all over the world - of every kind. In this day and age, it is probably the best framework to digitize endeavors through powerful web applications.

A software development company provides comprehensive Ruby on Rails development to guarantee startups and MNCs can benefit as much as possible from their digital application needs. 

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