This Python tutorial will help you learn Python and build a career in this top programming language. Through this tutorial, you will learn Python basics, its salient features, basic syntax, variable types, operators, functions, modules, and more. You will also understand what exception handling is, how to access database, Python classes and loops, and ultimately how to write Python codes. Learn Python from Intellipaat Python Certification course and excel in your career!Introduction to Python Programming
What is Python used for? Let’s begin with this Python tutorial in order to make you understand what Python programming is. We will start from Python basics.
As per Stack Overflow, Python language is one among the fastest growing programming languages in the world. Forbes says that Python language has seen the 7th largest increase in demand in the past few years. Due to this, there is an acute shortage of skilled and certified Python professionals. Hence, job opportunities for Python programming have increased, tremendously. According to Indeed, the average annual salary of a Python Developer in the US is $123,000.
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Python language is one of the most popular programming languages of the 21st century. It is a general-purpose language and has been here around for over 20 years. Python Syntax is also extremely simple and elegant. With its gentle and gradual learning curve, Python is considered as the best introductory programming language. I hope the introduction to python is clear to you by now.
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So, let’s jump onto the other topics in this python tutorial and learn python for beginners.
Here is the list of topics covered in this Python Tutorial, just in case you want to jump right into a specific one:
Python is a general-purpose language, which means that it can be used to write software applications in a variety of domains without being restricted to a particular domain. This feature sets Python apart from the domain-specific languages. Being a general-purpose language, Python can do a number of interesting things. Some of them are listed here in this python tutorial below:
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Difference Between Python 2 and Python 3
Since the release of the new version of Python, i.e., Python 3, which is explained the most in this Python tutorial, there has been a bit of debate in the coding community over deciding which Python version is better. Whether Python 3 is better than Python 2 is a rather subjective question, and the selection between the two eventually comes down to personal preference. But, one must know how Python 2 and Python 3 are different. Python 3 is a fundamentally different version from Python 2.
Check out all the key differences between Python 2 and 3:
Basis of the DifferencePython 2Python 3PrintIn Python 2, you treat print as a statement rather than as a function, and hence there is no need to put the text inside parentheses.In Python 3, you explicitly treat print as a function, which means the text you want to print has to be inside the parentheses or you will get a syntax error.Integer DivisionIn Python 2, the interpreter treats the numbers that you type without any decimal points as integers which might lead to unexpected outcomes of certain mathematical operations, e.g., 5/2 in Python 2 will give the result as 2 instead of 2.5. To get the result as 2.5, you will have to type 5.0/2.0.In Python 3, the interpreter automatically identifies the Python Data Types on the basis of the type of the value. So, the result of 5/2 in Python 3 is by default calculated as 2.5, which is way more convenient than Python 2.InputIn Python 2, you use the raw_input() function to take inputs from users. This function only returns the string representing the user’s input which you have to convert into the desired data type.In Python 3, the input() method is used to take inputs from the user. Here too, the type of the input is automatically interpreted in Python 3.String TypeThe implicit string type in Python 2 is ASCII.The implicit string type in Python 3 is Unicode.
Beginners’ Tips for Learning Python Programming Online
While learning as a beginner through this Python tutorial, you should follow these tips which will help you deal with some new concepts:
It is important to have consistency while learning any new programming language. It is important that you should make a commitment to write code every day, as it will play with your muscle memory which is a very important part in programming. Increase your level of coding gradually but never stop playing around with the Python basics coding part. You may end up learning something new every time you practice Python coding even about the python basics.
This python tutorial will also help you keep a good grasp of Python basics. Here are some examples for you to exercise:
Print the type of an element:
>> a = “this is a string” >>> type(a) >>> <class ‘str’> #output
Use docstring to add multi-line descriptive descriptions in your code:
>>def printOutput(str): >>>“’This function will print the passed string’” >>>print (str) >>>return;
Import libraries:>>> import sklearn >>> import pandas as pd >>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
Perform operations and play around with them:
>> a = ‘Intellipaat’ >>> a.upper() >>> ‘INTELLIPAAT’
The list does not end here, there are plenty other basic things that you can practice.
