Even if you are completely new to neural networks, this course will get you comfortable with the concepts and math behind them.
Even if you are completely new to neural networks, this course will get you comfortable with the concepts and math behind them.
Neural networks are at the core of what we are calling Artificial Intelligence today. They can seem impenetrable, even mystical, if you are trying to understand them for the first time, but they don’t have to.
Thanks for reading ❤
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Learn Data Science | How to Learn Data Science for Free. In this post, I have described a learning path and free online courses and tutorials that will enable you to learn data science for free.
The average cost of obtaining a masters degree at traditional bricks and mortar institutions will set you back anywhere between $30,000 and $120,000. Even online data science degree programs don’t come cheap costing a minimum of $9,000. So what do you do if you want to learn data science but can’t afford to pay this?
I trained into a career as a data scientist without taking any formal education in the subject. In this article, I am going to share with you my own personal curriculum for learning data science if you can’t or don’t want to pay thousands of dollars for more formal study.
The curriculum will consist of 3 main parts, technical skills, theory and practical experience. I will include links to free resources for every element of the learning path and will also be including some links to additional ‘low cost’ options. So if you want to spend a little money to accelerate your learning you can add these resources to the curriculum. I will include the estimated costs for each of these.
The first part of the curriculum will focus on technical skills. I recommend learning these first so that you can take a practical first approach rather than say learning the mathematical theory first. Python is by far the most widely used programming language used for data science. In the Kaggle Machine Learning and Data Science survey carried out in 2018 83% of respondents said that they used Python on a daily basis. I would, therefore, recommend focusing on this language but also spending a little time on other languages such as R.
Before you can start to use Python for data science you need a basic grasp of the fundamentals behind the language. So you will want to take a Python introductory course. There are lots of free ones out there but I like the Codeacademy ones best as they include hands-on in-browser coding throughout.
I would suggest taking the introductory course to learn Python. This covers basic syntax, functions, control flow, loops, modules and classes.
Next, you will want to get a good understanding of using Python for data analysis. There are a number of good resources for this.
To start with I suggest taking at least the free parts of the data analyst learning path on dataquest.io. Dataquest offers complete learning paths for data analyst, data scientist and data engineer. Quite a lot of the content, particularly on the data analyst path is available for free. If you do have some money to put towards learning then I strongly suggest putting it towards paying for a few months of the premium subscription. I took this course and it provided a fantastic grounding in the fundamentals of data science. It took me 6 months to complete the data scientist path. The price varies from $24.50 to $49 per month depending on whether you pay annually or not. It is better value to purchase the annual subscription if you can afford it.
If you have chosen to pay for the full data science course on Dataquest then you will have a good grasp of the fundamentals of machine learning with Python. If not then there are plenty of other free resources. I would focus to start with on scikit-learn which is by far the most commonly used Python library for machine learning.
When I was learning I was lucky enough to attend a two-day workshop run by Andreas Mueller one of the core developers of scikit-learn. He has however published all the material from this course, and others, on this Github repo. These consist of slides, course notes and notebooks that you can work through. I would definitely recommend working through this material.
Then I would suggest taking some of the tutorials in the scikit-learn documentation. After that, I would suggest building some practical machine learning applications and learning the theory behind how the models work — which I will cover a bit later on.
SQL is a vital skill to learn if you want to become a data scientist as one of the fundamental processes in data modelling is extracting data in the first place. This will more often than not involve running SQL queries against a database. Again if you haven’t opted to take the full Dataquest course then here are a few free resources to learn this skill.
Codeacamdemy has a free introduction to SQL course. Again this is very practical with in-browser coding all the way through. If you also want to learn about cloud-based database querying then Google Cloud BigQuery is very accessible. There is a free tier so you can try queries for free, an extensive range of public datasets to try and very good documentation.
To be a well-rounded data scientist it is a good idea to diversify a little from just Python. I would, therefore, suggest also taking an introductory course in R. Codeacademy have an introductory course on their free plan. It is probably worth noting here that similar to Dataquest Codeacademy also offers a complete data science learning plan as part of their pro account (this costs from $31.99 to $15.99 per month depending on how many months you pay for up front). I personally found the Dataquest course to be much more comprehensive but this may work out a little cheaper if you are looking to follow a learning path on a single platform.
It is a good idea to get a grasp of software engineering skills and best practices. This will help your code to be more readable and extensible both for yourself and others. Additionally, when you start to put models into production you will need to be able to write good quality well-tested code and work with tools like version control.
