Biju Augustian

Biju Augustian


SQL tutorial for Beginners

My name is Shivprasad Koirala and welcome to my Learn SQL Server step by step video series. If you have any technical issues you can send me message i am more than happy to reply to your queries. Happy learning.

Basic knowledge
No basic knowledge as such required, should have the zeal to learn :-)
What will you learn
These step by step video lessons will teach you SQL Server step by step from scratch.

SQL Server is a huge giant and how much ever we learn its not enough. As a part of this ongoing learning journey we have added course title “Learn SQL Server Step by Step” Tutorials which has currently 21 labs covering not all but the most required handfull skilled essentials to become SQL professional developer as required by today’s software industry with the help of e below mentioned syllabus:

Lab 1:- Basic Fundamentals Database, Tables, rows, and columns.
Lab 2:- Primary key, foreign key, referential integrity, and constraints.
Lab 3:- Database Normalization (1st, 2nd, and 3rd normal forms).
Lab 4: - SQL basics(Select, Insert, Update and Delete)
Lab 5 :- DDL (Data definition language) Queries.
Lab 6: - Transactions, Locks and Isolation level in SQL Server.
Lab 7: - ISNULL and Coalesce functions.
Lab 8: - Row_Number, Partition, Rank, and DenseRank
Lab 9: - Triggers, inserted and deleted tables
Lab 10: - Instead of and after triggers.
Lab 11: - Denormalization, OLTP and OLAP.
Lab 12: - Understanding Star schema and Snowflake design.
Lab 13: - SQL Server 8 kb pages.
Lab 14:- Index and performances
Lab 15:- Page Split and indexes
Lab 16:- Clustered vs. non-clustered
Lab 17: - Stored procedures and their importance.
Lab 18: - Change Data Capture.
Lab 19: - Explain Columnstore Indexes?
Lab 20: - SQL Server agent
Lab 21: - How can we implement Pivot & Unpivot in SQL Server?
To continue:


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SQL tutorial for Beginners
Cayla  Erdman

Cayla Erdman


Introduction to Structured Query Language SQL pdf

SQL stands for Structured Query Language. SQL is a scripting language expected to store, control, and inquiry information put away in social databases. The main manifestation of SQL showed up in 1974, when a gathering in IBM built up the principal model of a social database. The primary business social database was discharged by Relational Software later turning out to be Oracle.

Models for SQL exist. In any case, the SQL that can be utilized on every last one of the major RDBMS today is in various flavors. This is because of two reasons:

1. The SQL order standard is genuinely intricate, and it isn’t handy to actualize the whole standard.

2. Every database seller needs an approach to separate its item from others.

Right now, contrasts are noted where fitting.

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Sival Alethea

Sival Alethea


SQL Tutorial - Full Database Course for Beginners. DO NOT MISS!!!

In this course, we’ll be looking at database management basics and SQL using the MySQL RDBMS.
⭐️ Contents ⭐
⌨️ (0:00) Introduction
⌨️ (2:36) What is a Database?
⌨️ (23:10) Tables & Keys
⌨️ (43:31) SQL Basics
⌨️ (52:26) MySQL Windows Installation
⌨️ (1:01:59) MySQL Mac Installation
⌨️ (1:15:49) Creating Tables
⌨️ (1:31:05) Inserting Data
⌨️ (1:38:17) Constraints
⌨️ (1:48:11) Update & Delete
⌨️ (1:56:11) Basic Queries
⌨️ (2:08:37) Company Database Intro
⌨️ (2:14:05) Creating Company Database
⌨️ (2:30:27 ) More Basic Queries
⌨️ (2:26:24) Functions
⌨️ (2:45:13) Wildcards
⌨️ (2:53:53) Union
⌨️ (3:01:36) Joins
⌨️ (3:11:49) Nested Queries
⌨️ (3:21:52) On Delete
⌨️ (3:30:05) Triggers
⌨️ (3:42:12) ER Diagrams Intro
⌨️ (3:55:53) Designing an ER Diagram
⌨️ (4:08:34) Converting ER Diagrams to Schemas
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Thanks for visiting and watching! Please don’t forget to leave a like, comment and share!

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Jeromy  Lowe

Jeromy Lowe


Data Visualization in R with ggplot2: A Beginner Tutorial

A famous general is thought to have said, “A good sketch is better than a long speech.” That advice may have come from the battlefield, but it’s applicable in lots of other areas — including data science. “Sketching” out our data by visualizing it using ggplot2 in R is more impactful than simply describing the trends we find.

This is why we visualize data. We visualize data because it’s easier to learn from something that we can see rather than read. And thankfully for data analysts and data scientists who use R, there’s a tidyverse package called ggplot2 that makes data visualization a snap!

In this blog post, we’ll learn how to take some data and produce a visualization using R. To work through it, it’s best if you already have an understanding of R programming syntax, but you don’t need to be an expert or have any prior experience working with ggplot2

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Introduction to Recursive CTE

This article will introduce the concept of SQL recursive. Recursive CTE is a really cool. We will see that it can often simplify our code, and avoid a cascade of SQL queries!

Why use a recursive CTE ?

