Biju Augustian

Biju Augustian


API Design Patterns and Best Practices | C# Tutorial for Beginners | Simpliv

Learn how to design and implement types in C# so that the other developers won’t hate you when using one of the types developed by you. It means you are going to learn how to write code of the high quality: readable, understandable and reliable.

Teaching Approach

No fluff, no ranting, no beating the air. I esteem your time. The course material is succinct, yet comprehensive. All important concepts are covered. Particularly important topics are covered in-depth. For absolute beginners I offer my help on Skype absolutely free, if requested. Don’t forget that this course has English subtitles, so if you don’t understand my accent, feel free to turn them on.

Take this course and you will be satisfied.

Improve your knowledge in object-oriented programming in the context of clean coding and building types of high quality.

Understand the characteristics of a well-designed type
Grasp the principles of the convenient API development
Write clean code, get rid of unpleasant smells
Learn about what exceptions are intended for and how to throw and catch them properly
Protect your types from the incorrect usage making them properly encapsulated.
Foundations of building object-oriented infrastructures

Despite the fact that C# is a very rich on features language, it’s very common to see poorly designed and implemented types in a real world. In fact, C# is one of the richest on features language among object-oriented languages in the world nowadays. But with great power comes great responsibility. It’s challenging to use all those features in a right way.

You probably have already heard the following well-known statement: most code sucks. Well, this course is all about how to produce code which doesn’t suck.

Owning skills of producing a well-designed and well-implemented types is the prerequisite for the other developers to treat you as a real professional.

Content and Overview

This course is aimed at all the C# developers, from beginners to seniors. Topics which are covered in the course are relevant for all kinds of C# developers since all developers design and implement APIs. The topics complexity is very different. There are plenty of very simple topics, and at the same time, there are topics which require from you a solid C# background. There are plenty of code examples throughout this course, so you will learn both theoretical and practical material.

Starting with characteristics and principles of a well-designed type you will go further, learning how to give names for different members, how many parameters a method should take, is it a good idea to take a Boolean as a parameter of a method and much more than that.

Then you will learn what encapsulation really means. How to encapsulate a type? There are some trade-offs we will deal with encapsulating our types. There are many experienced programmers who don’t know what encapsulation is in essence. Investigating this topic together we will see how to build a consistent and reliable type.

After mastering the topic of types encapsulating you will face the great problem of exceptions handling. Yep, it’s a hard nut to crack. We will start from discussing a question of why do we use exceptions as a mechanism of errors handling. And why C# team didn’t invent any other mechanisms?

In the end, we will look at how to fight with null values. As you may know, Tony Hoar said that the invention of a null value was his billion-dollar mistake.

To sum up, the course covers the following topics:

API development principles
How to give better names for API members and what naming conventions exist in the .NET platform and suited for C#
Common problems encountered by C# developers in the process of designing and implementing APIs: classes vs structures, abstract classes vs interfaces, creational patterns vs constructors, how to implement dispose pattern (are you sure you understand this allegedly simple case?)
Common implementation smells such as poor naming, excessively long methods, output parameters and so on
Common Architectural Design Smells such as Primitive Obsession, Hidden Dependencies, Violation of Law of Demeter and other.
How to deal with errors. It is surprisingly hard to develop robust software where errors handling is based on exceptions. We will find out why this is so and how to struggle with problems of error handling
How to deal with Nulls. Null Vales have always been a pain the ass. NullReferenceException is a well-known and popular guest in our software. We will look at the possible ways of diminishing the disrupting power of null-values
How long is this course: The course is around 3.5 hours. All are video lectures. You will be able to download all the slides and code samples used in the course.

Keywords related to the course:

C# Clean Code
C# Best Practices
API in C#
Building API in C#
Clean Code in C# tutorial
Who is the target audience?

This course is primarily oriented on programmers who have at least basic knowledge of C# and looking for practical guidelines concentrated on the improving of code qualities
Basic knowledge
You should already be familiar with the basics of C#
You should already have some practice working with Visual Studio
What will you learn
Design and implement a type or an API taking care of it’s users
Encapsulate types so the other programmers would not hate you
Code in a good style making the code clearer in its intent.
Refactor the code making it much better to read and understand
Throw and handle exceptions properly
Decide whether to comment a particular part of the code is a good idea or not. By the way, which comments are helpful and which are not?
Dealing with Null values
To continue:

#csharp #api-in-c #design-and-implementation #Null

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API Design Patterns and Best Practices | C# Tutorial for Beginners | Simpliv
bindu singh

bindu singh


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Einar  Hintz

Einar Hintz


API Integration Practices and Patterns

We all hear it so often that we almost stop hearing it: “Integration is critical to meeting users’ needs.”

Integration work consumes 50%-80% of the time and budget of digital transformation projects, or building a digital platform, while innovation gets only the leftovers, according to SAP and Salesforce. And as everyone from legacy enterprises to SaaS startups launches new digital products, they all hit a point at which the product cannot unlock more value for users or continue to grow without making integration a feature.

