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DAY 31 - 100 Days Of AWS | Code Build

Substrate Parachain Template: A New Cumulus-based Substrate Node

Substrate Cumulus Parachain Template

A new Cumulus-based Substrate node, ready for hacking :cloud:

This project is a fork of the Substrate Node Template modified to include dependencies required for registering this node as a parathread or parachain to an established relay chain.

👉 Learn more about parachains here, and parathreads here.

Build & Run

Follow these steps to prepare a local Substrate development environment :hammer_and_wrench:

Setup of Machine

If necessary, refer to the setup instructions at the Substrate Developer Hub.

Build

Once the development environment is set up, build the Cumulus Parachain Template. This command will build the Wasm Runtime and native code:

cargo build --release

Relay Chain

NOTE: In the following two sections, we document how to manually start a few relay chain nodes, start a parachain node (collator), and register the parachain with the relay chain.

We also have the polkadot-launch CLI tool that automate the following steps and help you easily launch relay chains and parachains. However it is still good to go through the following procedures once to understand the mechanism for running and registering a parachain.

To operate a parathread or parachain, you must connect to a relay chain. Typically you would test on a local Rococo development network, then move to the testnet, and finally launch on the mainnet. Keep in mind you need to configure the specific relay chain you will connect to in your collator chain_spec.rs. In the following examples, we will use rococo-local as the relay network.

Build Relay Chain

Clone and build Polkadot (beware of the version tag we used):

# Get a fresh clone, or `cd` to where you have polkadot already:
git clone -b v0.9.7 --depth 1 https://github.com/paritytech/polkadot.git
cd polkadot
cargo build --release

Generate the Relay Chain Chainspec

First, we create the chain specification file (chainspec). Note the chainspec file must be generated on a single node and then shared among all nodes!

👉 Learn more about chain specification here.

./target/release/polkadot build-spec \
--chain rococo-local \
--raw \
--disable-default-bootnode \
> rococo_local.json

Start Relay Chain

We need n + 1 full validator nodes running on a relay chain to accept n parachain / parathread connections. Here we will start two relay chain nodes so we can have one parachain node connecting in later.

From the Polkadot working directory:

# Start Relay `Alice` node
./target/release/polkadot \
--chain ./rococo_local.json \
-d /tmp/relay/alice \
--validator \
--alice \
--port 50555

Open a new terminal, same directory:

# Start Relay `Bob` node
./target/release/polkadot \
--chain ./rococo_local.json \
-d /tmp/relay/bob \
--validator \
--bob \
--port 50556

Add more nodes as needed, with non-conflicting ports, DB directories, and validator keys (--charlie, --dave, etc.).

Reserve a ParaID

To connect to a relay chain, you must first _reserve a ParaId for your parathread that will become a parachain. To do this, you will need sufficient amount of currency on the network account to reserve the ID.

In this example, we will use Charlie development account where we have funds available. Once you submit this extrinsic successfully, you can start your collators.

The easiest way to reserve your ParaId is via Polkadot Apps UI under the Parachains -> Parathreads tab and use the + ParaID button.

Parachain

Select the Correct Relay Chain

To operate your parachain, you need to specify the correct relay chain you will connect to in your collator chain_spec.rs. Specifically you pass the command for the network you need in the Extensions of your ChainSpec::from_genesis() in the code.

Extensions {
    relay_chain: "rococo-local".into(), // You MUST set this to the correct network!
    para_id: id.into(),
},

You can choose from any pre-set runtime chainspec in the Polkadot repo, by referring to the cli/src/command.rs and node/service/src/chain_spec.rs files or generate your own and use that. See the Cumulus Workshop for how.

In the following examples, we will use the rococo-local relay network we setup in the last section.

Export the Parachain Genesis and Runtime

We first generate the genesis state and genesis wasm needed for the parachain registration.

