Joshua Yates

Joshua Yates

1598241084

Rust Programming Language - Error Handling Isn't All About Errors

Error handling in Rust is incredibly diverse and constantly evolving. As such it is often a source of confusion for new and experienced rustaceans alike. This talk aims to clarify what error handling in rust means, the patterns that exist, when to apply them, and what libraries currently exist to help with the task.

#rust #web-development #developer

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Rust Programming Language - Error Handling Isn't All About Errors

RUST on programming language

The title is a bit confusing to understand the context of the content. In this blog, I am going to run around and see the different aspects of programming language rust. And talk about the concepts that it introduces that are useful for various aspects of programming.

What is Rust?

Simply putting it is a statically as well as strongly typed programming language.

Let me explain:

_statically typed _indicates that all the datatypes that are expressed in the code are known at compile time and memory allocation is done properly.

Image for post

Then what is 👆 that? Let’s just say rust knows what you want to say.

But this doesn’t mean you could declare variables for a complex data type and expect rust to understand. Here comes the next point I mentioned above.

_strongly typed _indicates that the types are designed to make it harder to write syntatically incorrect code.

If you were to do even a little mistake with the syntax or definition of variables then the errors are caught at compile time. Not just the syntax errors but there are various tests build in the compiler to check for unused variablesdead code(Code that will never run), infinite loops as well as the lifetime of variables.

#security #programming #programming-languages #rust

Serde Rust: Serialization Framework for Rust

Serde

*Serde is a framework for serializing and deserializing Rust data structures efficiently and generically.*

You may be looking for:

Serde in action

Click to show Cargo.toml. Run this code in the playground.

[dependencies]

# The core APIs, including the Serialize and Deserialize traits. Always
# required when using Serde. The "derive" feature is only required when
# using #[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)] to make Serde work with structs
# and enums defined in your crate.
serde = { version = "1.0", features = ["derive"] }

# Each data format lives in its own crate; the sample code below uses JSON
# but you may be using a different one.
serde_json = "1.0"

 

use serde::{Serialize, Deserialize};

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Debug)]
struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,
}

fn main() {
    let point = Point { x: 1, y: 2 };

    // Convert the Point to a JSON string.
    let serialized = serde_json::to_string(&point).unwrap();

    // Prints serialized = {"x":1,"y":2}
    println!("serialized = {}", serialized);

    // Convert the JSON string back to a Point.
    let deserialized: Point = serde_json::from_str(&serialized).unwrap();

    // Prints deserialized = Point { x: 1, y: 2 }
    println!("deserialized = {:?}", deserialized);
}

Getting help

Serde is one of the most widely used Rust libraries so any place that Rustaceans congregate will be able to help you out. For chat, consider trying the #rust-questions or #rust-beginners channels of the unofficial community Discord (invite: https://discord.gg/rust-lang-community), the #rust-usage or #beginners channels of the official Rust Project Discord (invite: https://discord.gg/rust-lang), or the #general stream in Zulip. For asynchronous, consider the [rust] tag on StackOverflow, the /r/rust subreddit which has a pinned weekly easy questions post, or the Rust Discourse forum. It's acceptable to file a support issue in this repo but they tend not to get as many eyes as any of the above and may get closed without a response after some time.

Download Details:
Author: serde-rs
Source Code: https://github.com/serde-rs/serde
License: View license

#rust  #rustlang 

Rust  Language

Rust Language

1636359890

Error Handling in Rust - The Rust Programming Language

Error Handling - Rust By Example

Error handling is the process of handling the possibility of failure. For example, failing to read a file and then continuing to use that bad input would clearly be problematic. Noticing and explicitly managing those errors saves the rest of the program from various pitfalls.

There are various ways to deal with errors in Rust, which are described in the following subchapters. They all have more or less subtle differences and different use cases. As a rule of thumb:

An explicit panic is mainly useful for tests and dealing with unrecoverable errors. For prototyping it can be useful, for example when dealing with functions that haven't been implemented yet, but in those cases the more descriptive unimplemented is better. In tests panic is a reasonable way to explicitly fail.

The Option type is for when a value is optional or when the lack of a value is not an error condition. For example the parent of a directory - / and C: don't have one. When dealing with Options, unwrap is fine for prototyping and cases where it's absolutely certain that there is guaranteed to be a value. However expect is more useful since it lets you specify an error message in case something goes wrong anyway.

When there is a chance that things do go wrong and the caller has to deal with the problem, use Result. You can unwrap and expect them as well (please don't do that unless it's a test or quick prototype).