If I were to sum up the one question behind all of the other questions that I hear from customers, enterprises, partners, and developers, it would be something like: “Is integration a differentiator that we should own? Or an undifferentiated but necessary feature that supports what we’re trying to accomplish?”

This Refcard won’t try to answer that question for you. Rather, no matter what type of development work you do, API integration is a fact of life today, like gravity. Why? Today, experience is paramount. The average enterprise uses more than 1,500 cloud applications (with the number growing by 20% each year). Every app needs to integrate with other systems in a fluid and ever-changing application ecosystem. So instead, I’ll share some of the common practices you’re likely to contend with as well as some patterns to consider.

This is a preview of the API Integrations Practices and Patterns Refcard. To read the entire Refcard, please download the PDF from the link above.

#apis #api integration #integration patterns #api cloud #api patterns #api authentication #api errors #apis and integrations

Sival Alethea

Sival Alethea


C++ Tutorial for Beginners - Full Course. DO NOT MISS!!!

This course will give you a full introduction into all of the core concepts in C++.
⭐️ Contents ⭐
⌨️ (0:00:00) Introduction
⌨️ (0:01:38) Windows Installation
⌨️ (0:04:54) Mac Installation
⌨️ (0:08:44) Setup & Hello World
⌨️ (0:12:29) Drawing a Shape
⌨️ (0:19:55) Variables
⌨️ (0:31:43) Data Types
⌨️ (0:39:15) Working With Strings
⌨️ (0:49:00) Working With Numbers
⌨️ (0:59:41) Getting User Input
⌨️ (1:05:32) Building a Calculator
⌨️ (1:09:28) Building a Mad Libs
⌨️ (1:13:45) Arrays
⌨️ (1:20:03) Functions
⌨️ (1:29:47) Return Statement
⌨️ (1:35:22) If Statements
⌨️ (1:47:15) If Statements (con’t)
⌨️ (1:55:58) Building a Better Calculator
⌨️ (2:02:20) Switch Statements
⌨️ (2:10:47) While Loops
⌨️ (2:18:53) Building a Guessing Game
⌨️ (2:29:18) For Loops
⌨️ (2:38:32) Exponent Function
⌨️ (2:45:21) 2d Arrays & Nested Loops
⌨️ (2:54:55) Comments
⌨️ (2:59:11) Pointers
⌨️ (3:13:26) Classes & Objects
⌨️ (3:25:40) Constructor Functions
⌨️ (3:34:41) Object Functions
⌨️ (3:41:43) Getters & Setters
⌨️ (3:54:04) Inheritance

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Top 10 API Security Threats Every API Team Should Know

As more and more data is exposed via APIs either as API-first companies or for the explosion of single page apps/JAMStack, API security can no longer be an afterthought. The hard part about APIs is that it provides direct access to large amounts of data while bypassing browser precautions. Instead of worrying about SQL injection and XSS issues, you should be concerned about the bad actor who was able to paginate through all your customer records and their data.

Typical prevention mechanisms like Captchas and browser fingerprinting won’t work since APIs by design need to handle a very large number of API accesses even by a single customer. So where do you start? The first thing is to put yourself in the shoes of a hacker and then instrument your APIs to detect and block common attacks along with unknown unknowns for zero-day exploits. Some of these are on the OWASP Security API list, but not all.

Insecure pagination and resource limits

Most APIs provide access to resources that are lists of entities such as /users or /widgets. A client such as a browser would typically filter and paginate through this list to limit the number items returned to a client like so:

First Call: GET /items?skip=0&take=10 
Second Call: GET /items?skip=10&take=10

However, if that entity has any PII or other information, then a hacker could scrape that endpoint to get a dump of all entities in your database. This could be most dangerous if those entities accidently exposed PII or other sensitive information, but could also be dangerous in providing competitors or others with adoption and usage stats for your business or provide scammers with a way to get large email lists. See how Venmo data was scraped

A naive protection mechanism would be to check the take count and throw an error if greater than 100 or 1000. The problem with this is two-fold:

  1. For data APIs, legitimate customers may need to fetch and sync a large number of records such as via cron jobs. Artificially small pagination limits can force your API to be very chatty decreasing overall throughput. Max limits are to ensure memory and scalability requirements are met (and prevent certain DDoS attacks), not to guarantee security.
  2. This offers zero protection to a hacker that writes a simple script that sleeps a random delay between repeated accesses.
skip = 0
while True:    response ='' + skip),                      headers={'Authorization': 'Bearer' + ' ' + sys.argv[1]})    print("Fetched 10 items")    sleep(randint(100,1000))    skip += 10

How to secure against pagination attacks

To secure against pagination attacks, you should track how many items of a single resource are accessed within a certain time period for each user or API key rather than just at the request level. By tracking API resource access at the user level, you can block a user or API key once they hit a threshold such as “touched 1,000,000 items in a one hour period”. This is dependent on your API use case and can even be dependent on their subscription with you. Like a Captcha, this can slow down the speed that a hacker can exploit your API, like a Captcha if they have to create a new user account manually to create a new API key.