The recursive queries are used to query hierarchical data. It avoids a cascade of SQL queries, you can only do one query to retrieve the hierarchical data.

What is recursive CTE ?

First, what is a CTE? A CTE (Common Table Expression) is a temporary named result set that you can reference within a SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, or DELETE statement. For example, you can use CTE when, in a query, you will use the same subquery more than once.

A recursive CTE is one having a subquery that refers to its own name!

Recursive CTE is defined in the SQL standard.

How to make a recursive CTE?

A recursive CTE has this structure:

  • The WITH clause must begin with “WITH RECURSIVE”
  • The recursive CTE subquery has two parts, separated by “UNION [ALL]” or “UNION DISTINCT”:
  • The first part produces the initial row(s) for the CTE. This SELECT does not refer to the CTE name.
  • The second part recurses by referring to the CTE name in its FROM clause.

Practice / Example

In this example, we use hierarchical data. Each row can have zero or one parent. And it parent can also have a parent etc.

Create table test (id integer, parent_id integer);

insert into test (id, parent_id) values (1, null);

insert into test (id, parent_id) values (11, 1);
insert into test (id, parent_id) values (111, 11);

insert into test (id, parent_id) values (112, 11);

insert into test (id, parent_id) values (12, 1);

insert into test (id, parent_id) values (121, 12);

For example, the row with id 111 has as ancestors: 11 and 1.

Before knowing the recursive CTE, I was doing several queries to get all the ancestors of a row.

For example, to retrieve all the ancestors of the row with id 111.

While (has parent)

	Select id, parent_id from test where id = X

With recursive CTE, we can retrieve all ancestors of a row with only one SQL query :)

	SELECT id, parent_id FROM test WHERE id = 111
	SELECT, test.parent_id FROM test JOIN cte_test ON = test.parent_id

) SELECT * FROM cte_test



It indicates we will make recursive

  • “SELECT id, parent_id FROM test WHERE id = 111”:

It is the initial query.

  • “UNION … JOIN cte_test” :

It is the recursive expression! We make a jointure with the current CTE!

Replay this example here

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Cayla  Erdman

Cayla Erdman


Welcome Back the T-SQL Debugger with SQL Complete – SQL Debugger

When you develop large chunks of T-SQL code with the help of the SQL Server Management Studio tool, it is essential to test the “Live” behavior of your code by making sure that each small piece of code works fine and being able to allocate any error message that may cause a failure within that code.

The easiest way to perform that would be to use the T-SQL debugger feature, which used to be built-in over the SQL Server Management Studio tool. But since the T-SQL debugger feature was removed completely from SQL Server Management Studio 18 and later editions, we need a replacement for that feature. This is because we cannot keep using the old versions of SSMS just to support the T-SQL Debugger feature without “enjoying” the new features and bug fixes that are released in the new SSMS versions.

If you plan to wait for SSMS to bring back the T-SQL Debugger feature, vote in the Put Debugger back into SSMS 18 to ask Microsoft to reintroduce it.

As for me, I searched for an alternative tool for a T-SQL Debugger SSMS built-in feature and found that Devart company rolled out a new T-SQL Debugger feature to version 6.4 of SQL – Complete tool. SQL Complete is an add-in for Visual Studio and SSMS that offers scripts autocompletion capabilities, which help develop and debug your SQL database project.

The SQL Debugger feature of SQL Complete allows you to check the execution of your scripts, procedures, functions, and triggers step by step by adding breakpoints to the lines where you plan to start, suspend, evaluate, step through, and then to continue the execution of your script.

You can download SQL Complete from the dbForge Download page and install it on your machine using a straight-forward installation wizard. The wizard will ask you to specify the installation path for the SQL Complete tool and the versions of SSMS and Visual Studio that you plan to install the SQL Complete on, as an add-in, from the versions that are installed on your machine, as shown below:

Once SQL Complete is fully installed on your machine, the dbForge SQL Complete installation wizard will notify you of whether the installation was completed successfully or the wizard faced any specific issue that you can troubleshoot and fix easily. If there are no issues, the wizard will provide you with an option to open the SSMS tool and start using the SQL Complete tool, as displayed below:

When you open SSMS, you will see a new “Debug” tools menu, under which you can navigate the SQL Debugger feature options. Besides, you will see a list of icons that will be used to control the debug mode of the T-SQL query at the leftmost side of the SSMS tool. If you cannot see the list, you can go to View -> Toolbars -> Debugger to make these icons visible.

During the debugging session, the SQL Debugger icons will be as follows:

The functionality of these icons within the SQL Debugger can be summarized as:

  • Adding Breakpoints to control the execution pause of the T-SQL script at a specific statement allows you to check the debugging information of the T-SQL statements such as the values for the parameters and the variables.
  • Step Into is “navigate” through the script statements one by one, allowing you to check how each statement behaves.
  • Step Over is “execute” a specific stored procedure if you are sure that it contains no error.
  • Step Out is “return” from the stored procedure, function, or trigger to the main debugging window.
  • Continue executing the script until reaching the next breakpoint.
  • Stop Debugging is “terminate” the debugging session.
  • Restart “stop and start” the current debugging session.

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