For a more rigorous discussion of error handling, refer to the error handling section in the official book.


panic

The simplest error handling mechanism we will see is panic. It prints an error message, starts unwinding the stack, and usually exits the program. Here, we explicitly call panic on our error condition:

fn drink(beverage: &str) {
    // You shouldn't drink too much sugary beverages.
    if beverage == "lemonade" { panic!("AAAaaaaa!!!!"); }

    println!("Some refreshing {} is all I need.", beverage);
}

fn main() {
    drink("water");
    drink("lemonade");
}

Option & unwrap

In the last example, we showed that we can induce program failure at will. We told our program to panic if we drink a sugary lemonade. But what if we expect some drink but don't receive one? That case would be just as bad, so it needs to be handled!

We could test this against the null string ("") as we do with a lemonade. Since we're using Rust, let's instead have the compiler point out cases where there's no drink.

An enum called Option<T> in the std library is used when absence is a possibility. It manifests itself as one of two "options":

  • Some(T): An element of type T was found
  • None: No element was found

These cases can either be explicitly handled via match or implicitly with unwrap. Implicit handling will either return the inner element or panic.

Note that it's possible to manually customize panic with expect, but unwrap otherwise leaves us with a less meaningful output than explicit handling. In the following example, explicit handling yields a more controlled result while retaining the option to panic if desired.

// The adult has seen it all, and can handle any drink well.
// All drinks are handled explicitly using `match`.
fn give_adult(drink: Option<&str>) {
    // Specify a course of action for each case.
    match drink {
        Some("lemonade") => println!("Yuck! Too sugary."),
        Some(inner)   => println!("{}? How nice.", inner),
        None          => println!("No drink? Oh well."),
    }
}

// Others will `panic` before drinking sugary drinks.
// All drinks are handled implicitly using `unwrap`.
fn drink(drink: Option<&str>) {
    // `unwrap` returns a `panic` when it receives a `None`.
    let inside = drink.unwrap();
    if inside == "lemonade" { panic!("AAAaaaaa!!!!"); }

    println!("I love {}s!!!!!", inside);
}

fn main() {
    let water  = Some("water");
    let lemonade = Some("lemonade");
    let void  = None;

    give_adult(water);
    give_adult(lemonade);
    give_adult(void);

    let coffee = Some("coffee");
    let nothing = None;

    drink(coffee);
    drink(nothing);
}

Unpacking options with ?

You can unpack Options by using match statements, but it's often easier to use the ? operator. If x is an Option, then evaluating x? will return the underlying value if x is Some, otherwise it will terminate whatever function is being executed and return None.

fn next_birthday(current_age: Option<u8>) -> Option<String> {
	// If `current_age` is `None`, this returns `None`.
	// If `current_age` is `Some`, the inner `u8` gets assigned to `next_age`
    let next_age: u8 = current_age?;
    Some(format!("Next year I will be {}", next_age))
}

You can chain many ?s together to make your code much more readable.

struct Person {
    job: Option<Job>,
}

#[derive(Clone, Copy)]
struct Job {
    phone_number: Option<PhoneNumber>,
}

#[derive(Clone, Copy)]
struct PhoneNumber {
    area_code: Option<u8>,
    number: u32,
}

impl Person {

    // Gets the area code of the phone number of the person's job, if it exists.
    fn work_phone_area_code(&self) -> Option<u8> {
        // This would need many nested `match` statements without the `?` operator.
        // It would take a lot more code - try writing it yourself and see which
        // is easier.
        self.job?.phone_number?.area_code
    }
}

fn main() {
    let p = Person {
        job: Some(Job {
            phone_number: Some(PhoneNumber {
                area_code: Some(61),
                number: 439222222,
            }),
        }),
    };

    assert_eq!(p.work_phone_area_code(), Some(61));
}

Combinators: map

match is a valid method for handling Options. However, you may eventually find heavy usage tedious, especially with operations only valid with an input. In these cases, combinators can be used to manage control flow in a modular fashion.

Option has a built in method called map(), a combinator for the simple mapping of Some -> Some and None -> None. Multiple map() calls can be chained together for even more flexibility.

In the following example, process() replaces all functions previous to it while staying compact.

#![allow(dead_code)]

#[derive(Debug)] enum Food { Apple, Carrot, Potato }

#[derive(Debug)] struct Peeled(Food);
#[derive(Debug)] struct Chopped(Food);
#[derive(Debug)] struct Cooked(Food);

// Peeling food. If there isn't any, then return `None`.
// Otherwise, return the peeled food.
fn peel(food: Option<Food>) -> Option<Peeled> {
    match food {
        Some(food) => Some(Peeled(food)),
        None       => None,
    }
}

// Chopping food. If there isn't any, then return `None`.
// Otherwise, return the chopped food.
fn chop(peeled: Option<Peeled>) -> Option<Chopped> {
    match peeled {
        Some(Peeled(food)) => Some(Chopped(food)),
        None               => None,
    }
}

// Cooking food. Here, we showcase `map()` instead of `match` for case handling.
fn cook(chopped: Option<Chopped>) -> Option<Cooked> {
    chopped.map(|Chopped(food)| Cooked(food))
}