# Build the parachain node (from it's top level dir)
cd substrate-parachain-template
cargo build --release

# Folder to store resource files needed for parachain registration
mkdir -p resources

# Build the chainspec
./target/release/parachain-collator build-spec \
--disable-default-bootnode > ./resources/template-local-plain.json

# Build the raw chainspec file
./target/release/parachain-collator build-spec \
--chain=./resources/template-local-plain.json \
--raw --disable-default-bootnode > ./resources/template-local-raw.json

# Export genesis state to `./resources`, using 2000 as the ParaId
./target/release/parachain-collator export-genesis-state --parachain-id 2000 > ./resources/para-2000-genesis

# Export the genesis wasm
./target/release/parachain-collator export-genesis-wasm > ./resources/para-2000-wasm

NOTE: we have set the para_ID to be 2000 here. This must be unique for all parathreads/chains on the relay chain you register with. You must reserve this first on the relay chain for the testnet or mainnet.

Start a Parachain Node (Collator)

From the parachain template working directory:

# NOTE: this command assumes the chain spec is in a directory named `polkadot`
# that is at the same level of the template working directory. Change as needed.
#
# It also assumes a ParaId of 2000. Change as needed.
./target/release/parachain-collator \
-d /tmp/parachain/alice \
--collator \
--alice \
--force-authoring \
--ws-port 9945 \
--parachain-id 2000 \
-- \
--execution wasm \
--chain ../polkadot/rococo_local.json

Output:

2021-05-30 16:57:39 Parachain Collator Template
2021-05-30 16:57:39 ✌️  version 3.0.0-acce183-x86_64-linux-gnu
2021-05-30 16:57:39 ❤️  by Anonymous, 2017-2021
2021-05-30 16:57:39 📋 Chain specification: Local Testnet
2021-05-30 16:57:39 🏷 Node name: Alice
2021-05-30 16:57:39 👤 Role: AUTHORITY
2021-05-30 16:57:39 💾 Database: RocksDb at /tmp/parachain/alice/chains/local_testnet/db
2021-05-30 16:57:39 ⛓  Native runtime: template-parachain-1 (template-parachain-0.tx1.au1)
2021-05-30 16:57:41 Parachain id: Id(2000)
2021-05-30 16:57:41 Parachain Account: 5Ec4AhPUwPeyTFyuhGuBbD224mY85LKLMSqSSo33JYWCazU4
2021-05-30 16:57:41 Parachain genesis state: 0x0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000a96f42b5cb798190e5f679bb16970905087a9a9fc612fb5ca6b982b85783c0d03170a2e7597b7b7e3d84c05391d139a62b157e78786d8c082f29dcf4c11131400
2021-05-30 16:57:41 Is collating: yes
2021-05-30 16:57:41 [Parachain] 🔨 Initializing Genesis block/state (state: 0x0a96…3c0d, header-hash: 0xd42b…f271)
2021-05-30 16:57:41 [Parachain] ⏱  Loaded block-time = 12s from block 0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 16:57:43 [Relaychain] 🔨 Initializing Genesis block/state (state: 0xace1…1b62, header-hash: 0xfa68…cf58)
2021-05-30 16:57:43 [Relaychain] 👴 Loading GRANDPA authority set from genesis on what appears to be first startup.
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] ⏱  Loaded block-time = 6s from block 0xfa68f5abd2a80394b87c9bd07e0f4eee781b8c696d0a22c8e5ba38ae10e1cf58
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] 👶 Creating empty BABE epoch changes on what appears to be first startup.
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] 🏷 Local node identity is: 12D3KooWBjYK2W4dsBfsrFA9tZCStb5ogPb6STQqi2AK9awXfXyG
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] 📦 Highest known block at #0
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] 〽️ Prometheus server started at 127.0.0.1:9616
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Relaychain] Listening for new connections on 127.0.0.1:9945.
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] Using default protocol ID "sup" because none is configured in the chain specs
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] 🏷 Local node identity is: 12D3KooWADBSC58of6ng2M29YTDkmWCGehHoUZhsy9LGkHgYscBw
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] 📦 Highest known block at #0
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] Unable to listen on 127.0.0.1:9945
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] Unable to bind RPC server to 127.0.0.1:9945. Trying random port.
2021-05-30 16:57:44 [Parachain] Listening for new connections on 127.0.0.1:45141.
2021-05-30 16:57:45 [Relaychain] 🔍 Discovered new external address for our node: /ip4/192.168.42.204/tcp/30334/ws/p2p/12D3KooWBjYK2W4dsBfsrFA9tZCStb5ogPb6STQqi2AK9awXfXyG
2021-05-30 16:57:45 [Parachain] 🔍 Discovered new external address for our node: /ip4/192.168.42.204/tcp/30333/p2p/12D3KooWADBSC58of6ng2M29YTDkmWCGehHoUZhsy9LGkHgYscBw
2021-05-30 16:57:48 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #8 (0xe60b…9b0a)
2021-05-30 16:57:49 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #8 (0xe60b…9b0a), finalized #5 (0x1e6f…567c), ⬇ 4.5kiB/s ⬆ 2.2kiB/s
2021-05-30 16:57:49 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 2.0kiB/s ⬆ 1.7kiB/s
2021-05-30 16:57:54 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #9 (0x1af9…c9be)
2021-05-30 16:57:54 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #9 (0x6ed8…fdf6)
2021-05-30 16:57:54 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #9 (0x1af9…c9be), finalized #6 (0x3319…69a2), ⬇ 1.8kiB/s ⬆ 0.5kiB/s
2021-05-30 16:57:54 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0.2kiB/s ⬆ 0.2kiB/s
2021-05-30 16:57:59 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #9 (0x1af9…c9be), finalized #7 (0x5b50…1e5b), ⬇ 0.6kiB/s ⬆ 0.4kiB/s
2021-05-30 16:57:59 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 16:58:00 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #10 (0xc9c9…1ca3)