There are two great free resources for this. Python like you mean it covers things like the PEP8 style guide, documentation and also covers object-oriented programming really well.
The scikit-learn contribution guidelines, although written to facilitate contributions to the library, actually cover the best practices really well. This covers topics such as Github, unit testing and debugging and is all written in the context of a data science application.
For a comprehensive introduction to deep learning, I don’t think that you can get any better than the totally free and totally ad-free fast.ai. This course includes an introduction to machine learning, practical deep learning, computational linear algebra and a code-first introduction to natural language processing. All their courses have a practical first approach and I highly recommend them.
Whilst you are learning the technical elements of the curriculum you will encounter some of the theory behind the code you are implementing. I recommend that you learn the theoretical elements alongside the practical. The way that I do this is that I learn the code to be able to implement a technique, let’s take KMeans as an example, once I have something working I will then look deeper into concepts such as inertia. Again the scikit-learn documentation contains all the mathematical concepts behind the algorithms.
In this section, I will introduce the key foundational elements of theory that you should learn alongside the more practical elements.
The khan academy covers almost all the concepts I have listed below for free. You can tailor the subjects you would like to study when you sign up and you then have a nice tailored curriculum for this part of the learning path. Checking all of the boxes below will give you an overview of most elements I have listed below.
Calculus is defined by Wikipedia as “the mathematical study of continuous change.” In other words calculus can find patterns between functions, for example, in the case of derivatives, it can help you to understand how a function changes over time.
Many machine learning algorithms utilise calculus to optimise the performance of models. If you have studied even a little machine learning you will probably have heard of Gradient descent. This functions by iteratively adjusting the parameter values of a model to find the optimum values to minimise the cost function. Gradient descent is a good example of how calculus is used in machine learning.
What you need to know:
Many popular machine learning methods, including XGBOOST, use matrices to store inputs and process data. Matrices alongside vector spaces and linear equations form the mathematical branch known as Linear Algebra. In order to understand how many machine learning methods work it is essential to get a good understanding of this field.
What you need to learn:
Vectors and spaces
Here is a list of the key concepts you need to know:
The third section of the curriculum is all about practice. In order to truly master the concepts above you will need to use the skills in some projects that ideally closely resemble a real-world application. By doing this you will encounter problems to work through such as missing and erroneous data and develop a deep level of expertise in the subject. In this last section, I will list some good places you can get this practical experience from for free.
“With deliberate practice, however, the goal is not just to reach your potential but to build it, to make things possible that were not possible before. This requires challenging homeostasis — getting out of your comfort zone — and forcing your brain or your body to adapt.”, Anders Ericsson, Peak: Secrets from the New Science of Expertise
Machine learning competitions are a good place to get practice with building machine learning models. They give access to a wide range of data sets, each with a specific problem to solve and have a leaderboard. The leaderboard is a good way to benchmark how good your knowledge at developing a good model actually is and where you may need to improve further.
The UCI machine learning repository is a large source of publically available data sets. You can use these data sets to put together your own data projects this could include data analysis and machine learning models, you could even try building a deployed model with a web front end. It is a good idea to store your projects somewhere publically such as Github as this can create a portfolio showcasing your skills to use for future job applications.
One other option to consider is contributing to open source projects. There are many Python libraries that rely on the community to maintain them and there are often hackathons held at meetups and conferences where even beginners can join in. Attending one of these events would certainly give you some practical experience and an environment where you can learn from others whilst giving something back at the same time. Numfocus is a good example of a project like this.
In this post, I have described a learning path and free online courses and tutorials that will enable you to learn data science for free. Showcasing what you are able to do in the form of a portfolio is a great tool for future job applications in lieu of formal qualifications and certificates. I really believe that education should be accessible to everyone and, certainly, for data science at least, the internet provides that opportunity. In addition to the resources listed here, I have previously published a recommended reading list for learning data science available here. These are also all freely available online and are a great way to complement the more practical resources covered above.
Thanks for reading!
Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Big DataDownloadable PDF of Best AI Cheat Sheets in Super High Definition
Cheat Sheets for AI, Neural Networks, Machine Learning, Deep Learning & Data Science in HD
Neural Networks Cheat Sheets
Neural Networks Basics Cheat Sheet
An Artificial Neuron Network (ANN), popularly known as Neural Network is a computational model based on the structure and functions of biological neural networks. It is like an artificial human nervous system for receiving, processing, and transmitting information in terms of Computer Science.
