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Lyda White

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Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1604008800

Static Code Analysis: What It Is? How to Use It?

Static code analysis refers to the technique of approximating the runtime behavior of a program. In other words, it is the process of predicting the output of a program without actually executing it.

Lately, however, the term “Static Code Analysis” is more commonly used to refer to one of the applications of this technique rather than the technique itself — program comprehension — understanding the program and detecting issues in it (anything from syntax errors to type mismatches, performance hogs likely bugs, security loopholes, etc.). This is the usage we’d be referring to throughout this post.

“The refinement of techniques for the prompt discovery of error serves as well as any other as a hallmark of what we mean by science.”

  • J. Robert Oppenheimer

Outline

We cover a lot of ground in this post. The aim is to build an understanding of static code analysis and to equip you with the basic theory, and the right tools so that you can write analyzers on your own.

We start our journey with laying down the essential parts of the pipeline which a compiler follows to understand what a piece of code does. We learn where to tap points in this pipeline to plug in our analyzers and extract meaningful information. In the latter half, we get our feet wet, and write four such static analyzers, completely from scratch, in Python.

Note that although the ideas here are discussed in light of Python, static code analyzers across all programming languages are carved out along similar lines. We chose Python because of the availability of an easy to use ast module, and wide adoption of the language itself.

How does it all work?

Before a computer can finally “understand” and execute a piece of code, it goes through a series of complicated transformations:

static analysis workflow

As you can see in the diagram (go ahead, zoom it!), the static analyzers feed on the output of these stages. To be able to better understand the static analysis techniques, let’s look at each of these steps in some more detail:

Scanning

The first thing that a compiler does when trying to understand a piece of code is to break it down into smaller chunks, also known as tokens. Tokens are akin to what words are in a language.

A token might consist of either a single character, like (, or literals (like integers, strings, e.g., 7Bob, etc.), or reserved keywords of that language (e.g, def in Python). Characters which do not contribute towards the semantics of a program, like trailing whitespace, comments, etc. are often discarded by the scanner.

Python provides the tokenize module in its standard library to let you play around with tokens:

Python

1

import io

2

import tokenize

3

4

code = b"color = input('Enter your favourite color: ')"

5

6

for token in tokenize.tokenize(io.BytesIO(code).readline):

7

    print(token)

Python

1

TokenInfo(type=62 (ENCODING),  string='utf-8')

2

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='color')

3

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='=')

4

TokenInfo(type=1  (NAME),      string='input')

5

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string='(')

6

TokenInfo(type=3  (STRING),    string="'Enter your favourite color: '")

7

TokenInfo(type=54 (OP),        string=')')

8

TokenInfo(type=4  (NEWLINE),   string='')

9

TokenInfo(type=0  (ENDMARKER), string='')

(Note that for the sake of readability, I’ve omitted a few columns from the result above — metadata like starting index, ending index, a copy of the line on which a token occurs, etc.)

#code quality #code review #static analysis #static code analysis #code analysis #static analysis tools #code review tips #static code analyzer #static code analysis tool #static analyzer

A Step-by-Step Introduction to CSS Preprocessors with VS Code

It is fun to build cool and good looking pages when you know CSS like the back of your hand. But when you have a few hundred lines of code, this is exactly when things begin to get complicated and messy. This is where CSS preprocessors come to play, helping you to manage and improve the maintainability of your code.

In this article, I am going to share with you some benefits you can have from using CSS preprocessors.

If you are a newbie in web development after struggling to learn CSS, it is a good idea to learn what a preprocessor is and why you should start learning it since you already feel comfortable with your level of CSS.

Here, you will meet the most popular CSS preprocessors. Let’s start by defining the word preprocessor. This definition is from the Wikipedia and the MDN Web docs page:

A computer program that modifies data to conform with the input requirements of another program.

Which CSS Preprocessor Should You Choose?

There are some minor differences between each of them but it is your call to make depending on your preferences. If your working with a coding partner, I would recommend you to choose the same he/she is using.

Here is a list of the four most popular CSS preprocessors:

How to Set Up a CSS Preprocessor on Your Local Environment

After deciding with your partner which preprocessor fits you the best, these are the steps you will have to follow to implement the preprocessor in your workflow.

  1. If you don’t have a code editor or an IDE installed, I recommend you use VS Code click on the link to download and install it.
  2. To install a Sass or a LESS transcompiler you will likely need Node.js and npm (node package manager) installed. If you don’t already have them click on the links to do so.
  3. With VS Code you don’t need to make it to the terminal, we are just going to use a VS Code extension if you curious to know more about extensions just click here. Now you know enough about extension let’s install the one we are going to use for compiling our Sass or LESS code into CSS is Live Sass compiler.What are the advantages of using a CSS preprocessor?

#css #css-preprocessor #vscode #coding #programming #coding-skills #web-development #coding-life

Lyda  White

Lyda White

1626887520

CSS - Glowing Effect || #code #coding #codes #css

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Lyda  White

Lyda White

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CSS - @keyFrame Transition - By D. CoDeS || #code #coding #css #transition

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