You see messages are from both a relaychain node and a parachain node. This is because a relay chain light client is also run next to the parachain collator.

Parachain Registration

Now that you have two relay chain nodes, and a parachain node accompanied with a relay chain light client running, the next step is to register the parachain in the relay chain with the following steps (for detail, refer to the Substrate Cumulus Worship):

  • Goto Polkadot Apps UI, connecting to your relay chain.
  • Execute a sudo extrinsic on the relay chain by going to Developer -> sudo page.
  • Pick paraSudoWrapper -> sudoScheduleParaInitialize(id, genesis) as the extrinsic type, shown below.

Polkadot Apps UI

  • Set the id: ParaId to 2,000 (or whatever ParaId you used above), and set the parachain: Bool option to Yes.
  • For the genesisHead, drag the genesis state file exported above, para-2000-genesis, in.
  • For the validationCode, drag the genesis wasm file exported above, para-2000-wasm, in.

Note: When registering to the public Rococo testnet, ensure you set a unique paraId larger than 1,000. Values below 1,000 are reserved exclusively for system parachains.

Restart the Parachain (Collator)

The collator node may need to be restarted to get it functioning as expected. After a new epoch starts on the relay chain, your parachain will come online. Once this happens, you should see the collator start reporting parachain blocks:

# Notice the relay epoch change! Only then do we start parachain collating!
#
2021-05-30 17:00:04 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #30 (0xfc02…2a2a), finalized #28 (0x10ff…6539), ⬇ 1.0kiB/s ⬆ 0.3kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:04 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] 👶 New epoch 3 launching at block 0x68bc…0605 (block slot 270402601 >= start slot 270402601).
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] 👶 Next epoch starts at slot 270402611
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #31 (0x68bc…0605)
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x68bcc93d24a31a2c89800a56c7a2b275fe9ca7bd63f829b64588ae0d99280605 at=0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🙌 Starting consensus session on top of parent 0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🎁 Prepared block for proposing at 1 [hash: 0xf6507812bf60bf53af1311f775aac03869be870df6b0406b2969784d0935cb92; parent_hash: 0xd42b…f271; extrinsics (2): [0x1bf5…1d76, 0x7c9b…4e23]]
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🔖 Pre-sealed block for proposal at 1. Hash now 0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae, previously 0xf6507812bf60bf53af1311f775aac03869be870df6b0406b2969784d0935cb92.
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] ✨ Imported #1 (0x80fc…ccae)
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] Produced proof-of-validity candidate. block_hash=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:09 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #31 (0x68bc…0605), finalized #29 (0xa6fa…9e16), ⬇ 1.2kiB/s ⬆ 129.9kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:09 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #32 (0x5e92…ba30)
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] Moving approval window from session 0..=2 to 0..=3
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #32 (0x8144…74eb)
2021-05-30 17:00:14 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #32 (0x5e92…ba30), finalized #29 (0xa6fa…9e16), ⬇ 1.4kiB/s ⬆ 0.2kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:14 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:18 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #33 (0x8c30…9ccd)
2021-05-30 17:00:18 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x8c30ce9e6e9867824eb2aff40148ac1ed64cf464f51c5f2574013b44b20f9ccd at=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:19 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), finalized #30 (0xfc02…2a2a), ⬇ 0.7kiB/s ⬆ 0.4kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:19 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Applying authority set change scheduled at block #31