Whether you are new to Python data structures (dictionaries, lists, strings, etc.) or you are debugging an application, the best learning tool is the Interactive Python Shell.
To use the Interactive Python Shell, first, you should install Python on your computer. This Python tutorial on the step-by-step Installation procedure of Python will help you learn how to install Python in your system. To activate and use the Interactive Python Shell, simply open the terminal on your system and run Python 2 or Python 3 depending on your version of installation. Once the shell is open, you can start writing the code.
Hitting a bug is normal when you start writing a complex program. Don’t get frustrated here; it happens with everyone! Instead, take these moments as pride and think of yourself as a bug bounty hunter. Debugging your own code will help you learn even more.
It is important to have a methodological approach while debugging the code, which will help you find where your code has broken down. Going through your code step by step in its executable order and making sure that each part of your code works fine is the way you should go about it.
Always try to make up a small project for each concept. This python tutorial will help you build confidence for writing Python programs, as well as this will help you develop the muscle memory. Once you have a solid foundation on the basic data structures (Python Dictionaries, Python Strings, Python sets, Python Lists, etc.), object-oriented programming, and writing classes, you will be ready to deploy these programming concepts in real life. Keep writing small codes to keep your concepts clear while learning through this Python Tutorial.
Python is an open-source language which means that its source code is available for the public to download, use, and modify. Anyone can collaborate and be an active member of Python community. You have access to the code written and produced by big companies. Working with these codes will be a very valuable learning experience. You can even reach out for other community members whenever you hit a bug in your coding.
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Originally published at www.intellipaat.com on August 24, 2019
Pandas is an open source, BSD-licensed library providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for the Python programming ...
Pandas is an open source, BSD-licensed library providing high-performance, easy-to-use data structures and data analysis tools for the Python programming ...
So, what is Pandas — practically speaking? In short, it’s the major data analysis library for Python. For scientists, students, and professional developers alike, Pandas represents a central reason for any learning or interaction with Python, as opposed to a statistics-specific language like R, or a proprietary academic package like SPSS or Matlab. (Fun fact — Pandas is named after the term Panel Data, and was originally created for the analysis of financial data tables). I like to think that the final “s” stands for Series or Statistics.
Although there are plenty of ways to explore numerical data with Python out-of-the box, these will universally involve some fairly low-performance results, with a ton of boilerplate. It may sound hard to believe, but Pandas is often recommended as the next stop for Excel users who are ready to take their data analysis to the next level. Nearly any problem that can be solved with a spreadsheet program can be solved in Pandas — without all the graphical cruft.
More importantly, because problems can be solved in Pandas via Python, solutions are already automated, or could be run as a service in the cloud. Further, Pandas makes heavy use of Numpy, relying on its low-level calls to produce linear math results orders of magnitude more quickly than they would be handled by Python alone. These are just a few of the reasons Pandas is recommended as one of the first libraries to learn for all Pythonistas, and remains absolutely critical to Data Scientists.
In this post, we’re going to be using a fascinating data set to demonstrate a useful slice of the Pandas library. This data set is particularly interesting as it’s part of a real world example, and we can all imagine people lined up at an airport (a place where things do occasionally go wrong). When looking at the data, I imagine people sitting in those uncomfortable airport seats having just found out that their luggage is missing — not just temporarily, but it’s nowhere to be found in the system! Or, better yet, imagine that a hardworking TSA employee accidentally broke a precious family heirloom.
So it’s time to fill out another form, of course. Now, getting data from forms is an interesting process as far as data gathering is concerned, as we have a set of data that happens at specific times. This actually means we can interpret the entries as a Time Series. Also, because people are submitting the information, we can learn things about a group of people, too.