// A function to peel, chop, and cook food all in sequence.
// We chain multiple uses of `map()` to simplify the code.
fn process(food: Option<Food>) -> Option<Cooked> {
    food.map(|f| Peeled(f))
        .map(|Peeled(f)| Chopped(f))
        .map(|Chopped(f)| Cooked(f))
}

// Check whether there's food or not before trying to eat it!
fn eat(food: Option<Cooked>) {
    match food {
        Some(food) => println!("Mmm. I love {:?}", food),
        None       => println!("Oh no! It wasn't edible."),
    }
}

fn main() {
    let apple = Some(Food::Apple);
    let carrot = Some(Food::Carrot);
    let potato = None;

    let cooked_apple = cook(chop(peel(apple)));
    let cooked_carrot = cook(chop(peel(carrot)));
    // Let's try the simpler looking `process()` now.
    let cooked_potato = process(potato);

    eat(cooked_apple);
    eat(cooked_carrot);
    eat(cooked_potato);
}

Combinators: and_then

map() was described as a chainable way to simplify match statements. However, using map() on a function that returns an Option<T> results in the nested Option<Option<T>>. Chaining multiple calls together can then become confusing. That's where another combinator called and_then(), known in some languages as flatmap, comes in.

and_then() calls its function input with the wrapped value and returns the result. If the Option is None, then it returns None instead.

In the following example, cookable_v2() results in an Option<Food>. Using map() instead of and_then() would have given an Option<Option<Food>>, which is an invalid type for eat().

#![allow(dead_code)]

#[derive(Debug)] enum Food { CordonBleu, Steak, Sushi }
#[derive(Debug)] enum Day { Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday }

// We don't have the ingredients to make Sushi.
fn have_ingredients(food: Food) -> Option<Food> {
    match food {
        Food::Sushi => None,
        _           => Some(food),
    }
}

// We have the recipe for everything except Cordon Bleu.
fn have_recipe(food: Food) -> Option<Food> {
    match food {
        Food::CordonBleu => None,
        _                => Some(food),
    }
}

// To make a dish, we need both the recipe and the ingredients.
// We can represent the logic with a chain of `match`es:
fn cookable_v1(food: Food) -> Option<Food> {
    match have_recipe(food) {
        None       => None,
        Some(food) => match have_ingredients(food) {
            None       => None,
            Some(food) => Some(food),
        },
    }
}

// This can conveniently be rewritten more compactly with `and_then()`:
fn cookable_v2(food: Food) -> Option<Food> {
    have_recipe(food).and_then(have_ingredients)
}

fn eat(food: Food, day: Day) {
    match cookable_v2(food) {
        Some(food) => println!("Yay! On {:?} we get to eat {:?}.", day, food),
        None       => println!("Oh no. We don't get to eat on {:?}?", day),
    }
}

fn main() {
    let (cordon_bleu, steak, sushi) = (Food::CordonBleu, Food::Steak, Food::Sushi);

    eat(cordon_bleu, Day::Monday);
    eat(steak, Day::Tuesday);
    eat(sushi, Day::Wednesday);
}

Result

Result is a richer version of the Option type that describes possible error instead of possible absence.

That is, Result<T, E> could have one of two outcomes:

  • Ok(T): An element T was found
  • Err(E): An error was found with element E

By convention, the expected outcome is Ok while the unexpected outcome is Err.

Like Option, Result has many methods associated with it. unwrap(), for example, either yields the element T or panics. For case handling, there are many combinators between Result and Option that overlap.

In working with Rust, you will likely encounter methods that return the Result type, such as the parse() method. It might not always be possible to parse a string into the other type, so parse() returns a Result indicating possible failure.

Let's see what happens when we successfully and unsuccessfully parse() a string:

fn multiply(first_number_str: &str, second_number_str: &str) -> i32 {
    // Let's try using `unwrap()` to get the number out. Will it bite us?
    let first_number = first_number_str.parse::<i32>().unwrap();
    let second_number = second_number_str.parse::<i32>().unwrap();
    first_number * second_number
}

fn main() {
    let twenty = multiply("10", "2");
    println!("double is {}", twenty);

    let tt = multiply("t", "2");
    println!("double is {}", tt);
}

In the unsuccessful case, parse() leaves us with an error for unwrap() to panic on. Additionally, the panic exits our program and provides an unpleasant error message.

To improve the quality of our error message, we should be more specific about the return type and consider explicitly handling the error.

Using Result in main

The Result type can also be the return type of the main function if specified explicitly. Typically the main function will be of the form:

fn main() {
    println!("Hello World!");
}

However main is also able to have a return type of Result. If an error occurs within the main function it will return an error code and print a debug representation of the error (using the Debug trait). The following example shows such a scenario and touches on aspects covered in the following section.

use std::num::ParseIntError;

fn main() -> Result<(), ParseIntError> {
    let number_str = "10";
    let number = match number_str.parse::<i32>() {
        Ok(number)  => number,
        Err(e) => return Err(e),
    };
    println!("{}", number);
    Ok(())
}

map for Result

Panicking in the previous example's multiply does not make for robust code. Generally, we want to return the error to the caller so it can decide what is the right way to respond to errors.

