What's New in the Bootstrap 4 Grid

Bootstrap 4 brings many changes and new features to the grid system we are all so familiar with from version 3. The new grid is now powered by flexbox, lots of utility classes have been renamed, and a new XL breakpoint has been added.

Bootstrap 4 brings many changes and new features to the grid system we are all so familiar with from version 3. The new grid is now powered by flexbox, lots of utility classes have been renamed, and a new XL breakpoint has been added.

When we first wrote this article, Bootstrap 4 was supposed to have two separate grids. Shortly after we published it, a new Alpha was released, making flexbox the only layout mode of the framework as well as introducing some new features. We have updated the article to reflect those changes.
1. Basic Grid

By now everyone knows how the Bootstrap grid works. We've got rows separated into 12 equal pieces, and columns that go inside the rows. Each column can take anywhere from 1 to 12 spaces:

<div class="row">
   <div class="col-xs-2">.col-xs-2</div>
   <div class="col-xs-4">.col-xs-4</div>
   <div class="col-xs-6">.col-xs-6</div>
</div>

Structurally nothing has changed, the grid still has rows and 12 columns. However, there are changes in the width of containers, as well as other small stuff like the lowest breakpoint tier being renamed from .col-xs- to simply .col-

<div class="row">
   <div class="col-2">.col-2</div>
   <div class="col-4">.col-4</div>
   <div class="col-6">.col-6</div>
</div>

To help you better visualize the changes, we've prepared side-by-side demos of both new flex and old non-flex grids. You can check them out below:

2. Automatic Layout

A cool new feature of the Bootstrap 4 grid is the auto-layout mode. It lets developers leave out the size of columns, making them automatically distribute the space in that row.

<div class="row">
    <div class="col">.col</div>
    <div class="col">.col</div>
    <div class="col">.col</div>
</div>

Sizeless columns share the available space equally, always filling up the entire row. If we want a column to be bigger or smaller, we can still do that with a .col-size class.

3. Column Wrapping

When the sum of all columns in a row is over 12, the first extra column will move to the next line. This is known as column wrapping and works the same way it did in non-flexbox bootstrap.

<div class="row">
   <div class="col-6">.col-6</div>
   <div class="col-6">.col-6</div>
   <div class="col-3">.col-3, This column will move to the next line.</div>
</div>

The only thing to note here is that when using the auto layout, a sizeless column that took up only a couple of spaces, can take up the entire row once it wraps.

4. Responsive Grid

As we mentioned in the intro, Bootstrap 4 has a new XL grid tier on top of the old ones. Now the grid media queries look like this:

  • Extra small (xs) - below 576px
  • Small (sm) - between 576px and 768px
  • Medium (md) - between 768px and 992px
  • Large (lg) - between 992px and 1200px
  • Extra Large (xl) - over 1200px

Other than that, there haven't been any changes to the way responsiveness works.

5. Column Height

The old grid system was built on floated elements and because of that every column has a different height, depending on the content it holds.

In flexbox layouts all cells in a row are aligned to be as tall as the column with most content.

6. Horizontal Alignment

In old Bootstrap, positioning columns horizontally is done via an offset system. Offsets work like empty columns and allow us to move elements to the right (e.g an .col-xs-offset-3 moves the column 3 spaces to the right). This can be a little annoying as we need to manually adjust the amount of spaces needed.

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-xs-6 col-xs-offset-3">This column is now centered.</div>
</div>

Thanks to the justify-content property, horizontal positioning in flex-strap is as easy as adding the correct class.

<div class="row justify-content-center">
    <div class="col-6">All columns in that row will be automatically centered.</div>
</div>

Also, if you want to use offsets, you can still do that as well! Just keep in mind that the classes are now shortened to .offset-xs-*.

7. Vertical Alignment

There are no options for vertical alignment in the Bootstrap 3 grid. The only way to do any sort of vertical positioning is using custom CSS and it is often messy.

Flexbox, on the other hand, is great at layout alignment and gives us not one, but two ways to vertically position columns:

Vertically align the whole row:

<div class="row align-items-center">
    <div class="col">Middle</div>
</div>  
<div class="row align-items-end">
    <div class="col">Bottom</div>
</div>
<div class="row align-items-start">
    <div class="col">Top</div>
</div>

Align individual columns within the row:

<div class="row">
    <div class="col align-self-start">Top</div>
    <div class="col align-self-center">Middle</div>
    <div class="col align-self-end">Bottom</div>
</div>

8. Reordering Columns

With the old grid system, if we wanted to swap around the order of columns we needed to use push and pullwhile manually adjusting the correct amount of places to move left and right.