Back to our example: let’s say we work for the TSA and we’ve been tasked with getting some insights about when these accidents are most likely to happen, and make some recommendations for improving the service.
Pandas, luckily, is a one-stop shop for exploring and analyzing this data set. Feel free to download the excel file into your project folder to get started, or run the curl command below. Yes, pandas can read .xls or .xlsx files with a single call to
**pd.read_excel()**! In fact, it’s often helpful for beginners experienced with .csv or excel files to think about how they would solve a problem in excel, and then experience how much easier it can be in Pandas.
So, without further ado, open your terminal, a text editor, or your favorite IDE, and take a look for yourself with the guidance below.
Take for example, some claims made against the TSA during a screening process of persons or a passenger’s property due to an injury, loss, or damage. The claims data information includes claim number, incident date, claim type, claim amount, status, and disposition.
Directory: TSA Claims Data
Our Data Download: claims-2014.xls
To start off, let’s create a clean directory. You can put this wherever you’d like, or create a project folder in an IDE. Use your install method of choice to get Pandas: Pip is probably the easiest.
$ mkdir -p ~/Desktop/pandas-tutorial/data && cd ~/Desktop/pandas-tutorial
Install pandas along with xldr for loading Excel formatted files, matplotlib for plotting graphs, and Numpy for high-level mathematical functions.
$ pip3 install matplotlib numpy pandas xldr
Optional: download the example data with curl:
$ curl -O https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/claims-2014.xls
$ python3 Python 3.7.1 (default, Nov 6 2018, 18:46:03) [Clang 10.0.0 (clang-1000.11.45.5)] on darwin Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information. >>>
>>> import matplotlib.pyplot as plt >>> import numpy as np >>> import pandas as pd
Loading data with Pandas is easy. Pandas can accurately read data from almost any common format including JSON, CSV, and SQL. Data is loaded into Pandas’ “flagship” data structure, the DataFrame.
That’s a term you’ll want to remember. You’ll be hearing a lot about DataFrames. If that term seems confusing — think about a table in a database, or a sheet in Excel. The main point is that there is more than one column: each row or entry has multiple fields which are consistent from one row to the next.
You can load the example data straight from the web:
>>> df = pd.read_excel(io='https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/claims-2014.xls', index_col='Claim Number')
Less cooly, data can be loaded from a file:
$ curl -O https://www.dhs.gov/sites/default/files/publications/claims-2014.xls >>> df = pd.read_excel(io='claims-2014.xls', index_col='Claim Number')
Print information about a DataFrame including the index dtype and column dtypes, non-null values, and memory usage. DataFrame.info() is one of the more useful and versatile methods attached to DataFrames (there are nearly 150!).
>>> df.info() <class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'> Int64Index: 8855 entries, 2013081805991 to 2015012220083 Data columns (total 10 columns): Date Received 8855 non-null datetime64[ns] Incident Date 8855 non-null datetime64[ns] Airport Code 8855 non-null object Airport Name 8855 non-null object Airline Name 8855 non-null object Claim Type 8855 non-null object Claim Site 8855 non-null object Item Category 8855 non-null object Close Amount 8855 non-null object Disposition 8855 non-null object dtypes: datetime64[ns](2), object(8) memory usage: 761.0+ KB
View the first n rows:
>>> df.info() <class '>>> df.head(n=3) # see also df.tail() Claim Number Date Received Incident Date Airport Code ... Claim Site Item Category Close Amount Disposition 0 2013081805991 2014-01-13 2012-12-21 00:00:00 HPN ... Checked Baggage Audio/Video; Jewelry & Watches 0 Deny 1 2014080215586 2014-07-17 2014-06-30 18:38:00 MCO ... Checked Baggage - 0 Deny 2 2014010710583 2014-01-07 2013-12-27 22:00:00 SJU ... Checked Baggage Food & Drink 50 Approve in Full [3 rows x 11 columns]
List all the columns in the DataFrame:
df.columns> df.columns> df.columns> df.columns> df.columns
Return a single column (important — also referred to as a Series):
>>> df['Claim Type'].head() 0 Personal Injury 1 Property Damage 2 Property Damage 3 Property Damage 4 Property Damage Name: Claim Type, dtype: object
Hopefully, you’re starting to get an idea of what claims-2014.xls’s data is all about.