Neural Networks Graphs Cheat Sheet
Graph data can be used with a lot of learning tasks contain a lot rich relation data among elements. For example, modeling physics system, predicting protein interface, and classifying diseases require that a model learns from graph inputs. Graph reasoning models can also be used for learning from non-structural data like texts and images and reasoning on extracted structures.
Machine Learning Cheat Sheets
Machine Learning with Emojis Cheat Sheet
Scikit Learn Cheat Sheet
Scikit-learn is a free software machine learning library for the Python programming language. It features various classification, regression and clustering algorithms including support vector machines is a simple and efficient tools for data mining and data analysis. It’s built on NumPy, SciPy, and matplotlib an open source, commercially usable — BSD license
Scikit-learn Algorithm Cheat Sheet
This machine learning cheat sheet will help you find the right estimator for the job which is the most difficult part. The flowchart will help you check the documentation and rough guide of each estimator that will help you to know more about the problems and how to solve it.
If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Machine Learning: Scikit-Learn Algorythm for Azure Machine Learning Studios
Scikit-Learn Algorithm for Azure Machine Learning Studios Cheat Sheet
Data Science with Python Cheat Sheets
TensorFlow Cheat Sheet
TensorFlow is a free and open-source software library for dataflow and differentiable programming across a range of tasks. It is a symbolic math library, and is also used for machine learning applications such as neural networks.
If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Data Science: Python Basics Cheat Sheet
Python Basics Cheat Sheet
Python is one of the most popular data science tool due to its low and gradual learning curve and the fact that it is a fully fledged programming language.
PySpark RDD Basics Cheat Sheet
“At a high level, every Spark application consists of a driver program that runs the user’s
main function and executes various parallel operations on a cluster. The main abstraction Spark provides is a resilient distributed dataset (RDD), which is a collection of elements partitioned across the nodes of the cluster that can be operated on in parallel. RDDs are created by starting with a file in the Hadoop file system (or any other Hadoop-supported file system), or an existing Scala collection in the driver program, and transforming it. Users may also ask Spark to persist an RDD in memory, allowing it to be reused efficiently across parallel operations. Finally, RDDs automatically recover from node failures.” via Spark.Aparche.Org
NumPy Basics Cheat Sheet
NumPy is a library for the Python programming language, adding support for large, multi-dimensional arrays and matrices, along with a large collection of high-level mathematical functions to operate on these arrays.
***If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know ***here.
Bokeh Cheat Sheet
“Bokeh is an interactive visualization library that targets modern web browsers for presentation. Its goal is to provide elegant, concise construction of versatile graphics, and to extend this capability with high-performance interactivity over very large or streaming datasets. Bokeh can help anyone who would like to quickly and easily create interactive plots, dashboards, and data applications.” from Bokeh.Pydata.com
Karas Cheat Sheet
Keras is an open-source neural-network library written in Python. It is capable of running on top of TensorFlow, Microsoft Cognitive Toolkit, Theano, or PlaidML. Designed to enable fast experimentation with deep neural networks, it focuses on being user-friendly, modular, and extensible.
Padas Basics Cheat Sheet
Pandas is a software library written for the Python programming language for data manipulation and analysis. In particular, it offers data structures and operations for manipulating numerical tables and time series. It is free software released under the three-clause BSD license.
If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Pandas Cheat Sheet: Data Wrangling in Python
Pandas Cheat Sheet: Data Wrangling in Python
The term “data wrangler” is starting to infiltrate pop culture. In the 2017 movie Kong: Skull Island, one of the characters, played by actor Marc Evan Jackson is introduced as “Steve Woodward, our data wrangler”.
Data Wrangling with Pandas Cheat Sheet
Data Wrangling with ddyr and tidyr Cheat Sheet
If you like these cheat sheets, you can let me know here.### Data Science: Scipy Linear Algebra
Scipy Linear Algebra Cheat Sheet
SciPy builds on the NumPy array object and is part of the NumPy stack which includes tools like Matplotlib, pandas and SymPy, and an expanding set of scientific computing libraries. This NumPy stack has similar users to other applications such as MATLAB, GNU Octave, and Scilab. The NumPy stack is also sometimes referred to as the SciPy stack.
Matplotlib Cheat Sheet
Matplotlib is a plotting library for the Python programming language and its numerical mathematics extension NumPy. It provides an object-oriented APIfor embedding plots into applications using general-purpose GUI toolkits like Tkinter, wxPython, Qt, or GTK+. There is also a procedural “pylab” interface based on a state machine (like OpenGL), designed to closely resemble that of MATLAB, though its use is discouraged. SciPy makes use of matplotlib.