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Applying GRANDPA set change to new set [(Public(88dc3417d5058ec4b4503e0c12ea1a0a89be200fe98922423d4334014fa6b0ee (5FA9nQDV...)), 1), (Public(d17c2d7823ebf260fd138f2d7e27d114c0145d968b5ff5006125f2414fadae69 (5GoNkf6W...)), 1)]
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Imported justification for block #31 that triggers command Changing authorities, signaling voter.
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #34 (0x211b…febf)
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x211b3c53bebeff8af05e8f283d59fe171b7f91a5bf9c4669d88943f5a42bfebf at=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🙌 Starting consensus session on top of parent 0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🎁 Prepared block for proposing at 2 [hash: 0x10fcb3180e966729c842d1b0c4d8d2c4028cfa8bef02b909af5ef787e6a6a694; parent_hash: 0x80fc…ccae; extrinsics (2): [0x4a6c…1fc6, 0x6b84…7cea]]
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🔖 Pre-sealed block for proposal at 2. Hash now 0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0, previously 0x10fcb3180e966729c842d1b0c4d8d2c4028cfa8bef02b909af5ef787e6a6a694.
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] ✨ Imported #2 (0x5087…b5a0)
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] Produced proof-of-validity candidate. block_hash=0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #34 (0x211b…febf), finalized #31 (0x68bc…0605), ⬇ 1.0kiB/s ⬆ 130.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:29 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #34 (0x211b…febf), finalized #32 (0x5e92…ba30), ⬇ 0.2kiB/s ⬆ 0.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:29 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:30 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #35 (0xee07…38a0)
2021-05-30 17:00:34 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #35 (0xee07…38a0), finalized #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), ⬇ 0.9kiB/s ⬆ 0.3kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:34 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #1 (0x80fc…ccae), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:36 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #36 (0xe8ce…4af6)
2021-05-30 17:00:36 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0xe8cec8015c0c7bf508bf3f2f82b1696e9cca078e814b0f6671f0b0d5dfe84af6 at=0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0
2021-05-30 17:00:39 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #36 (0xe8ce…4af6), finalized #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), ⬇ 0.6kiB/s ⬆ 0.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:39 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #2 (0x5087…b5a0), finalized #1 (0x80fc…ccae), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0

Note the delay here! It may take some time for your relay chain to enter a new epoch.

Rococo & Westend Relay Chain Testnets

Is this Cumulus Parachain Template Rococo & Westend testnets compatible? Yes!

  • Rococo is the testnet of Kusama (join the Rococo Faucet to get testing funds).
  • Westend is the testnet of Polkadot (join the Westend Faucet to get testing funds).

See the Cumulus Workshop for the latest instructions to register a parathread/parachain on a relay chain.

NOTE: When running the relay chain and parachain, you must use the same tagged version of Polkadot and Cumulus so the collator would register successfully to the relay chain. You should test locally registering your parachain successfully before attempting to connect to any running relay chain network!

Find chainspec files to connect to live networks here. You want to be sure to use the correct git release tag in these files, as they change from time to time and must match the live network!