Data types are a fundamental concept that you’ll want to have a solid grasp of in order to avoid frustration later. Pandas adopts the nomenclature of Numpy, referring to a column’s data type as its dtype. Pandas also attempts to infer dtypes upon DataFrame construction (i.e. initialization).
To take advantage of the performance boosts intrinsic to Numpy, we need to become familiar with these types, and learn about how they roughly translate to native Python types.
Look again at
df.info() and note the dtype assigned to each column of our DataFrame:
>>> df.info() <class 'pandas.core.frame.DataFrame'> RangeIndex: 8855 entries, 0 to 8854 Data columns (total 11 columns): Date Received 8855 non-null datetime64[ns] Incident Date 8855 non-null datetime64[ns] Airport Code 8855 non-null object Airport Name 8855 non-null object Airline Name 8855 non-null object Claim Type 8855 non-null object Claim Site 8855 non-null object Item Category 8855 non-null object Close Amount 8855 non-null object Disposition 8855 non-null object dtypes: datetime64[ns](2), object(8) memory usage: 761.1+ KB
dtypes are analogous to text/number format settings typical of most spreadsheet applications, and Pandas uses dtypes to determine which kind(s) of operations may be performed the data in a specific column. For example, mathematical operations can only be performed on numeric data types such as int64 or float64. Columns containing valid Dates and/or time values are assigned the datetime dtype and text and or binary data is assigned the catchall object dtype.
In short, Pandas attempts to infer dtypes upon DataFrame construction. However, like many data analysis applications, the process isn’t always perfect.
It’s important to note that Pandas dtype inference errs on the side of caution: if a Series appears to contain more than one type of data, it’s assigned a catch-all dtype of ‘object’. This behavior is less flexible than a typical spreadsheet application and is intended to ensure dtypes are not inferred incorrectly but also requires the analyst to ensure the data is “clean” after it’s loaded.
Data is almost always dirty: it almost always contains some datum with atypical formatting; some artifact unique to its medium of origin. Therefore, cleansing data is crucial to ensuring analysis derived therefrom is sound. The work of cleansing with Pandas primarily involves identifying and re-casting incorrectly inferred dtypes.
>>> df.dtypes Date Received datetime64[ns] Incident Date datetime64[ns] Airport Code object Airport Name object Airline Name object Claim Type object Claim Site object Item Category object Close Amount object Disposition object dtype: object
Looking again at our DataFrame’s dtypes we can see that Pandas correctly inferred the dtypes of Date Received and Incident Date as datetime64 dtypes. Thus, datetime attributes of the column’s data are accessible during operations. For example, to summarize our data by the hour of the day when each incident occurred we can group and summarize our data by the hour element of a datetime64 column to determine which hours of the day certain types of incidents occur.
>>> grp = df.groupby(by=df['Incident Date'].dt.hour) >>> grp['Item Category'].describe() count unique top freq Incident Date 0 3421 146 Baggage/Cases/Purses 489 1 6 5 Other 2 2 11 9 - 2 3 5 5 Jewelry & Watches 1 4 49 18 Baggage/Cases/Purses 6 5 257 39 - 33 6 357 54 - 43 7 343 43 Clothing 41 8 299 47 - 35 9 305 41 - 31 10 349 45 Other 43 11 343 41 - 45 12 363 51 Other 41 13 359 55 - 45 14 386 60 Baggage/Cases/Purses 49 15 376 51 Other 41 16 351 43 Personal Electronics 35 17 307 52 Other 34 18 289 43 Baggage/Cases/Purses 37 19 241 46 Baggage/Cases/Purses 26 20 163 31 Baggage/Cases/Purses 23 21 104 32 Baggage/Cases/Purses 20 22 106 33 Baggage/Cases/Purses 19 23 65 25 Baggage/Cases/Purses 14
This works out quite perfectly — however, note that Close Amount was loaded as an ‘object’. Words like “Amount” are a good indicator that a column contains numeric values.