Pyplot is a matplotlib module which provides a MATLAB-like interface matplotlib is designed to be as usable as MATLAB, with the ability to use Python, with the advantage that it is free.
Data Visualization with ggplot2 Cheat Sheet
Big-O Cheat Sheet
Big-O Algorithm Cheat Sheet: http://bigocheatsheet.com/
Data Science Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/tutorials/python-data-science-cheat-sheet-basics
Data Wrangling Cheat Sheet: https://www.rstudio.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/02/data-wrangling-cheatsheet.pdf
Data Wrangling: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Data_wrangling
Ggplot Cheat Sheet: https://www.rstudio.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/ggplot2-cheatsheet.pdf
Keras Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/keras-cheat-sheet#gs.DRKeNMs
Machine Learning Cheat Sheet: https://ai.icymi.email/new-machinelearning-cheat-sheet-by-emily-barry-abdsc/
Machine Learning Cheat Sheet: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-in/azure/machine-learning/machine-learning-algorithm-cheat-sheet
Matplotlib Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/python-matplotlib-cheat-sheet#gs.uEKySpY
Neural Networks Cheat Sheet: http://www.asimovinstitute.org/neural-network-zoo/
Neural Networks Graph Cheat Sheet: http://www.asimovinstitute.org/blog/
Numpy Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/python-numpy-cheat-sheet#gs.AK5ZBgE
Pandas Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/python-pandas-cheat-sheet#gs.oundfxM
Pandas Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/pandas-cheat-sheet-python#gs.HPFoRIc
Pyspark Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/pyspark-cheat-sheet-python#gs.L=J1zxQ
Scikit Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/scikit-learn-cheat-sheet
Scikit-learn Cheat Sheet: http://peekaboo-vision.blogspot.com/2013/01/machine-learning-cheat-sheet-for-scikit.html
Scipy Cheat Sheet: https://www.datacamp.com/community/blog/python-scipy-cheat-sheet#gs.JDSg3OI
TesorFlow Cheat Sheet: https://www.altoros.com/tensorflow-cheat-sheet.html
A step-by-step guide to setting up Python for Deep Learning and Data Science for a complete beginner
A step-by-step guide to setting up Python for Deep Learning and Data Science for a complete beginner
You can code your own Data Science or Deep Learning project in just a couple of lines of code these days. This is not an exaggeration; many programmers out there have done the hard work of writing tons of code for us to use, so that all we need to do is plug-and-play rather than write code from scratch.
You may have seen some of this code on Data Science / Deep Learning blog posts. Perhaps you might have thought: “Well, if it’s really that easy, then why don’t I try it out myself?”
If you’re a beginner to Python and you want to embark on this journey, then this post will guide you through your first steps. A common complaint I hear from complete beginners is that it’s pretty difficult to set up Python. How do we get everything started in the first place so that we can plug-and-play Data Science or Deep Learning code?
This post will guide you through in a step-by-step manner how to set up Python for your Data Science and Deep Learning projects. We will:
Once you’ve set up the above, you can build your first neural network to predict house prices in this tutorial here:
The main programming language we are going to use is called Python, which is the most common programming language used by Deep Learning practitioners.
The first step is to download Anaconda, which you can think of as a platform for you to use Python “out of the box”.
Visit this page: https://www.anaconda.com/distribution/ and scroll down to see this:
This tutorial is written specifically for Windows users, but the instructions for users of other Operating Systems are not all that different. Be sure to click on “Windows” as your Operating System (or whatever OS that you are on) to make sure that you are downloading the correct version.
This tutorial will be using Python 3, so click the green Download button under “Python 3.7 version”. A pop up should appear for you to click “Save” into whatever directory you wish.
Once it has finished downloading, just go through the setup step by step as follows:
Click “I Agree”
Choose a destination folder and click Next
Click Install with the default options, and wait for a few moments as Anaconda installs
Click Skip as we will not be using Microsoft VSCode in our tutorials
Click Finish, and the installation is done!
Once the installation is done, go to your Start Menu and you should see some newly installed software:
You should see this on your start menu
Click on Anaconda Navigator, which is a one-stop hub to navigate the apps we need. You should see a front page like this:
Anaconda Navigator Home Screen
Click on ‘Launch’ under Jupyter Notebook, which is the second panel on my screen above. Jupyter Notebook allows us to run Python code interactively on the web browser, and it’s where we will be writing most of our code.