These networks are under constant development - so please follow the progress and update of your parachains in lock step with the testnet changes if you wish to connect to the network. Do join the Parachain Technical matrix chat room to ask questions and connect with the parachain building teams.

Learn More

  • More detailed instructions to use Cumulus parachains are found in the Cumulus Workshop.
  • Refer to the upstream Substrate Node Template to learn more about the structure of this project, the capabilities it encapsulates and the way in which those capabilities are implemented.
  • Learn more about how a parachain block is added to a finalized chain here.

Download Details:
Author: aresprotocols
Source Code: https://github.com/aresprotocols/substrate-parachain-template
License: Unlicense License

#rust  #blockchain #substrate #parachain #polkadot 

Adz Demoe for Polkadot Written in Rust

TLDR

Build

cargo build

Run Local Chain

./target/debug/node-template --dev --tmp

Build Chain Spec

./target/debug/node-template build-spec

Adz Demoe

Using Nix

Install nix and optionally direnv and lorri for a fully plug and play experience for setting up the development environment. To get all the correct dependencies activate direnv direnv allow and lorri lorri shell.

Rust Setup

First, complete the basic Rust setup instructions.

Run

Use Rust's native cargo command to build and launch the template node:

cargo run --release -- --dev --tmp

Build

The cargo run command will perform an initial build. Use the following command to build the node without launching it:

cargo build --release

NOTE: You must use the release builds for parachains! The optimizations here are required as in debug mode, it is expected that nodes are not able to run fast enough to produce blocks.

Relay Chain

NOTE: In the following two sections, we document how to manually start a few relay chain nodes, start a parachain node (collator), and register the parachain with the relay chain.

We also have the polkadot-launch CLI tool that automate the following steps and help you easily launch relay chains and parachains. However it is still good to go through the following procedures once to understand the mechanism for running and registering a parachain.

Once the project has been built, the following command can be used to explore all parameters and subcommands:

./target/release/node-template -h

Run

The provided cargo run command will launch a temporary node and its state will be discarded after you terminate the process. After the project has been built, there are other ways to launch the node.

Single-Node Development Chain

This command will start the single-node development chain with persistent state:

./target/release/node-template --dev

Start Relay Chain

We need n + 1 full validator nodes running on a relay chain to accept n parachain / parathread connections. Here we will start two relay chain nodes so we can have one parachain node connecting in later.

From the Polkadot working directory:

./target/release/node-template purge-chain --dev

Start the development chain with detailed logging:

RUST_LOG=debug RUST_BACKTRACE=1 ./target/release/node-template -lruntime=debug --dev

Connect with Polkadot-JS Apps Front-end

To connect to a relay chain, you must first _reserve a ParaId for your parathread that will become a parachain. To do this, you will need sufficient amount of currency on the network account to reserve the ID.

Multi-Node Local Testnet

If you want to see the multi-node consensus algorithm in action, refer to our Start a Private Network tutorial.

Template Structure

A Substrate project such as this consists of a number of components that are spread across a few directories.

Node

A blockchain node is an application that allows users to participate in a blockchain network. Substrate-based blockchain nodes expose a number of capabilities:

  • Networking: Substrate nodes use the libp2p networking stack to allow the nodes in the network to communicate with one another.
  • Consensus: Blockchains must have a way to come to consensus on the state of the network. Substrate makes it possible to supply custom consensus engines and also ships with several consensus mechanisms that have been built on top of Web3 Foundation research.
  • RPC Server: A remote procedure call (RPC) server is used to interact with Substrate nodes.

There are several files in the node directory - take special note of the following:

  • chain_spec.rs: A chain specification is a source code file that defines a Substrate chain's initial (genesis) state. Chain specifications are useful for development and testing, and critical when architecting the launch of a production chain. Take note of the development_config and testnet_genesis functions, which are used to define the genesis state for the local development chain configuration. These functions identify some well-known accounts and use them to configure the blockchain's initial state.
  • service.rs: This file defines the node implementation. Take note of the libraries that this file imports and the names of the functions it invokes. In particular, there are references to consensus-related topics, such as the longest chain rule, the Aura block authoring mechanism and the GRANDPA finality gadget.

