Billy Chandler

Billy Chandler


A Beginners Guide To Functions in Python

In this article, the goal is to get you the expertise required to get started and work with functions using Python. Learning to use the functions in Python in the right way is a notable skill for any Python Developer

A function is a set of statements that take inputs, do some specific computation and produces output. The idea is to put some commonly or repeatedly done task together and make a function, so that instead of writing the same code again and again for different inputs, we can call the function.

Python provides built-in functions like print(), etc. but we can also create your own functions. These functions are called user-defined functions.

# A simple Python function to check 
# whether x is even or odd 
def evenOdd( x ): 
	if (x % 2 == 0): 
		print "even"
		print "odd"

# Driver code 



Pass by Reference or pass by value?

One important thing to note is, in Python every variable name is a reference. When we pass a variable to a function, a new reference to the object is created. Parameter passing in Python is same as reference passing in Java.

# Here x is a new reference to same list lst 
def myFun(x): 
x[0] = 20

# Driver Code (Note that lst is modified 
# after function call. 
lst = [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15] 


[20, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15]

When we pass a reference and change the received reference to something else, the connection between passed and received parameter is broken. For example, consider below program.

def myFun(x): 

# After below line link of x with previous 
# object gets broken. A new object is assigned 
# to x. 
x = [20, 30, 40] 

# Driver Code (Note that lst is not modified 
# after function call. 
lst = [10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15] 


[10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15]

Another example to demonstrate that reference link is broken if we assign a new value (inside the function).

def myFun(x): 

# After below line link of x with previous 
# object gets broken. A new object is assigned 
# to x. 
x = 20

# Driver Code (Note that lst is not modified 
# after function call. 
x = 10



Exercise: Try to guess the output of following code.

def swap(x, y): 
	temp = x; 
	x = y; 
	y = temp; 

# Driver code 
x = 2
y = 3
swap(x, y) 



Default arguments:

A default argument is a parameter that assumes a default value if a value is not provided in the function call for that argument.The following example illustrates Default arguments.

# Python program to demonstrate 
# default arguments 
def myFun(x, y=50): 
	print("x: ", x) 
	print("y: ", y) 

# Driver code (We call myFun() with only 
# argument) 


('x: ', 10)
('y: ', 50)

Like C++ default arguments, any number of arguments in a function can have a default value. But once we have a default argument, all the arguments to its right must also have default values.

Keyword arguments:

The idea is to allow caller to specify argument name with values so that caller does not need to remember order of parameters.

# Python program to demonstrate Keyword Arguments 
def student(firstname, lastname): 
	print(firstname, lastname) 
# Keyword arguments				 
student(firstname ='Geeks', lastname ='Practice')	 
student(lastname ='Practice', firstname ='Geeks') 


('Geeks', 'Practice')
('Geeks', 'Practice')

Variable length arguments:

We can have both normal and keyword variable number of arguments. Please see this for details.

# Python program to illustrate 
# *args for variable number of arguments 
def myFun(*argv): 
	for arg in argv: 
		print (arg) 
myFun('Hello', 'Welcome', 'to', 'GeeksforGeeks') 



# Python program to illustrate 
# *kargs for variable number of keyword arguments 

def myFun(**kwargs): 
	for key, value in kwargs.items(): 
		print ("%s == %s" %(key, value)) 

# Driver code 
myFun(first ='Geeks', mid ='for', last='Geeks')	 


last == Geeks
mid == for
first == Geeks

Anonymous functions: In Python, anonymous function means that a function is without a name. As we already know that def keyword is used to define the normal functions and the lambda keyword is used to create anonymous functions. Please see this for details.

# Python code to illustrate cube of a number 
# using labmda function 
cube = lambda x: x*x*x 




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A Beginners Guide To Functions in Python
Ray  Patel

Ray Patel


top 30 Python Tips and Tricks for Beginners

Welcome to my Blog , In this article, you are going to learn the top 10 python tips and tricks.

1) swap two numbers.

2) Reversing a string in Python.

3) Create a single string from all the elements in list.

4) Chaining Of Comparison Operators.

5) Print The File Path Of Imported Modules.