A browser window should open up with your directory listing. I’m going to create a folder on my Desktop called “Intuitive Deep Learning Tutorial”. If you navigate to the folder, your browser should look something like this:
Navigating to a folder called Intuitive Deep Learning Tutorial on my Desktop
On the top right, click on New and select “Python 3”:
Click on New and select Python 3
A new browser window should pop up like this.
Browser window pop-up
Congratulations — you’ve created your first Jupyter notebook! Now it’s time to write some code. Jupyter notebooks allow us to write snippets of code and then run those snippets without running the full program. This helps us perhaps look at any intermediate output from our program.
To begin, let’s write code that will display some words when we run it. This function is called print. Copy and paste the code below into the grey box on your Jupyter notebook:
Your notebook should look like this:
Entering in code into our Jupyter Notebook
Now, press Alt-Enter on your keyboard to run that snippet of code:
Press Alt-Enter to run that snippet of code
You can see that Jupyter notebook has displayed the words “Hello World!” on the display panel below the code snippet! The number 1 has also filled in the square brackets, meaning that this is the first code snippet that we’ve run thus far. This will help us to track the order in which we have run our code snippets.
Instead of Alt-Enter, note that you can also click Run when the code snippet is highlighted:
Click Run on the panel
If you wish to create new grey blocks to write more snippets of code, you can do so under Insert.
Jupyter Notebook also allows you to write normal text instead of code. Click on the drop-down menu that currently says “Code” and select “Markdown”:
Now, our grey box that is tagged as markdown will not have square brackets beside it. If you write some text in this grey box now and press Alt-Enter, the text will render it as plain text like this:
If we write text in our grey box tagged as markdown, pressing Alt-Enter will render it as plain text.
There are some other features that you can explore. But now we’ve got Jupyter notebook set up for us to start writing some code!
Now we’ve got our coding platform set up. But are we going to write Deep Learning code from scratch? That seems like an extremely difficult thing to do!
The good news is that many others have written code and made it available to us! With the contribution of others’ code, we can play around with Deep Learning models at a very high level without having to worry about implementing all of it from scratch. This makes it extremely easy for us to get started with coding Deep Learning models.
For this tutorial, we will be downloading five packages that Deep Learning practitioners commonly use:
The first thing we will do is to create a Python environment. An environment is like an isolated working copy of Python, so that whatever you do in your environment (such as installing new packages) will not affect other environments. It’s good practice to create an environment for your projects.
Click on Environments on the left panel and you should see a screen like this:
Click on the button “Create” at the bottom of the list. A pop-up like this should appear:
A pop-up like this should appear.
Name your environment and select Python 3.7 and then click Create. This might take a few moments.
Once that is done, your screen should look something like this:
Notice that we have created an environment ‘intuitive-deep-learning’. We can see what packages we have installed in this environment and their respective versions.
Now let’s install some packages we need into our environment!
The first two packages we will install are called Tensorflow and Keras, which help us plug-and-play code for Deep Learning.
On Anaconda Navigator, click on the drop down menu where it currently says “Installed” and select “Not Installed”:
A whole list of packages that you have not installed will appear like this:
Search for “tensorflow”, and click the checkbox for both “keras” and “tensorflow”. Then, click “Apply” on the bottom right of your screen:
A pop up should appear like this:
Click Apply and wait for a few moments. Once that’s done, we will have Keras and Tensorflow installed in our environment!
Using the same method, let’s install the packages ‘pandas’, ‘scikit-learn’ and ‘matplotlib’. These are common packages that data scientists use to process the data as well as to visualize nice graphs in Jupyter notebook.
This is what you should see on your Anaconda Navigator for each of the packages.
Installing pandas into your environment
Installing scikit-learn into your environment
Installing matplotlib into your environment
Once it’s done, go back to “Home” on the left panel of Anaconda Navigator. You should see a screen like this, where it says “Applications on intuitive-deep-learning” at the top:
Now, we have to install Jupyter notebook in this environment. So click the green button “Install” under the Jupyter notebook logo. It will take a few moments (again). Once it’s done installing, the Jupyter notebook panel should look like this:
Click on Launch, and the Jupyter notebook app should open.
Create a notebook and type in these five snippets of code and click Alt-Enter. This code tells the notebook that we will be using the five packages that you installed with Anaconda Navigator earlier in the tutorial.
import tensorflow as tf import keras import pandas import sklearn import matplotlib
If there are no errors, then congratulations — you’ve got everything installed correctly:
A sign that everything works!
If you have had any trouble with any of the steps above, please feel free to comment below and I’ll help you out!
*Originally published by Joseph Lee Wei En at *medium.freecodecamp.org