After the node has been built, refer to the embedded documentation to learn more about the capabilities and configuration parameters that it exposes:

./target/release/node-template --help

Runtime

In Substrate, the terms "runtime" and "state transition function" are analogous - they refer to the core logic of the blockchain that is responsible for validating blocks and executing the state changes they define. The Substrate project in this repository uses the FRAME framework to construct a blockchain runtime. FRAME allows runtime developers to declare domain-specific logic in modules called "pallets". At the heart of FRAME is a helpful macro language that makes it easy to create pallets and flexibly compose them to create blockchains that can address a variety of needs.

Review the FRAME runtime implementation included in this template and note the following:

  • This file configures several pallets to include in the runtime. Each pallet configuration is defined by a code block that begins with impl $PALLET_NAME::Config for Runtime.
  • The pallets are composed into a single runtime by way of the construct_runtime! macro, which is part of the core FRAME Support library.

Pallets

The runtime in this project is constructed using many FRAME pallets that ship with the core Substrate repository and a template pallet that is defined in the pallets directory.

A FRAME pallet is compromised of a number of blockchain primitives:

  • Storage: FRAME defines a rich set of powerful storage abstractions that makes it easy to use Substrate's efficient key-value database to manage the evolving state of a blockchain.
  • Dispatchables: FRAME pallets define special types of functions that can be invoked (dispatched) from outside of the runtime in order to update its state.
  • Events: Substrate uses events to notify users of important changes in the runtime.b
  • Errors: When a dispatchable fails, it returns an error.
  • Config: The Config configuration interface is used to define the types and parameters upon which a FRAME pallet depends.

Run in Docker

First, install Docker and Docker Compose.

Then run the following command to start a single node development chain.

./scripts/docker_run.sh

This command will firstly compile your code, and then start a local development network. You can also replace the default command (cargo build --release && ./target/release/node-template --dev --ws-external) by appending your own. A few useful ones are as follow.

# Run Substrate node without re-compiling
./scripts/docker_run.sh ./target/release/node-template --dev --ws-external

# Purge the local dev chain
./scripts/docker_run.sh ./target/release/node-template purge-chain --dev

Now that you have two relay chain nodes, and a parachain node accompanied with a relay chain light
client running, the next step is to register the parachain in the relay chain with the following
steps (for detail, refer to the [Substrate Cumulus Worship](https://substrate.dev/cumulus-workshop/#/en/3-parachains/2-register)):

-   Goto [Polkadot Apps UI](https://polkadot.js.org/apps/#/explorer), connecting to your relay chain.

-   Execute a sudo extrinsic on the relay chain by going to `Developer` -> `sudo` page.

-   Pick `paraSudoWrapper` -> `sudoScheduleParaInitialize(id, genesis)` as the extrinsic type,
    shown below.

        ![Polkadot Apps UI](docs/assets/ss01.png)

-   Set the `id: ParaId` to 2,000 (or whatever ParaId you used above), and set the `parachain: Bool`
    option to **Yes**.

-   For the `genesisHead`, drag the genesis state file exported above, `para-2000-genesis`, in.

-   For the `validationCode`, drag the genesis wasm file exported above, `para-2000-wasm`, in.

> **Note**: When registering to the public Rococo testnet, ensure you set a **unique** `paraId`
> larger than 1,000. Values below 1,000 are reserved _exclusively_ for system parachains.

