10 Linux commands to know the system

Open the terminal application and then start typing these commands to know your Linux desktop or cloud server/VM.

1. free – get free and used memory

Are you running out of memory? Use the free command to show the total amount of free and used physical (RAM) and swap memory in the Linux system. It also displays the buffers and caches used by the kernel:


## human readable outputs

free -h

## use the ``[cat command](https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-unix-appleosx-bsd-cat-command-examples/)`` to find geeky details

cat /proc/meminfo

Linux display amount of free and used memory in the system

However, the free command will not give information about memory configurations, maximum supported memory by the Linux server, and Linux memory speed. Hence, we must use the dmidecode command:

sudo dmidecode -t memory

Want to determine the amount of video memory under Linux, try:

lspci | grep -i vga

glxinfo | egrep -i 'device|memory'

See “Linux Find Out Video Card GPU Memory RAM Size Using Command Line” and “Linux Check Memory Usage Using the CLI and GUI” for more information.

2. hwinfo – probe for hardware

We can quickly probe for the hardware present in the Linux server or desktop:

## Find detailed info about the Linux box


## Show only a summary #

hwinfo --short

## View all disks #

hwinfo --disk

## Get an overview #

hwinfo --short --block

## Find a particular disk #

hwinfo --disk --only /dev/sda

hwinfo --disk --only /dev/sda

## Try 4 graphics card ports for monitor data #

hwprobe=bios.ddc.ports=4 hwinfo --monitor

## Limit info to specific devices #

hwinfo --short --cpu --disk --listmd --gfxcard --wlan --printer


Alternatively, you may find the lshw command and inxi command useful to display your Linux hardware information:

sudo lshw -short

inxi -Fxz


inxi is system information tool to get system configurations and hardware. It shows system hardware, CPU, drivers, Xorg, Desktop, Kernel, gcc version(s), Processes, RAM usage, and a wide variety of other useful information [Click to enlarge]

3. id – know yourself

Display Linux user and group information for the given USER name. If user name omitted show information for the current user:


uid=1000(vivek) gid=1000(vivek) groups=1000(vivek),4(adm),24(cdrom),27(sudo),30(dip),46(plugdev),115(lpadmin),116(sambashare),998(lxd)

See who is logged on your Linux server:


who am i

#[object object] #[object object] #[object object] #linux

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10 Linux commands to know the system

Examples of the dig command in Linux

Dig Command Line Options and Examples
Here is the frequently used command line options and example’s of dig command.
1. Basic Dig Command
A basic dig command accept domain name as command line parameter and prints Address record.
2. Query With Specific DNS Server
The default dig command queries to dns server configured on your system. For example, the Linux systems keep default DNS entry in /etc/resolv.conf.
3. Print Short Answer
Use +short command line option to print result in short form. This is basically useful with the shell scripting and other automation tasks.
4. Print Detailed but Specific Result
Use +noall with +answer to print detailed information but specific. This will print only answer section including few more details as a result.

#linux commands #command #dig #dig command #useful examples #linux

Useful Example for the mv command in Linux

mv Command Examples
Below is the basic mv command examples on Linux terminal.

  • Rename file in current directory – For example rename file source.txt to dest.txt in current directory.
  • Move file to destination directory – Move a source.txt file available in current directory to /tmp directory. In above command the file name is unchanged at target directory. You can also rename file name at destination directory just by providing filename at destination.
  • Move file from source directory to destination directory – We can also move files or directory from some other directory to destination directory.
  • Move multiple files to destination at once – The mv accepts multiple source files and move them to the destination directory at once. The following command will move file1.txt, file2.txt in current directory and /opt/file3.txt to the /tmp directory. Here the last command line parameter is used as destination by the mv command.

#linux commands #command #mv #useful example #mv command #linux

Mertie  Feil

Mertie Feil


gpm Command in Linux with Examples

GPM (“General Purpose Mouse”) software provides support for mouse devices in Linux virtual consoles. This package provides a daemon that captures mouse events when the system console is active and delivers events to applications through a library. By default, the daemon provides a ‘selection’ mode, in order that cut-and-paste with the mouse works on the console even as it does under X. It is used to select the text, drag the mouse while holding the left button, or to paste text within the same or another console, press the center button. The right button is employed to increase the choice. Two-button mice use the right button to paste the text.


It is included in most Linux distributions, but in case it is not, then run this command to install gpm.

sudo apt-get install gpm


sudo gpm [options]

#linux-unix #linux-command #linux-system-commands #picked

Ruth  Nabimanya

Ruth Nabimanya


System Databases in SQL Server


In SSMS, we many of may noticed System Databases under the Database Folder. But how many of us knows its purpose?. In this article lets discuss about the System Databases in SQL Server.

System Database

Fig. 1 System Databases

There are five system databases, these databases are created while installing SQL Server.

  • Master
  • Model
  • MSDB
  • Tempdb
  • Resource
  • This database contains all the System level Information in SQL Server. The Information in form of Meta data.
  • Because of this master database, we are able to access the SQL Server (On premise SQL Server)
  • This database is used as a template for new databases.
  • Whenever a new database is created, initially a copy of model database is what created as new database.
  • This database is where a service called SQL Server Agent stores its data.
  • SQL server Agent is in charge of automation, which includes entities such as jobs, schedules, and alerts.
  • The Tempdb is where SQL Server stores temporary data such as work tables, sort space, row versioning information and etc.
  • User can create their own version of temporary tables and those are stored in Tempdb.
  • But this database is destroyed and recreated every time when we restart the instance of SQL Server.
  • The resource database is a hidden, read only database that holds the definitions of all system objects.
  • When we query system object in a database, they appear to reside in the sys schema of the local database, but in actually their definitions reside in the resource db.

#sql server #master system database #model system database #msdb system database #sql server system databases #ssms #system database #system databases in sql server #tempdb system database

How I Switched from Windows 10 to Linux Mint

This article is all about my journey on switching from Windows 10 to Linux Mint 20, how I got easily adapted to the Linux environment, and some resources that helped me to set up a perfect Desktop environment.


Ok, now I have decided to switch to Linux but here comes the first question. Which distro will satisfy my needs both in terms of GUI and other aspects? Linux is not something new to me since I have been working with RHEL based distros in my work for the past 4 years with the command-line.

I know RHEL based distros are good for enterprises but not for personalized desktop environments, at least that’s what I am thinking till now. So I started my research to find the distro that should be easy for me to use and at the same time should have good community support if in case I ran into some problem. Among many Linux distros, I drilled down my list to 4 flavors.

Related ArticleThe Best Linux Distributions for Beginners

Before deciding the Distro it is necessary you formulate the list of tools/programs or packages needed and check if the distro you choose provides all those features.

For me, I use Linux for two main purposes: one is for my professional development work, writing articles, and second for my personal use like Video editing and Movies. Most of the popular software are created to be compatible with Windows, macOS, and Linux like Sublime TextVSCodeVLC Media PlayerFirefox/Chromium browser. Other than these software, cloud-based services make our life easy Like Microsoft Office 365 or G Suite.

#linux distros #linux mint #linux distros #linux mint tips #linux