<div class="row">
    <div class="col-xs-4 col-xs-push-8"> This column will move 8 spaces to the right. </div>
    <div class="col-xs-8 col-xs-pull-4"> This column will move 4 spaces to the left.</div>
</div>

Anyone who has used flexbox before knows that it has a built-in order property. The way Bootstrap devs have implemented it is via three ordering classes:

  • .flex-first - Displayed first.
  • .flex-last - Displayed last.
  • .flex-unordered - Displayed between first and last.

No manual calculations are required. If you need to order more than 3 columns (which rarely happens) you can use push&pull or the order property via CSS.

Conclusion

Looking back at the points covered in the article, its pretty clear that going full flexbox brings a lot of great features and makes the grid system much more advanced and versatile. The only real drawback is the lack of support for IE9 and older browsers (all modern clients have full flexbox compatibility), if you don't have to support those you're good to go.

This wraps up our introduction to the new Bootstrap 4 grid system. Feel free to bookmark the demo page for quick future reference. We hope we've been helpful! Happy coding :)


by :Danny Markov




What's new in Bootstrap 5 and when Bootstrap 5 release date?

What's new in Bootstrap 5 and when Bootstrap 5 release date?

Bootstrap is one of the open source that many developers love. So what do we expect of the new changes when Bootstrap 5 is released?

Bootstrap is one of the open source that many developers love, including me. So what do we expect of the new changes when Bootstrap 5 is released?

In Bootstrap 5: jQuery will be removed.

jQuery is a fast, small, and feature-rich JavaScript library. It makes things like HTML document traversal and manipulation, event handling, animation, and Ajax much simpler with an easy-to-use API that works across a multitude of browsers. With a combination of versatility and extensibility, jQuery has changed the way that millions of people write JavaScript.

However, with the trend of writing Single Page App with React, Angular, Vue..., jQuery has not been popular anymore. So Bootstrap 5 will completely remove jQuery.

Bootstrap 5 remaining to do after the jQuery removal #28342

Responsive font sizes with RFS v9 implementation

In Bootstrap 5, we’ve enabled responsive font sizes by default, allowing text to scale more naturally across device and viewport sizes.

Features:

  • Responsive font sizes are now enabled by default
  • Utility API integration
  • Fluid rescaling is also applied to the spacing utilities (option can be disabled)
  • Drop .font-size-sm, .font-size-base, .font-size-lg and .font-size-xl utilities
  • New .text-sm, .text-base, .text-lg and .text-xl utilities

Bootstrap’s side project RFS is a unit resizing engine which was initially developed to resize font sizes (hence its abbreviation for Responsive Font Sizes). Nowadays RFS is capable of rescaling most CSS properties with unit values like margin, padding, border-radius, or even box-shadow.

The mechanism automatically calculates the appropriate values based on the dimensions of the browser viewport. It will be compiled into calc() functions with a mix of rem and viewport units to enable the responsive scaling behavior.

Using the mixins
The rfs() mixin has shorthands for font-size, margin, margin-top, margin-right, margin-bottom, margin-left, padding, padding-top, padding-right, padding-bottom, and padding-left. See the example below for source Sass and compiled CSS.

.title {
  @include font-size(4rem);
}
.title {
  font-size: calc(1.525rem + 3.3vw);
}

@media (max-width: 1200px) {
  .title {
    font-size: 4rem;
  }
}

Any other property can be passed to the rfs() mixin like this:

.selector {
  @include rfs(4rem, border-radius);
}

!important can also just be added to whatever value you want:

.selector {
  @include padding(2.5rem !important);
}

Using the functions

When you don’t want to use the includes, there are also two functions:

  • rfs-value() converts a value into a rem value if a px value is passed, in other cases it returns the same result.
  • rfs-fluid-value() returns the fluid version of a value if the property needs rescaling.

In this example, we use one of Bootstrap’s built-in responsive breakpoint mixins to only apply styling below the lg breakpoint.

