Create a PHP and Mysql App in Azure

Create a PHP and Mysql App in Azure

This tutorial shows how to create a PHP app in Azure and connect it to a MySQL database.

Note

This article deploys an app to App Service on Windows. To deploy to App Service on Linux, see Build a PHP and MySQL app in Azure App Service on Linux.

Azure App Service provides a highly scalable, self-patching web hosting service. This tutorial shows how to create a PHP app in Azure and connect it to a MySQL database. When you're finished, you'll have a Laravel app running on Azure App Service.

In this tutorial, you learn how to:

  • Create a MySQL database in Azure
  • Connect a PHP app to MySQL
  • Deploy the app to Azure
  • Update the data model and redeploy the app
  • Stream diagnostic logs from Azure
  • Manage the app in the Azure portal

If you don't have an Azure subscription, create a free account before you begin.

Prerequisites

To complete this tutorial:

Prepare local MySQL

In this step, you create a database in your local MySQL server for your use in this tutorial.

Connect to local MySQL server

In a terminal window, connect to your local MySQL server. You can use this terminal window to run all the commands in this tutorial.

mysql -u root -p

If you're prompted for a password, enter the password for the root account. If you don't remember your root account password, see MySQL: How to Reset the Root Password.

If your command runs successfully, then your MySQL server is running. If not, make sure that your local MySQL server is started by following the MySQL post-installation steps.

Create a database locally

At the mysql prompt, create a database.

CREATE DATABASE sampledb;

Exit your server connection by typing quit.

quit

Create a PHP app locally

In this step, you get a Laravel sample application, configure its database connection, and run it locally.

Clone the sample

In the terminal window, cd to a working directory.

Run the following command to clone the sample repository.

git clone https://github.com/Azure-Samples/laravel-tasks

cd to your cloned directory. Install the required packages.

cd laravel-tasks
composer install

Configure MySQL connection

In the repository root, create a text file named .env. Copy the following variables into the .env file. Replace the <root_password> placeholder with the MySQL root user's password.

APP_ENV=local
APP_DEBUG=true
APP_KEY=

DB_CONNECTION=mysql
DB_HOST=127.0.0.1
DB_DATABASE=sampledb
DB_USERNAME=root
DB_PASSWORD=<root_password>

For information on how Laravel uses the .env file, see Laravel Environment Configuration.

Run the sample locally

Run Laravel database migrations to create the tables the application needs. To see which tables are created in the migrations, look in the database/migrations directory in the Git repository.

php artisan migrate

Generate a new Laravel application key.

php artisan key:generate

Run the application.

php artisan serve

Navigate to http://localhost:8000 in a browser. Add a few tasks in the page.

To stop the PHP server, type Ctrl + C in the terminal.

Use Azure Cloud Shell

Azure hosts Azure Cloud Shell, an interactive shell environment that you can use through your browser. You can use either Bash or PowerShell with Cloud Shell to work with Azure services. You can use the Cloud Shell preinstalled commands to run the code in this article without having to install anything on your local environment.

To start Azure Cloud Shell:

Option Example/Link
Select Try It in the upper-right corner of a code block. Selecting Try It doesn't automatically copy the code to Cloud Shell.
Go to https://shell.azure.com, or select the Launch Cloud Shell button to open Cloud Shell in your browser.
Select the Cloud Shell button on the menu bar at the upper right in the Azure portal.

To run the code in this article in Azure Cloud Shell:

  1. Start Cloud Shell.

  2. Select the Copy button on a code block to copy the code.

  3. Paste the code into the Cloud Shell session by selecting Ctrl+Shift+V on Windows and Linux or by selecting Cmd+Shift+V on macOS.

  4. Select Enter to run the code.

Create MySQL in Azure

In this step, you create a MySQL database in Azure Database for MySQL. Later, you configure the PHP application to connect to this database.

Create a resource group

A resource group is a logical container into which Azure resources like web apps, databases, and storage accounts are deployed and managed. For example, you can choose to delete the entire resource group in one simple step later.

In the Cloud Shell, create a resource group with the az group create command. The following example creates a resource group named myResourceGroup in the West Europe location. To see all supported locations for App Service in Free tier, run the az appservice list-locations --sku FREE command.

az group create --name myResourceGroup --location "West Europe"

You generally create your resource group and the resources in a region near you.

When the command finishes, a JSON output shows you the resource group properties.

Create a MySQL server

In the Cloud Shell, create a server in Azure Database for MySQL with the az mysql server create command.

In the following command, substitute a unique server name for the <mysql_server_name> placeholder, a user name for the <admin_user>, and a password for the <admin_password> placeholder. The server name is used as part of your MySQL endpoint (https://<mysql_server_name>.mysql.database.azure.com), so the name needs to be unique across all servers in Azure.

az mysql server create --resource-group myResourceGroup --name <mysql_server_name> --location "West Europe" --admin-user <admin_user> --admin-password <admin_password> --sku-name B_Gen5_1

Note

Since there are several credentials to think about in this tutorial, to avoid confusion, --admin-user and --admin-password are set to dummy values. In a production environment, follow security best practices when choosing a good username and password for your MySQL server in Azure.