We first need to know what kind of error type we are dealing with. To determine the Err type, we look to parse(), which is implemented with the FromStr trait for i32. As a result, the Err type is specified as ParseIntError.

In the example below, the straightforward match statement leads to code that is overall more cumbersome.

use std::num::ParseIntError;

// With the return type rewritten, we use pattern matching without `unwrap()`.
fn multiply(first_number_str: &str, second_number_str: &str) -> Result<i32, ParseIntError> {
    match first_number_str.parse::<i32>() {
        Ok(first_number)  => {
            match second_number_str.parse::<i32>() {
                Ok(second_number)  => {
                    Ok(first_number * second_number)
                },
                Err(e) => Err(e),
            }
        },
        Err(e) => Err(e),
    }
}

fn print(result: Result<i32, ParseIntError>) {
    match result {
        Ok(n)  => println!("n is {}", n),
        Err(e) => println!("Error: {}", e),
    }
}

fn main() {
    // This still presents a reasonable answer.
    let twenty = multiply("10", "2");
    print(twenty);

    // The following now provides a much more helpful error message.
    let tt = multiply("t", "2");
    print(tt);
}

Luckily, Option's map, and_then, and many other combinators are also implemented for Result. Result contains a complete listing.

use std::num::ParseIntError;

// As with `Option`, we can use combinators such as `map()`.
// This function is otherwise identical to the one above and reads:
// Modify n if the value is valid, otherwise pass on the error.
fn multiply(first_number_str: &str, second_number_str: &str) -> Result<i32, ParseIntError> {
    first_number_str.parse::<i32>().and_then(|first_number| {
        second_number_str.parse::<i32>().map(|second_number| first_number * second_number)
    })
}

fn print(result: Result<i32, ParseIntError>) {
    match result {
        Ok(n)  => println!("n is {}", n),
        Err(e) => println!("Error: {}", e),
    }
}

fn main() {
    // This still presents a reasonable answer.
    let twenty = multiply("10", "2");
    print(twenty);

    // The following now provides a much more helpful error message.
    let tt = multiply("t", "2");
    print(tt);
}

aliases for Result

How about when we want to reuse a specific Result type many times? Recall that Rust allows us to create aliases. Conveniently, we can define one for the specific Result in question.

At a module level, creating aliases can be particularly helpful. Errors found in a specific module often have the same Err type, so a single alias can succinctly define all associated Results. This is so useful that the std library even supplies one: io::Result!

Here's a quick example to show off the syntax:

use std::num::ParseIntError;

// Define a generic alias for a `Result` with the error type `ParseIntError`.
type AliasedResult<T> = Result<T, ParseIntError>;

// Use the above alias to refer to our specific `Result` type.
fn multiply(first_number_str: &str, second_number_str: &str) -> AliasedResult<i32> {
    first_number_str.parse::<i32>().and_then(|first_number| {
        second_number_str.parse::<i32>().map(|second_number| first_number * second_number)
    })
}

// Here, the alias again allows us to save some space.
fn print(result: AliasedResult<i32>) {
    match result {
        Ok(n)  => println!("n is {}", n),
        Err(e) => println!("Error: {}", e),
    }
}

fn main() {
    print(multiply("10", "2"));
    print(multiply("t", "2"));
}

Early returns

In the previous example, we explicitly handled the errors using combinators. Another way to deal with this case analysis is to use a combination of match statements and early returns.

That is, we can simply stop executing the function and return the error if one occurs. For some, this form of code can be easier to both read and write. Consider this version of the previous example, rewritten using early returns:

use std::num::ParseIntError;

fn multiply(first_number_str: &str, second_number_str: &str) -> Result<i32, ParseIntError> {
    let first_number = match first_number_str.parse::<i32>() {
        Ok(first_number)  => first_number,
        Err(e) => return Err(e),
    };

    let second_number = match second_number_str.parse::<i32>() {
        Ok(second_number)  => second_number,
        Err(e) => return Err(e),
    };

    Ok(first_number * second_number)
}

fn print(result: Result<i32, ParseIntError>) {
    match result {
        Ok(n)  => println!("n is {}", n),
        Err(e) => println!("Error: {}", e),
    }
}

fn main() {
    print(multiply("10", "2"));
    print(multiply("t", "2"));
}

At this point, we've learned to explicitly handle errors using combinators and early returns. While we generally want to avoid panicking, explicitly handling all of our errors is cumbersome.

In the next section, we'll introduce ? for the cases where we simply need to unwrap without possibly inducing panic.

Introducing ?