6) Return Multiple Values From Functions.

7) Find The Most Frequent Value In A List.

8) Check The Memory Usage Of An Object.

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Ray  Patel

Ray Patel


Lambda, Map, Filter functions in python

Welcome to my Blog, In this article, we will learn python lambda function, Map function, and filter function.

Lambda function in python: Lambda is a one line anonymous function and lambda takes any number of arguments but can only have one expression and python lambda syntax is

Syntax: x = lambda arguments : expression

Now i will show you some python lambda function examples:

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Sival Alethea

Sival Alethea


Learn Python - Full Course for Beginners [Tutorial]

This course will give you a full introduction into all of the core concepts in python. Follow along with the videos and you’ll be a python programmer in no time!
⭐️ Contents ⭐
⌨️ (0:00) Introduction
⌨️ (1:45) Installing Python & PyCharm
⌨️ (6:40) Setup & Hello World
⌨️ (10:23) Drawing a Shape
⌨️ (15:06) Variables & Data Types
⌨️ (27:03) Working With Strings
⌨️ (38:18) Working With Numbers
⌨️ (48:26) Getting Input From Users
⌨️ (52:37) Building a Basic Calculator
⌨️ (58:27) Mad Libs Game
⌨️ (1:03:10) Lists
⌨️ (1:10:44) List Functions
⌨️ (1:18:57) Tuples
⌨️ (1:24:15) Functions
⌨️ (1:34:11) Return Statement
⌨️ (1:40:06) If Statements
⌨️ (1:54:07) If Statements & Comparisons
⌨️ (2:00:37) Building a better Calculator
⌨️ (2:07:17) Dictionaries
⌨️ (2:14:13) While Loop
⌨️ (2:20:21) Building a Guessing Game
⌨️ (2:32:44) For Loops
⌨️ (2:41:20) Exponent Function
⌨️ (2:47:13) 2D Lists & Nested Loops
⌨️ (2:52:41) Building a Translator
⌨️ (3:00:18) Comments
⌨️ (3:04:17) Try / Except
⌨️ (3:12:41) Reading Files
⌨️ (3:21:26) Writing to Files
⌨️ (3:28:13) Modules & Pip
⌨️ (3:43:56) Classes & Objects
⌨️ (3:57:37) Building a Multiple Choice Quiz
⌨️ (4:08:28) Object Functions
⌨️ (4:12:37) Inheritance
⌨️ (4:20:43) Python Interpreter
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Thanks for visiting and watching! Please don’t forget to leave a like, comment and share!

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Wanda  Huel

Wanda Huel


Python Programming: A Beginner’s Guide

Python is an interpreted, high-level, powerful general-purpose programming language. You may ask, Python’s a snake right? and Why is this programming language named after it? Well, you are in the right place to discover the answer! and I’ll also answer the why, what, and how regarding Python programming.

Why do we need to know about Python?

People prefer Python over French (What 😮)

According to a recent survey, in the UK, Python overtook French to be the most popular language taught in primary schools. (OMG!) 6 of 10 parents preferred their children to learn Python over French.

The survey by Ocado group

So hurry up🏃‍♂️🏃‍♀️(or these kids will for sure)! Get ready to learn it! Because there’s a possibility of you being hired in one of the companies mentioned below!!!

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Ray  Patel

Ray Patel


42 Exciting Python Project Ideas & Topics for Beginners [2021]

Python Project Ideas

Python is one of the most popular programming languages currently. It looks like this trend is about to continue in 2021 and beyond. So, if you are a Python beginner, the best thing you can do is work on some real-time Python project ideas.

We, here at upGrad, believe in a practical approach as theoretical knowledge alone won’t be of help in a real-time work environment. In this article, we will be exploring some interesting Python project ideas which beginners can work on to put their Python knowledge to test. In this article, you will find 42 top python project ideas for beginners to get hands-on experience on Python

Moreover, project-based learning helps improve student knowledge. That’s why all of the upGrad courses cover case studies and assignments based on real-life problems. This technique is ideally for, but not limited to, beginners in programming skills.

But first, let’s address the more pertinent question that must be lurking in your mind:

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