Let’s take a look at the values in Close Amount.
>>> df['Close Amount'].head() 0 0 1 0 2 50 3 0 4 0 Name: Close Amount, dtype: object
Those look like numeric values to me. So let’s take a look at the other end
>>> df['Close Amount'].tail() 8850 0 8851 800 8852 0 8853 256 8854 - Name: Close Amount, dtype: object
There’s the culprit: index # 8854 is a string value.
If Pandas can’t objectively determine that all of the values contained in a DataFrame column are the same numeric or date/time dtype, it defaults to an object.
Luckily, I know from experience that Excel’s “Accounting” number format typically formats 0.00 as a dash, -.
So how do we fix this? Pandas provides a general method, DataFrame.apply, which can be used to apply any single-argument function to each value of one or more of its columns.
In this case, we’ll use it to simultaneously convert the — to the value it represents in Excel, 0.0 and re-cast the entire column’s initial object dtype to its correct dtype a float64.
First, we’ll define a new function to perform the conversion:
>>> def dash_to_zero(x): >>> if '-' in str(x): >>> return float() # 0.0 >>> else: >>> return x # just return the input value as-is
Then, we’ll apply the function to each value of Close Amount:
>>> df['Close Amount'] = df['Close Amount'].apply(dash_to_zero) >>> df['Close Amount'].dtype dtype('float64')
These two steps can also be combined into a single-line operation using Python’s lambda:
>>> df['Close Amount'].apply(lambda x: 0. if '-' in str(x) else x)
Once you’re confident that your dataset is “clean,” you’re ready for some data analysis! Aggregation is the process of getting summary data that may be more useful than the finely grained values we are given to start with.
>>> df.sum() Close Amount 538739.51 dtype: float64 >>> df.min() Date Received 2014-01-01 00:00:00 Incident Date 2011-08-24 08:30:00 Airport Code - Airport Name Albert J Ellis, Jacksonville Airline Name - Claim Type - Claim Site - Item Category - Close Amount 0 Disposition - >>> df.max() Date Received 2014-12-31 00:00:00 Incident Date 2014-12-31 00:00:00 Airport Code ZZZ Airport Name Yuma International Airport Airline Name XL Airways Claim Type Property Damage Claim Site Other Item Category Travel Accessories; Travel Accessories Close Amount 25483.4 Disposition Settle dtype: object
Find all of the rows where ‘Close Amount’ is greater than zero. This is helpful because we’d like to see some patterins where the amount is actually positive, and show how conditional operators work.
>>> df[df['Close Amount'] > 0].describe() Close Amount count 2360.000000 mean 228.279453 std 743.720179 min 1.250000 25% 44.470000 50% 100.000000 75% 240.942500 max 25483.440000
In this example, we’ll walk through how to group by a single column’s values.
The Groupby object is an intermediate step that allows us to aggregate on several rows which share something in common — in this case, the disposition value. This is useful because we get a birds-eye view of different categories of data. Ultimately, we use describe() to see several aggregates at once.