Sometimes we just want the simplicity of unwrap without the possibility of a panic. Until now, unwrap has forced us to nest deeper and deeper when what we really wanted was to get the variable out. This is exactly the purpose of ?.

Upon finding an Err, there are two valid actions to take:

  1. panic! which we already decided to try to avoid if possible
  2. return because an Err means it cannot be handled

? is almost1 exactly equivalent to an unwrap which returns instead of panicking on Errs. Let's see how we can simplify the earlier example that used combinators:

use std::num::ParseIntError;

fn multiply(first_number_str: &str, second_number_str: &str) -> Result<i32, ParseIntError> {
    let first_number = first_number_str.parse::<i32>()?;
    let second_number = second_number_str.parse::<i32>()?;

    Ok(first_number * second_number)
}

fn print(result: Result<i32, ParseIntError>) {
    match result {
        Ok(n)  => println!("n is {}", n),
        Err(e) => println!("Error: {}", e),
    }
}

fn main() {
    print(multiply("10", "2"));
    print(multiply("t", "2"));
}

The try! macro

Before there was ?, the same functionality was achieved with the try! macro. The ? operator is now recommended, but you may still find try! when looking at older code. The same multiply function from the previous example would look like this using try!:

// To compile and run this example without errors, while using Cargo, change the value 
// of the `edition` field, in the `[package]` section of the `Cargo.toml` file, to "2015".

use std::num::ParseIntError;

fn multiply(first_number_str: &str, second_number_str: &str) -> Result<i32, ParseIntError> {
    let first_number = try!(first_number_str.parse::<i32>());
    let second_number = try!(second_number_str.parse::<i32>());

    Ok(first_number * second_number)
}

fn print(result: Result<i32, ParseIntError>) {
    match result {
        Ok(n)  => println!("n is {}", n),
        Err(e) => println!("Error: {}", e),
    }
}

fn main() {
    print(multiply("10", "2"));
    print(multiply("t", "2"));
}

Multiple error types

The previous examples have always been very convenient; Results interact with other Results and Options interact with other Options.

Sometimes an Option needs to interact with a Result, or a Result<T, Error1> needs to interact with a Result<T, Error2>. In those cases, we want to manage our different error types in a way that makes them composable and easy to interact with.

In the following code, two instances of unwrap generate different error types. Vec::first returns an Option, while parse::<i32> returns a Result<i32, ParseIntError>:

fn double_first(vec: Vec<&str>) -> i32 {
    let first = vec.first().unwrap(); // Generate error 1
    2 * first.parse::<i32>().unwrap() // Generate error 2
}

fn main() {
    let numbers = vec!["42", "93", "18"];
    let empty = vec![];
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];

    println!("The first doubled is {}", double_first(numbers));

    println!("The first doubled is {}", double_first(empty));
    // Error 1: the input vector is empty

    println!("The first doubled is {}", double_first(strings));
    // Error 2: the element doesn't parse to a number
}

Over the next sections, we'll see several strategies for handling these kind of problems.

Pulling Results out of Options

The most basic way of handling mixed error types is to just embed them in each other.

use std::num::ParseIntError;

fn double_first(vec: Vec<&str>) -> Option<Result<i32, ParseIntError>> {
    vec.first().map(|first| {
        first.parse::<i32>().map(|n| 2 * n)
    })
}

fn main() {
    let numbers = vec!["42", "93", "18"];
    let empty = vec![];
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];

    println!("The first doubled is {:?}", double_first(numbers));

    println!("The first doubled is {:?}", double_first(empty));
    // Error 1: the input vector is empty

    println!("The first doubled is {:?}", double_first(strings));
    // Error 2: the element doesn't parse to a number
}

There are times when we'll want to stop processing on errors (like with ?) but keep going when the Option is None. A couple of combinators come in handy to swap the Result and Option.

use std::num::ParseIntError;

fn double_first(vec: Vec<&str>) -> Result<Option<i32>, ParseIntError> {
    let opt = vec.first().map(|first| {
        first.parse::<i32>().map(|n| 2 * n)
    });

    opt.map_or(Ok(None), |r| r.map(Some))
}

fn main() {
    let numbers = vec!["42", "93", "18"];
    let empty = vec![];
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];

    println!("The first doubled is {:?}", double_first(numbers));
    println!("The first doubled is {:?}", double_first(empty));
    println!("The first doubled is {:?}", double_first(strings));
}

Defining an error type

Sometimes it simplifies the code to mask all of the different errors with a single type of error. We'll show this with a custom error.