### Restart the Parachain (Collator)

The collator node may need to be restarted to get it functioning as expected. After a
[new epoch](https://wiki.polkadot.network/docs/en/glossary#epoch) starts on the relay chain,
your parachain will come online. Once this happens, you should see the collator start
reporting _parachain_ blocks:

```bash
# Notice the relay epoch change! Only then do we start parachain collating!
#
2021-05-30 17:00:04 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #30 (0xfc02…2a2a), finalized #28 (0x10ff…6539), ⬇ 1.0kiB/s ⬆ 0.3kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:04 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] 👶 New epoch 3 launching at block 0x68bc…0605 (block slot 270402601 >= start slot 270402601).
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] 👶 Next epoch starts at slot 270402611
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #31 (0x68bc…0605)
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x68bcc93d24a31a2c89800a56c7a2b275fe9ca7bd63f829b64588ae0d99280605 at=0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🙌 Starting consensus session on top of parent 0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🎁 Prepared block for proposing at 1 [hash: 0xf6507812bf60bf53af1311f775aac03869be870df6b0406b2969784d0935cb92; parent_hash: 0xd42b…f271; extrinsics (2): [0x1bf5…1d76, 0x7c9b…4e23]]
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🔖 Pre-sealed block for proposal at 1. Hash now 0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae, previously 0xf6507812bf60bf53af1311f775aac03869be870df6b0406b2969784d0935cb92.
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] ✨ Imported #1 (0x80fc…ccae)
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] Produced proof-of-validity candidate. block_hash=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:09 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #31 (0x68bc…0605), finalized #29 (0xa6fa…9e16), ⬇ 1.2kiB/s ⬆ 129.9kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:09 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #32 (0x5e92…ba30)
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] Moving approval window from session 0..=2 to 0..=3
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #32 (0x8144…74eb)
2021-05-30 17:00:14 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #32 (0x5e92…ba30), finalized #29 (0xa6fa…9e16), ⬇ 1.4kiB/s ⬆ 0.2kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:14 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:18 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #33 (0x8c30…9ccd)
2021-05-30 17:00:18 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x8c30ce9e6e9867824eb2aff40148ac1ed64cf464f51c5f2574013b44b20f9ccd at=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:19 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), finalized #30 (0xfc02…2a2a), ⬇ 0.7kiB/s ⬆ 0.4kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:19 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Applying authority set change scheduled at block #31
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Applying GRANDPA set change to new set [(Public(88dc3417d5058ec4b4503e0c12ea1a0a89be200fe98922423d4334014fa6b0ee (5FA9nQDV...)), 1), (Public(d17c2d7823ebf260fd138f2d7e27d114c0145d968b5ff5006125f2414fadae69 (5GoNkf6W...)), 1)]
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Imported justification for block #31 that triggers command Changing authorities, signaling voter.
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #34 (0x211b…febf)
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x211b3c53bebeff8af05e8f283d59fe171b7f91a5bf9c4669d88943f5a42bfebf at=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🙌 Starting consensus session on top of parent 0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🎁 Prepared block for proposing at 2 [hash: 0x10fcb3180e966729c842d1b0c4d8d2c4028cfa8bef02b909af5ef787e6a6a694; parent_hash: 0x80fc…ccae; extrinsics (2): [0x4a6c…1fc6, 0x6b84…7cea]]
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🔖 Pre-sealed block for proposal at 2. Hash now 0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0, previously 0x10fcb3180e966729c842d1b0c4d8d2c4028cfa8bef02b909af5ef787e6a6a694.
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] ✨ Imported #2 (0x5087…b5a0)
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] Produced proof-of-validity candidate. block_hash=0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #34 (0x211b…febf), finalized #31 (0x68bc…0605), ⬇ 1.0kiB/s ⬆ 130.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:29 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #34 (0x211b…febf), finalized #32 (0x5e92…ba30), ⬇ 0.2kiB/s ⬆ 0.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:29 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:30 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #35 (0xee07…38a0)
2021-05-30 17:00:34 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #35 (0xee07…38a0), finalized #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), ⬇ 0.9kiB/s ⬆ 0.3kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:34 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #1 (0x80fc…ccae), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:36 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #36 (0xe8ce…4af6)
2021-05-30 17:00:36 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0xe8cec8015c0c7bf508bf3f2f82b1696e9cca078e814b0f6671f0b0d5dfe84af6 at=0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0
2021-05-30 17:00:39 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #36 (0xe8ce…4af6), finalized #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), ⬇ 0.6kiB/s ⬆ 0.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:39 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #2 (0x5087…b5a0), finalized #1 (0x80fc…ccae), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0