.selector {
  @include media-breakpoint-down(lg) {
     padding: rfs-fluid-value(2rem);
     font-size: rfs-fluid-value(1.125rem);
  }
}
@media (max-width: 991.98px) {
  .selector {
    padding: calc(1.325rem + 0.9vw);
    font-size: 1.125rem; /* 1.125rem is small enough, so RFS won't rescale this */
  }
}

Add Full-Screen size to Modal and Responsive variations for breakpoints

<!-- Full screen modal -->
<button type="button" class="btn btn-primary" data-toggle="modal" data-target=".bd-example-modal-fullscreen">Full screen modal</button>

<div class="modal fade bd-example-modal-fullscreen" tabindex="-1" role="dialog" aria-labelledby="myFullModalLabel" aria-hidden="true">
  <div class="modal-dialog modal-xl-fullscreen">
    <div class="modal-content">
      ...
    </div>
  </div>
</div>
Bootstrap 5 grid

Set gutter width in rem instead of px

The gutter width is now 2rem instead of 30px. This way we 'll be able to use the spacing utilities to align things with the grid.

Fixes #27072

Change approach on how column paddings are set

The col classes were extended lead to this list of 60 selectors in v4. By using .row > *, we can simplify this a lot. This change will apply paddings to all children of .row. Specificity won't be influenced by this change.

Columns: switch to width instead of flex-basis and max-width

Just using width has the benefit the .col-* classes can be used without the need of a .row class. This is also how the primer works.

This also provides a solution for sizing utilities #21943. Because we only set paddings to direct children of .rows, the cols won't have any padding whenever they're not in a .row.

Closes #28312

Closes #29505

More control over gutter widths & vertical gutters

This PR introduces new responsive gutter classes. There are 3 types of gutter classes available:

  • gx-* classes control the horizontal/column gutter width
  • gy-* classes control the vertical/row gutter width
  • g-* classes control the horizontal & vertical gutter width

These gutter classes can be added to the .row and influence the negative margins on the row and the padding on the columns.

Responsive variants are also available to get control per breakpoint. With this change we might consider ditching (or disable by default) the negative margins which increase our filesize quite a lot.

How do the gutters work?

The way the gutters are set in horizontal direction is kept the same as in v4 (negative margins on the row and paddings on the columns). The vertical gutters work a little different. Margin is added to the top of each column and to counteract the top margin, a negative margin is added to the row. We use margins instead of paddings to prevent overlapping issues (like we have with the horizontal paddings).

Better nesting support

In v4, .rows couldn't be nested, once you tried to add a .row to a .col-*, the margins and paddings caused some conflicts. By removing the paddings & margins form nested rows (.row > .row), we can nest rows in a more flexible way.

List styles removed by default

@include list-unstyled() is added to the .rows by default. This way, you won't need to add .list-unstyled to <ul class="row">s.

Removal of .form-row

.form-rows had a smaller gutter width, but since we now have the gutter classes, we can use them for even more control over the gutter widths.

Removal of .form-inline

.form-inline is removed in favor of the more flexible grid. The children can now be wrapped in .col-md-auto divs when needed. With the gutter classes, we can have easier control over the vertical spacing instead of using the responsive margin utilities.

Remove position: relative from cols

Closes #25254

Closes #26512

Removal of card decks

We currently have as well card decks as the grid system, but our grid offers more responsive control, so there's not really a reason to keep the decks.

Removal of .list-inline

The grid also covers this case.

Remove global box-sizing reset from bootstrap-grid.css

In bootstrap-grid.css, box-sizing was inherited which introduces this issue: #22872. On the other hand, setting the global box-sizing behaviour can introduce unexpected behaviour for custom CSS. By only adding box-sizing to the columns, we only apply the box-sizing to the elements where it's needed.

Navbar optimizations

  • Remove redundant display: inline-block from flex children
  • Remove line-height: inherit; which is the default value of line-height
  • Use flex shorthand
  • Improve background shorthand
  • Fix removed brand margin caused by requiring containers in navbars
When Bootstrap 5 release date?

Not sure which day is certain, but with the workload completed, Bootstrap 5 is likely to be released sometime in Q4 2020. Let's wait.

Should You Use Bootstrap?

Should You Use Bootstrap?

Should you use Bootstrap? What we should be asking is if we should use any CSS framework, and in this video I will be answering that question once and for all. What is Bootstrap. What to consider before using a CSS framework. When a CSS framework is a good choice. The negatives of using a CSS framework

Should you use Bootstrap? That is the age old question people have been asking since the beginning of Bootstrap's rise to popularity, but this question is even broader than just Bootstrap. What we should be asking is if we should use any CSS framework, and in this video I will be answering that question once and for all.

Obviously, this isn't as easy as yes or no since CSS frameworks can be really useful in some situations and terrible in others. In this video I will be covering all the most important things to consider when thinking about using a CSS framework and giving you my opinion on CSS frameworks as well.