Rust allows us to define our own error types. In general, a "good" error type:

  • Represents different errors with the same type
  • Presents nice error messages to the user
  • Is easy to compare with other types
    • Good: Err(EmptyVec)
    • Bad: Err("Please use a vector with at least one element".to_owned())
  • Can hold information about the error
    • Good: Err(BadChar(c, position))
    • Bad: Err("+ cannot be used here".to_owned())
  • Composes well with other errors
use std::fmt;

type Result<T> = std::result::Result<T, DoubleError>;

// Define our error types. These may be customized for our error handling cases.
// Now we will be able to write our own errors, defer to an underlying error
// implementation, or do something in between.
#[derive(Debug, Clone)]
struct DoubleError;

// Generation of an error is completely separate from how it is displayed.
// There's no need to be concerned about cluttering complex logic with the display style.
//
// Note that we don't store any extra info about the errors. This means we can't state
// which string failed to parse without modifying our types to carry that information.
impl fmt::Display for DoubleError {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        write!(f, "invalid first item to double")
    }
}

fn double_first(vec: Vec<&str>) -> Result<i32> {
    vec.first()
        // Change the error to our new type.
        .ok_or(DoubleError)
        .and_then(|s| {
            s.parse::<i32>()
                // Update to the new error type here also.
                .map_err(|_| DoubleError)
                .map(|i| 2 * i)
        })
}

fn print(result: Result<i32>) {
    match result {
        Ok(n) => println!("The first doubled is {}", n),
        Err(e) => println!("Error: {}", e),
    }
}

fn main() {
    let numbers = vec!["42", "93", "18"];
    let empty = vec![];
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];

    print(double_first(numbers));
    print(double_first(empty));
    print(double_first(strings));
}

Boxing errors

A way to write simple code while preserving the original errors is to Box them. The drawback is that the underlying error type is only known at runtime and not statically determined.

The stdlib helps in boxing our errors by having Box implement conversion from any type that implements the Error trait into the trait object Box<Error>, via From.

use std::error;
use std::fmt;

// Change the alias to `Box<error::Error>`.
type Result<T> = std::result::Result<T, Box<dyn error::Error>>;

#[derive(Debug, Clone)]
struct EmptyVec;

impl fmt::Display for EmptyVec {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        write!(f, "invalid first item to double")
    }
}

impl error::Error for EmptyVec {}

fn double_first(vec: Vec<&str>) -> Result<i32> {
    vec.first()
        .ok_or_else(|| EmptyVec.into()) // Converts to Box
        .and_then(|s| {
            s.parse::<i32>()
                .map_err(|e| e.into()) // Converts to Box
                .map(|i| 2 * i)
        })
}

fn print(result: Result<i32>) {
    match result {
        Ok(n) => println!("The first doubled is {}", n),
        Err(e) => println!("Error: {}", e),
    }
}

fn main() {
    let numbers = vec!["42", "93", "18"];
    let empty = vec![];
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];

    print(double_first(numbers));
    print(double_first(empty));
    print(double_first(strings));
}

Other uses of ?

Notice in the previous example that our immediate reaction to calling parse is to map the error from a library error into a boxed error:

.and_then(|s| s.parse::<i32>()
    .map_err(|e| e.into())

Since this is a simple and common operation, it would be convenient if it could be elided. Alas, because and_then is not sufficiently flexible, it cannot. However, we can instead use ?.

? was previously explained as either unwrap or return Err(err). This is only mostly true. It actually means unwrap or return Err(From::from(err)). Since From::from is a conversion utility between different types, this means that if you ? where the error is convertible to the return type, it will convert automatically.

Here, we rewrite the previous example using ?. As a result, the map_err will go away when From::from is implemented for our error type:

use std::error;
use std::fmt;

// Change the alias to `Box<dyn error::Error>`.
type Result<T> = std::result::Result<T, Box<dyn error::Error>>;

#[derive(Debug)]
struct EmptyVec;

impl fmt::Display for EmptyVec {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        write!(f, "invalid first item to double")
    }
}

impl error::Error for EmptyVec {}

// The same structure as before but rather than chain all `Results`
// and `Options` along, we `?` to get the inner value out immediately.
fn double_first(vec: Vec<&str>) -> Result<i32> {
    let first = vec.first().ok_or(EmptyVec)?;
    let parsed = first.parse::<i32>()?;
    Ok(2 * parsed)
}

fn print(result: Result<i32>) {
    match result {
        Ok(n)  => println!("The first doubled is {}", n),
        Err(e) => println!("Error: {}", e),
    }
}

fn main() {
    let numbers = vec!["42", "93", "18"];
    let empty = vec![];
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];

    print(double_first(numbers));
    print(double_first(empty));
    print(double_first(strings));
}

This is actually fairly clean now. Compared with the original panic, it is very similar to replacing the unwrap calls with ? except that the return types are Result. As a result, they must be destructured at the top level.