Note the delay here! It may take some time for your relay chain to enter a new epoch.

Rococo & Westend Relay Chain Testnets

Is this Cumulus Parachain Template Rococo & Westend testnets compatible? Yes!

  • Rococo is the testnet of Kusama (join the Rococo Faucet to get testing funds).
  • Westend is the testnet of Polkadot (join the Westend Faucet to get testing funds).

See the Cumulus Workshop for the latest instructions to register a parathread/parachain on a relay chain.

NOTE: When running the relay chain and parachain, you must use the same tagged version of Polkadot and Cumulus so the collator would register successfully to the relay chain. You should test locally registering your parachain successfully before attempting to connect to any running relay chain network!

Find chainspec files to connect to live networks here. You want to be sure to use the correct git release tag in these files, as they change from time to time and must match the live network!

These networks are under constant development - so please follow the progress and update of your parachains in lock step with the testnet changes if you wish to connect to the network. Do join the Parachain Technical matrix chat room to ask questions and connect with the parachain building teams.

Learn More

  • More detailed instructions to use Cumulus parachains are found in the Cumulus Workshop.
  • Refer to the upstream Substrate Node Template to learn more about the structure of this project, the capabilities it encapsulates and the way in which those capabilities are implemented.
  • Learn more about how a parachain block is added to a finalized chain here.

Download Details:
Author: paritytech
Source Code: https://github.com/paritytech/adz
License: Unlicense License

#blockchain  #polkadot  #smartcontract  #substrate 

Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1604008800

Static Code Analysis: What It Is? How to Use It?

Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.

Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.

“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer

Outline

We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.

We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.

Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.

How does it all work?

Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:

static analysis workflow

As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:

Scanning

The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.

A token might consist of either a single character, like (, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g., 7Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g, def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.

Python provides the tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:

Python

1

import io

2

import tokenize

3

4

code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"

5

6

for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):

7

    print(token)

Python

1

TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING),  string='utf-8')

2

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='color')

3

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='=')

4

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='input')

5

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='(')

6

TokenInfo(type=3  (STRING),    string="'Enter your favourite color: '")

7

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string=')')

8

TokenInfo(type=4  (NEWLINE),   string='')

9

TokenInfo(type=0  (ENDMARKER), string='')

(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)

#code quality #code review #static analysis #static code analysis #code analysis #static analysis tools #code review tips #static code analyzer #static code analysis tool #static analyzer

Seamus  Quitzon

Seamus Quitzon

1601341562

AWS Cost Allocation Tags and Cost Reduction

Bob had just arrived in the office for his first day of work as the newly hired chief technical officer when he was called into a conference room by the president, Martha, who immediately introduced him to the head of accounting, Amanda. They exchanged pleasantries, and then Martha got right down to business:

“Bob, we have several teams here developing software applications on Amazon and our bill is very high. We think it’s unnecessarily high, and we’d like you to look into it and bring it under control.”

Martha placed a screenshot of the Amazon Web Services (AWS) billing report on the table and pointed to it.

“This is a problem for us: We don’t know what we’re spending this money on, and we need to see more detail.”

Amanda chimed in, “Bob, look, we have financial dimensions that we use for reporting purposes, and I can provide you with some guidance regarding some information we’d really like to see such that the reports that are ultimately produced mirror these dimensions — if you can do this, it would really help us internally.”

“Bob, we can’t stress how important this is right now. These projects are becoming very expensive for our business,” Martha reiterated.

“How many projects do we have?” Bob inquired.

“We have four projects in total: two in the aviation division and two in the energy division. If it matters, the aviation division has 75 developers and the energy division has 25 developers,” the CEO responded.

Bob understood the problem and responded, “I’ll see what I can do and have some ideas. I might not be able to give you retrospective insight, but going forward, we should be able to get a better idea of what’s going on and start to bring the cost down.”

The meeting ended with Bob heading to find his desk. Cost allocation tags should help us, he thought to himself as he looked for someone who might know where his office is.

#aws #aws cloud #node js #cost optimization #aws cli #well architected framework #aws cost report #cost control #aws cost #aws tags

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