Logistic Regression is analogous to multiple linear regression, except the outcome is binary. Contrary to its name, logistic regression is a classification method, and is very powerful when it comes to text-based classification. It achieves this by first performing regression on a logistic function, hence the name. Due to its fast computational speed and its output of a model that lends itself to rapid scoring of new data, it is a popular method.
Question arises that how do we get from a binary outcome variable to an outcome variable that can be modeled in linear fashion, then back again to a binary outcome? Just like a Linear Regression model, a Logistic Regression model computes a weighted sum of the input features (plus a bias term), but instead of outputting the result directly like the linear regression model does, it outputs the logistic of this result.
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Machine learning algorithms are not your regular algorithms that we may be used to because they are often described by a combination of some complex statistics and mathematics. Since it is very important to understand the background of any algorithm you want to implement, this could pose a challenge to people with a non-mathematical background as the maths can sap your motivation by slowing you down.
In this article, we would be discussing linear and logistic regression and some regression techniques assuming we all have heard or even learnt about the Linear model in Mathematics class at high school. Hopefully, at the end of the article, the concept would be clearer.
**Regression Analysis **is a statistical process for estimating the relationships between the dependent variables (say Y) and one or more independent variables or predictors (X). It explains the changes in the dependent variables with respect to changes in select predictors. Some major uses for regression analysis are in determining the strength of predictors, forecasting an effect, and trend forecasting. It finds the significant relationship between variables and the impact of predictors on dependent variables. In regression, we fit a curve/line (regression/best fit line) to the data points, such that the differences between the distances of data points from the curve/line are minimized.
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Linear Regression and Logistic Regression are** two algorithms of machine learning **and these are mostly used in the data science field.
Linear Regression:> It is one of the algorithms of machine learning which is used as a technique to solve various use cases in the data science field. It is generally used in the case of continuous output. For e.g if ‘Area’ and ‘Bhk’ of the house is given as an input and we have found the ‘Price’ of the house, so this is called a regression problem.
Mechanism:> In the diagram below X is input and Y is output value.
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In this article, I will be explaining how to use the concept of regression, in specific logistic regression to the problems involving classification. Classification problems are everywhere around us, the classic ones would include mail classification, weather classification, etc. All these data, if needed can be used to train a Logistic regression model to predict the class of any future example.
This article is going to cover the following sub-topics:
Classification problems can be explained based on the Breast Cancer dataset where there are two types of tumors (Benign and Malignant). It can be represented as:
This is a classification problem with 2 classes, 0 & 1. Generally, the classification problems have multiple classes say, 0,1,2 and 3.
The link to the Breast cancer dataset used in this article is given below:
Predict whether the cancer is benign or malignant
import pandas as pd read_df = pd.read_csv('breast_cancer.csv') df = read_df.copy()
2. The following dataframe is obtained:
df.head() ![Image for post](https://miro.medium.com/max/1750/1*PPyiGgocvjHbgIcs9yTWTA.png)
Let us plot the mean area of the clump and its classification and see if we can find a relation between them.
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import seaborn as sns from sklearn import preprocessing label_encoder = preprocessing.LabelEncoder() df.diagnosis = label_encoder.fit_transform(df.diagnosis) sns.set(style = 'whitegrid') sns.lmplot(x = 'area_mean', y = 'diagnosis', data = df, height = 10, aspect = 1.5, y_jitter = 0.1)
We can infer from the plot that most of the tumors having an area less than 500 are benign(represented by zero) and those having area more than 1000 are malignant(represented by 1). The tumors having a mean area between 500 to 1000 are both benign and malignant, therefore show that the classification depends on more factors other than mean area. A linear regression line is also plotted for further analysis.
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Take your current understanding and skills on machine learning algorithms to the next level with this article. What is regression analysis in simple words? How is it applied in practice for real-world problems? And what is the possible snippet of codes in Python you can use for implementation regression algorithms for various objectives? Let’s forget about boring learning stuff and talk about science and the way it works.
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Most of the supervised learning problems in machine learning are classification problems. Classification is the task of assigning a data point with a suitable class. Suppose a pet classification problem. If we input certain features, the machine learning model will tell us whether the given features belong to a cat or a dog. Cat and dog are the two classes here. One may be numerically represented by 0 and the other by 1. This is specifically called a binary classification problem. If there are more than two classes, the problem is termed a multi-class classification problem. This machine learning task comes under supervised learning because both the features and corresponding class are provided as input to the model during training. During testing or production, the model predicts the class given the features of a data point.
This article discusses Logistic Regression and the math behind it with a practical example and Python codes. Logistic regression is one of the fundamental algorithms meant for classification. Logistic regression is meant exclusively for binary classification problems. Nevertheless, multi-class classification can also be performed with this algorithm with some modifications.
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