Wrapping errors

An alternative to boxing errors is to wrap them in your own error type.

use std::error;
use std::error::Error as _;
use std::num::ParseIntError;
use std::fmt;

type Result<T> = std::result::Result<T, DoubleError>;

#[derive(Debug)]
enum DoubleError {
    EmptyVec,
    // We will defer to the parse error implementation for their error.
    // Supplying extra info requires adding more data to the type.
    Parse(ParseIntError),
}

impl fmt::Display for DoubleError {
    fn fmt(&self, f: &mut fmt::Formatter) -> fmt::Result {
        match *self {
            DoubleError::EmptyVec =>
                write!(f, "please use a vector with at least one element"),
            // The wrapped error contains additional information and is available
            // via the source() method.
            DoubleError::Parse(..) =>
                write!(f, "the provided string could not be parsed as int"),
        }
    }
}

impl error::Error for DoubleError {
    fn source(&self) -> Option<&(dyn error::Error + 'static)> {
        match *self {
            DoubleError::EmptyVec => None,
            // The cause is the underlying implementation error type. Is implicitly
            // cast to the trait object `&error::Error`. This works because the
            // underlying type already implements the `Error` trait.
            DoubleError::Parse(ref e) => Some(e),
        }
    }
}

// Implement the conversion from `ParseIntError` to `DoubleError`.
// This will be automatically called by `?` if a `ParseIntError`
// needs to be converted into a `DoubleError`.
impl From<ParseIntError> for DoubleError {
    fn from(err: ParseIntError) -> DoubleError {
        DoubleError::Parse(err)
    }
}

fn double_first(vec: Vec<&str>) -> Result<i32> {
    let first = vec.first().ok_or(DoubleError::EmptyVec)?;
    // Here we implicitly use the `ParseIntError` implementation of `From` (which
    // we defined above) in order to create a `DoubleError`.
    let parsed = first.parse::<i32>()?;

    Ok(2 * parsed)
}

fn print(result: Result<i32>) {
    match result {
        Ok(n)  => println!("The first doubled is {}", n),
        Err(e) => {
            println!("Error: {}", e);
            if let Some(source) = e.source() {
                println!("  Caused by: {}", source);
            }
        },
    }
}

fn main() {
    let numbers = vec!["42", "93", "18"];
    let empty = vec![];
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];

    print(double_first(numbers));
    print(double_first(empty));
    print(double_first(strings));
}

This adds a bit more boilerplate for handling errors and might not be needed in all applications. There are some libraries that can take care of the boilerplate for you.


Iterating over Results

An Iter::map operation might fail, for example:

fn main() {
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];
    let numbers: Vec<_> = strings
        .into_iter()
        .map(|s| s.parse::<i32>())
        .collect();
    println!("Results: {:?}", numbers);
}

Let's step through strategies for handling this.

Ignore the failed items with filter_map()

filter_map calls a function and filters out the results that are None.

fn main() {
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];
    let numbers: Vec<_> = strings
        .into_iter()
        .filter_map(|s| s.parse::<i32>().ok())
        .collect();
    println!("Results: {:?}", numbers);
}

Fail the entire operation with collect()

Result implements FromIter so that a vector of results (Vec<Result<T, E>>) can be turned into a result with a vector (Result<Vec<T>, E>). Once an Result::Err is found, the iteration will terminate.

fn main() {
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];
    let numbers: Result<Vec<_>, _> = strings
        .into_iter()
        .map(|s| s.parse::<i32>())
        .collect();
    println!("Results: {:?}", numbers);
}

This same technique can be used with Option.

Collect all valid values and failures with partition()

fn main() {
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];
    let (numbers, errors): (Vec<_>, Vec<_>) = strings
        .into_iter()
        .map(|s| s.parse::<i32>())
        .partition(Result::is_ok);
    println!("Numbers: {:?}", numbers);
    println!("Errors: {:?}", errors);
}

When you look at the results, you'll note that everything is still wrapped in Result. A little more boilerplate is needed for this.

fn main() {
    let strings = vec!["tofu", "93", "18"];
    let (numbers, errors): (Vec<_>, Vec<_>) = strings
        .into_iter()
        .map(|s| s.parse::<i32>())
        .partition(Result::is_ok);
    let numbers: Vec<_> = numbers.into_iter().map(Result::unwrap).collect();
    let errors: Vec<_> = errors.into_iter().map(Result::unwrap_err).collect();
    println!("Numbers: {:?}", numbers);
    println!("Errors: {:?}", errors);
}

Original article source at https://doc.rust-lang.org

#rust #programming #developer 

Rust  Language

Rust Language

1636775939

Error Handling in Rust - The Rust Programming Language

Handle errors correctly in main

Handles error that occur when trying to open a file that does not exist. It is achieved by using error-chain, a library that takes care of a lot of boilerplate code needed in order to handle errors in Rust.

Io(std::io::Error) inside foreign_links allows automatic conversion from std::io::Error into error_chain! defined type implementing the Error trait.

The below recipe will tell how long the system has been running by opening the Unix file /proc/uptime and parse the content to get the first number. Returns uptime unless there is an error.