>>> grp = df.groupby(by='Disposition') >>> grp.describe() Close Amount count mean std min 25% 50% 75% max Disposition - 3737.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Approve in Full 1668.0 158.812116 314.532028 1.25 32.9625 79.675 159.3375 6183.36 Deny 2758.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Settle 692.0 395.723844 1268.818458 6.00 100.0000 225.000 425.6100 25483.44
Group by multiple columns:
>>> grp = df.groupby(by=['Disposition', 'Claim Site']) >>> grp.describe() Close Amount count mean std min 25% 50% 75% max Disposition Claim Site - - 34.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Bus Station 2.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Checked Baggage 2759.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Checkpoint 903.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Motor Vehicle 28.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Other 11.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Approve in Full Checked Baggage 1162.0 113.868072 192.166683 1.25 25.6600 60.075 125.9825 2200.00 Checkpoint 493.0 236.643367 404.707047 8.95 60.0000 124.000 250.1400 6183.36 Motor Vehicle 9.0 1591.428889 1459.368190 493.80 630.0000 930.180 1755.9800 5158.05 Other 4.0 398.967500 358.710134 61.11 207.2775 317.385 509.0750 899.99 Deny - 4.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Checked Baggage 2333.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Checkpoint 407.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Motor Vehicle 1.0 0.000000 NaN 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Other 13.0 0.000000 0.000000 0.00 0.0000 0.000 0.0000 0.00 Settle Checked Baggage 432.0 286.271968 339.487254 7.25 77.0700 179.995 361.5700 2500.00 Checkpoint 254.0 487.173031 1620.156849 6.00 166.9250 281.000 496.3925 25483.44 Motor Vehicle 6.0 4404.910000 7680.169379 244.00 841.8125 1581.780 2215.5025 20000.00
While aggregates on groups of data is one of the best ways to get insights, visualizing data lets patterns jump out from the page, and is straightforward for those who aren’t as familiar with aggregate values. Properly formatted visualizations are critical to communicating meaning in the data, and it’s nice to see that Pandas has some of these functions out of the box:
>>> df.plot(x='Incident Date', y='Close Amount') >>> plt.show()
Incident Date by Close Amount
Finally, we may need to commit either our original data, or the aggregates as a DataFrame to file format different than the one we started with, as Pandas does not limit you to writing back out to the same file format.
The most common flat file to write to from Pandas will be the .csv. From the visualization, it looks like the cost of TSA claims, while occasionally very high due to some outliers is improving in 2015. We should probably recommend comparing staffing and procedural changes to continue in that direction, and explore in more detail why we have more incidents at certain times of day.
Like loading data, Pandas offers a number of methods for writing your data to file in various formats. Writing back to an Excel file is slightly more involved than the others, so let’s write to an even more portable format: CSV. To write your transformed dataset to a new CSV file:
Here we’ve seen a workflow that is both interesting and powerful. We’ve taken a round-trip all the way from a government excel file, into Python, through some fairly powerful data visualization, and back to a .csv file which could be more universally accessed — all through the power of Pandas. Further, we’ve covered the three central objects in Pandas — DataFrames, Series, and dtypes. Best of all, we have a deeper understanding of an interesting, real-world data set.
These are the core concepts to understand when working with Pandas, and now you can ask intelligent questions (of yourself, or of Google) about these different objects. This TSA data use case has shown us exactly what Pandas is good for: the exploration, analysis, and aggregation of data to draw conclusions.
The analysis and exploration of data is important in practically any field, but it is especially useful to Data Scientists and AI professionals who may need to crunch and clean data in very specific, finely-grained ways, like getting moving averages on stock ticks. Additionally, certain tasks may need to be automated, and this could prove difficult or expensive in sprawling applications like Excel, or Google Sheets, which may not offer all the functionality of Pandas with the full power of Python.
Just imagine telling a business administrator that they may never have to run that broken spreadsheet macro ever again! Once analysis is automated, it can be deployed as a service or applied to hundreds of thousands of records streaming from a database. Alternatively, Pandas could be used to make critical decisions after establishing statistical associations between patterns, as indeed it is every day.
Next, be sure to checkout at Python’s extensive database libraries (e.g. SQLalchemy), or API clients (like the Google Sheets/Slides Python Client or Airtable API to put your results in front of domain experts). The possibilities are endless, and are only enhanced by Python’s mature libraries and active community.
Thanks for reading ❤
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