🧠 Concepts Covered:

  • What Bootstrap is
  • What to consider before using a CSS framework
  • When a CSS framework is a good choice
  • The negatives of using a CSS framework

Bootstrap Quickstart on RailsResources

Bootstrap Quickstart on RailsResources

If you are new to the whole front-end stack particularly having to do with css and html, try giving Bootstrap a try. This guide will introduce you to Bootstrap and, hopefully, by the end of this be able to style your very own app with minimal amount of time investment.

First, what is even Bootstrap? Bootstrap is an open-source front-end framework that has many pre-built html and css templates/classes. This framework was originally developed by Twitter as “Twitter Blueprint” and eventually released to the public as an open source project on August 19, 2011. Some benefits for using Bootstrap over regular css/html is that it is browser compatible, faster development, responsive layout, and a good fit for people with little front-end experience or design/UI sensibility.

Installation

To start using Bootstrap via a Rails app, first add Bootstrap to your Gemfile. I opted for a Sass variant so mine would look like the following:gem 'bootstrap-sass' . Thereafter, in your Rails generated assets directory and under its stylesheet folder, there should be an application.css file. Make sure to add the following line of code to this file:

@import “bootstrap”;

If you are following along with me and also decided to use the sass variant, make sure to rename this stylesheet and add the extension “.scss” so the file name would ultimately be application.css.scss. Voila, it’s as easy as that, you should now be setup to make all kinds of beautiful web pages. Another way to install Bootstrap that is not rails specific is to embed the Bootstrap CDN within the header of each html page (or the single layout page) like so:


    TomsRailsPractice
    
    

    
    
    
    
    
    

Let’s Cheat Kind-Of

Now that we have Bootstrap setup, we can jump right into making our webpages look beautiful. However, I’m not about to just head into how to make a pretty button, or how to properly align forms, or talk about any one of millions of Bootstrap customization tricks. I’m going to admit that I have no idea what I am doing and, with a project due in a week, going to let other people do the brunt of the work. How? Through Bootstrap templates.

There are many sites that offer free Bootstrap templates that can make your app go from an ugly, white, blue links, everything in the left, piece of crap to a decent looking web page (and some of them are actually really quite beautiful). I will list some of these sites in the resource section. Most of these templates will come with an option to download them onto your local machine and store the html with Bootstrap classes, custom css stylesheets, and images. However, there’s no need for I will tell you how to do this purely from online.

You can do this straight from the inspect or view source code page, where you can copy and paste over the desired elements of the page into your apps own view files. The Bootstrap html classes should do a lot of the legwork but to completely imitate the aesthetic, you will have to carry over the references to custom stylesheet and fonts within the . Here’s the tricky part: those paths should be relative only within the context of where that page is being run/displayed. Therefore, you will most likely have to prepend the url where you are displaying that page on in the browser. That’s that! You will now be able to display your app with whatever Bootstrap template. However, I recommend that you download the templates and have the stylesheets and other references locally, incase the site these are from goes offline for whatever reason. Plus, they’ll usually come with super helpful instructions and readme!

Now, this is probably the most important part of this blog. I believe you can do this with whatever page being displayed on the web (via view source and what not). However, I’m pretty sure this can be considered as plagiarizing and copywriting, so make sure to do this with permissible, approved, and template examples.

Conclusion

All in all, this was a guide to get you started on a Bootstrap project the quickest way possible. If you are like me, coming from a backend heavy track and need to create a web app using Rails, take advantage of Bootstrap and templates. However, I still would highly recommend spending time spinning up your own creative and beautiful designs. What’s the point of using someone else’s design and template, where’s the fun in that. I would even go as far as to suggest try spinning up designs with pure css (not the Pure framework), which let’s you really have that freedom and stretch your creative juice (don’t become a “Bootstrap Designer” jk). Definitely, do though, look at these templates for inspiration and ways to implement your very own idea.

Further reading:

Angular 8 Tutorial Facebook Login with Example
☞ https://morioh.com/p/a83878b5f50a

HTML 5 Tutorial: How to create a table using HTML tags and Stylesheet (CSS)
☞ https://morioh.com/p/5882025685ae

The Complete 2019 Web Development Bootcamp
☞ http://class.learnstartup.net/p/2AZb3GVTl

Basic to Semantic HTML: How to Structure Web Pages
☞ http://class.learnstartup.net/p/rkF4wUftW

Web Development for beginners: Build Website from Scratch
☞ http://class.learnstartup.net/p/Hke2UpV5W