Other recipes in this book will hide the error-chain boilerplate, and can be seen by expanding the code with the ⤢ button.

use error_chain::error_chain;

use std::fs::File;
use std::io::Read;

error_chain!{
    foreign_links {
        Io(std::io::Error);
        ParseInt(::std::num::ParseIntError);
    }
}

fn read_uptime() -> Result<u64> {
    let mut uptime = String::new();
    File::open("/proc/uptime")?.read_to_string(&mut uptime)?;

    Ok(uptime
        .split('.')
        .next()
        .ok_or("Cannot parse uptime data")?
        .parse()?)
}

fn main() {
    match read_uptime() {
        Ok(uptime) => println!("uptime: {} seconds", uptime),
        Err(err) => eprintln!("error: {}", err),
    };
}

Avoid discarding errors during error conversions

The error-chain crate makes matching on different error types returned by a function possible and relatively compact. ErrorKind determines the error type.

Uses reqwest::blocking to query a random integer generator web service. Converts the string response into an integer. The Rust standard library, reqwest, and the web service can all generate errors. Well defined Rust errors use foreign_links. An additional ErrorKind variant for the web service error uses errors block of the error_chain! macro.

use error_chain::error_chain;

error_chain! {
    foreign_links {
        Io(std::io::Error);
        Reqwest(reqwest::Error);
        ParseIntError(std::num::ParseIntError);
    }
    errors { RandomResponseError(t: String) }
}

fn parse_response(response: reqwest::blocking::Response) -> Result<u32> {
  let mut body = response.text()?;
  body.pop();
  body
    .parse::<u32>()
    .chain_err(|| ErrorKind::RandomResponseError(body))
}

fn run() -> Result<()> {
  let url =
    format!("https://www.random.org/integers/?num=1&min=0&max=10&col=1&base=10&format=plain");
  let response = reqwest::blocking::get(&url)?;
  let random_value: u32 = parse_response(response)?;
  println!("a random number between 0 and 10: {}", random_value);
  Ok(())
}

fn main() {
  if let Err(error) = run() {
    match *error.kind() {
      ErrorKind::Io(_) => println!("Standard IO error: {:?}", error),
      ErrorKind::Reqwest(_) => println!("Reqwest error: {:?}", error),
      ErrorKind::ParseIntError(_) => println!("Standard parse int error: {:?}", error),
      ErrorKind::RandomResponseError(_) => println!("User defined error: {:?}", error),
      _ => println!("Other error: {:?}", error),
    }
  }
}

Obtain backtrace of complex error scenarios

This recipe shows how to handle a complex error scenario and then print a backtrace. It relies on chain_err to extend errors by appending new errors. The error stack can be unwound, thus providing a better context to understand why an error was raised.

The below recipes attempts to deserialize the value 256 into a u8. An error will bubble up from Serde then csv and finally up to the user code.

use error_chain::error_chain;

#[derive(Debug, Deserialize)]
struct Rgb {
    red: u8,
    blue: u8,
    green: u8,
}

impl Rgb {
    fn from_reader(csv_data: &[u8]) -> Result<Rgb> {
        let color: Rgb = csv::Reader::from_reader(csv_data)
            .deserialize()
            .nth(0)
            .ok_or("Cannot deserialize the first CSV record")?
            .chain_err(|| "Cannot deserialize RGB color")?;

        Ok(color)
    }
}

fn run() -> Result<()> {
    let csv = "red,blue,green
102,256,204";

    let rgb = Rgb::from_reader(csv.as_bytes()).chain_err(|| "Cannot read CSV data")?;
    println!("{:?} to hexadecimal #{:X}", rgb, rgb);

    Ok(())
}

fn main() {
    if let Err(ref errors) = run() {
        eprintln!("Error level - description");
        errors
            .iter()
            .enumerate()
            .for_each(|(index, error)| eprintln!("└> {} - {}", index, error));

        if let Some(backtrace) = errors.backtrace() {
            eprintln!("{:?}", backtrace);
        }
    }
}

Backtrace error rendered:

Error level - description
└> 0 - Cannot read CSV data
└> 1 - Cannot deserialize RGB color
└> 2 - CSV deserialize error: record 1 (line: 2, byte: 15): field 1: number too large to fit in target type
└> 3 - field 1: number too large to fit in target type

Run the recipe with RUST_BACKTRACE=1 to display a detailed backtrace associated with this error.

Original article source at https://rust-lang-nursery.github.io

#rust #programming #developer 

Cayla  Erdman

Cayla Erdman

1594369800

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SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is a scripting language expected to store, control, and inquiry information put away in social databases. The main manifestation of SQL showed up in 1974, when a gathering in IBM built up the principal model of a social database. The primary business social database was discharged by Relational Software later turning out to be Oracle.

Models for SQL exist. In any case, the SQL that can be utilized on every last one of the major RDBMS today is in various flavors. This is because of two reasons:

1. The SQL order standard is genuinely intricate, and it isn’t handy to actualize the whole standard.

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Right now, contrasts are noted where fitting.

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