Insecure API key generation

Most APIs are protected by some sort of API key or JWT (JSON Web Token). This provides a natural way to track and protect your API as API security tools can detect abnormal API behavior and block access to an API key automatically. However, hackers will want to outsmart these mechanisms by generating and using a large pool of API keys from a large number of users just like a web hacker would use a large pool of IP addresses to circumvent DDoS protection.

How to secure against API key pools

The easiest way to secure against these types of attacks is by requiring a human to sign up for your service and generate API keys. Bot traffic can be prevented with things like Captcha and 2-Factor Authentication. Unless there is a legitimate business case, new users who sign up for your service should not have the ability to generate API keys programmatically. Instead, only trusted customers should have the ability to generate API keys programmatically. Go one step further and ensure any anomaly detection for abnormal behavior is done at the user and account level, not just for each API key.

Accidental key exposure

APIs are used in a way that increases the probability credentials are leaked:

  1. APIs are expected to be accessed over indefinite time periods, which increases the probability that a hacker obtains a valid API key that’s not expired. You save that API key in a server environment variable and forget about it. This is a drastic contrast to a user logging into an interactive website where the session expires after a short duration.
  2. The consumer of an API has direct access to the credentials such as when debugging via Postman or CURL. It only takes a single developer to accidently copy/pastes the CURL command containing the API key into a public forum like in GitHub Issues or Stack Overflow.
  3. API keys are usually bearer tokens without requiring any other identifying information. APIs cannot leverage things like one-time use tokens or 2-factor authentication.

If a key is exposed due to user error, one may think you as the API provider has any blame. However, security is all about reducing surface area and risk. Treat your customer data as if it’s your own and help them by adding guards that prevent accidental key exposure.

How to prevent accidental key exposure

The easiest way to prevent key exposure is by leveraging two tokens rather than one. A refresh token is stored as an environment variable and can only be used to generate short lived access tokens. Unlike the refresh token, these short lived tokens can access the resources, but are time limited such as in hours or days.

The customer will store the refresh token with other API keys. Then your SDK will generate access tokens on SDK init or when the last access token expires. If a CURL command gets pasted into a GitHub issue, then a hacker would need to use it within hours reducing the attack vector (unless it was the actual refresh token which is low probability)

Exposure to DDoS attacks

APIs open up entirely new business models where customers can access your API platform programmatically. However, this can make DDoS protection tricky. Most DDoS protection is designed to absorb and reject a large number of requests from bad actors during DDoS attacks but still need to let the good ones through. This requires fingerprinting the HTTP requests to check against what looks like bot traffic. This is much harder for API products as all traffic looks like bot traffic and is not coming from a browser where things like cookies are present.

Stopping DDoS attacks

The magical part about APIs is almost every access requires an API Key. If a request doesn’t have an API key, you can automatically reject it which is lightweight on your servers (Ensure authentication is short circuited very early before later middleware like request JSON parsing). So then how do you handle authenticated requests? The easiest is to leverage rate limit counters for each API key such as to handle X requests per minute and reject those above the threshold with a 429 HTTP response. There are a variety of algorithms to do this such as leaky bucket and fixed window counters.

Incorrect server security

APIs are no different than web servers when it comes to good server hygiene. Data can be leaked due to misconfigured SSL certificate or allowing non-HTTPS traffic. For modern applications, there is very little reason to accept non-HTTPS requests, but a customer could mistakenly issue a non HTTP request from their application or CURL exposing the API key. APIs do not have the protection of a browser so things like HSTS or redirect to HTTPS offer no protection.

How to ensure proper SSL

Test your SSL implementation over at Qualys SSL Test or similar tool. You should also block all non-HTTP requests which can be done within your load balancer. You should also remove any HTTP headers scrub any error messages that leak implementation details. If your API is used only by your own apps or can only be accessed server-side, then review Authoritative guide to Cross-Origin Resource Sharing for REST APIs

Incorrect caching headers

APIs provide access to dynamic data that’s scoped to each API key. Any caching implementation should have the ability to scope to an API key to prevent cross-pollution. Even if you don’t cache anything in your infrastructure, you could expose your customers to security holes. If a customer with a proxy server was using multiple API keys such as one for development and one for production, then they could see cross-pollinated data.

#api management #api security #api best practices #api providers #security analytics #api management policies #api access tokens #api access #api security risks #api access keys

An API-First Approach For Designing Restful APIs | Hacker Noon

I’ve been working with Restful APIs for some time now and one thing that I love to do is to talk about APIs.

So, today I will show you how to build an API using the API-First approach and Design First with OpenAPI Specification.

First thing first, if you don’t know what’s an API-First approach means, it would be nice you stop reading this and check the blog post that I wrote to the Farfetchs blog where I explain everything that you need to know to start an API using API-First.

Preparing the ground

Before you get your hands dirty, let’s prepare the ground and understand the use case that will be developed.


If you desire to reproduce the examples that will be shown here, you will need some of those items below.

  • NodeJS
  • OpenAPI Specification
  • Text Editor (I’ll use VSCode)
  • Command Line

Use Case

To keep easy to understand, let’s use the Todo List App, it is a very common concept beyond the software development community.

#api #rest-api #openai #api-first-development #api-design #apis #restful-apis #restful-api