When the MySQL server is created, the Azure CLI shows information similar to the following example:

{
  "location": "westeurope",
  "name": "<mysql_server_name>",
  "resourceGroup": "myResourceGroup",
  "sku": {
    "additionalProperties": {},
    "capacity": 1,
    "family": "Gen5",
    "name": "B_Gen5_1",
    "size": null,
    "tier": "GeneralPurpose"
  },
  "sslEnforcement": "Enabled",
  ...	+  
  -  < Output has been truncated for readability >
}

Configure server firewall

In the Cloud Shell, create a firewall rule for your MySQL server to allow client connections by using the az mysql server firewall-rule create command. When both starting IP and end IP are set to 0.0.0.0, the firewall is only opened for other Azure resources.

az mysql server firewall-rule create --name allAzureIPs --server <mysql_server_name> --resource-group myResourceGroup --start-ip-address 0.0.0.0 --end-ip-address 0.0.0.0

In the Cloud Shell, run the command again to allow access from your local computer by replacing <your_ip_address> with your local IPv4 IP address.

az mysql server firewall-rule create --name AllowLocalClient --server <mysql_server_name> --resource-group myResourceGroup --start-ip-address=<your_ip_address> --end-ip-address=<your_ip_address>

Connect to production MySQL server locally

In the local terminal window, connect to the MySQL server in Azure. Use the value you specified previously for <mysql_server_name>. When prompted for a password, use the password you specified when you created the database in Azure.

mysql -u <admin_user>@<mysql_server_name> -h <mysql_server_name>.mysql.database.azure.com -P 3306 -p

Create a production database

At the mysql prompt, create a database.

CREATE DATABASE sampledb;

Create a user with permissions

Create a database user called phpappuser and give it all privileges in the sampledb database. Again, for simplicity of the tutorial, use MySQLAzure2017 as the password.

CREATE USER 'phpappuser' IDENTIFIED BY 'MySQLAzure2017'; 
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON sampledb.* TO 'phpappuser';

Exit the server connection by typing quit.

quit

Connect app to Azure MySQL

In this step, you connect the PHP application to the MySQL database you created in Azure Database for MySQL.

Configure the database connection

In the repository root, create an .env.production file and copy the following variables into it. Replace the placeholder <mysql_server_name> in both DB_HOST and DB_USERNAME.

APP_ENV=production
APP_DEBUG=true
APP_KEY=

DB_CONNECTION=mysql
DB_HOST=<mysql_server_name>.mysql.database.azure.com
DB_DATABASE=sampledb
[email protected]<mysql_server_name>
DB_PASSWORD=MySQLAzure2017
MYSQL_SSL=true

Save the changes.

Configure SSL certificate

By default, Azure Database for MySQL enforces SSL connections from clients. To connect to your MySQL database in Azure, you must use the .pem certificate supplied by Azure Database for MySQL.

Open config/database.php and add the sslmode and options parameters to connections.mysql, as shown in the following code.

'mysql' => [
    ...
    'sslmode' => env('DB_SSLMODE', 'prefer'),
    'options' => (env('MYSQL_SSL')) ? [
        PDO::MYSQL_ATTR_SSL_KEY    => '/ssl/BaltimoreCyberTrustRoot.crt.pem', 
    ] : []
],

The certificate BaltimoreCyberTrustRoot.crt.pem is provided in the repository for convenience in this tutorial.

Test the application locally

Run Laravel database migrations with .env.production as the environment file to create the tables in your MySQL database in Azure Database for MySQL. Remember that .env.production has the connection information to your MySQL database in Azure.

php artisan migrate --env=production --force

.env.production doesn't have a valid application key yet. Generate a new one for it in the terminal.

php artisan key:generate --env=production --force

Run the sample application with .env.production as the environment file.

php artisan serve --env=production

Navigate to http://localhost:8000. If the page loads without errors, the PHP application is connecting to the MySQL database in Azure.

Add a few tasks in the page.

To stop PHP, type Ctrl + C in the terminal.

Commit your changes

Run the following Git commands to commit your changes:

git add .
git commit -m "database.php updates"

Your app is ready to be deployed.

Deploy to Azure

In this step, you deploy the MySQL-connected PHP application to Azure App Service.

Configure a deployment user

FTP and local Git can deploy to an Azure web app by using a deployment user. Once you configure your deployment user, you can use it for all your Azure deployments. Your account-level deployment username and password are different from your Azure subscription credentials.

To configure the deployment user, run the az webapp deployment user set command in Azure Cloud Shell. Replace <username> and <password> with a deployment user username and password.

  • The username must be unique within Azure, and for local Git pushes, must not contain the ‘@’ symbol.
  • The password must be at least eight characters long, with two of the following three elements: letters, numbers, and symbols.
az webapp deployment user set --user-name <username> --password <password>

The JSON output shows the password as null. If you get a 'Conflict'. Details: 409 error, change the username. If you get a 'Bad Request'. Details: 400 error, use a stronger password.

Record your username and password to use to deploy your web apps.

Create an App Service plan

In the Cloud Shell, create an App Service plan with the az appservice plan create command.

The following example creates an App Service plan named myAppServicePlan in the Free pricing tier:

az appservice plan create --name myAppServicePlan --resource-group myResourceGroup --sku FREE

When the App Service plan has been created, the Azure CLI shows information similar to the following example:

{ 
  "adminSiteName": null,
  "appServicePlanName": "myAppServicePlan",
  "geoRegion": "West Europe",
  "hostingEnvironmentProfile": null,
  "id": "/subscriptions/0000-0000/resourceGroups/myResourceGroup/providers/Microsoft.Web/serverfarms/myAppServicePlan",
  "kind": "app",
  "location": "West Europe",
  "maximumNumberOfWorkers": 1,
  "name": "myAppServicePlan",
  < JSON data removed for brevity. >
  "targetWorkerSizeId": 0,
  "type": "Microsoft.Web/serverfarms",
  "workerTierName": null
} 

Create a web app

Create a web app in the myAppServicePlan App Service plan.

In the Cloud Shell, you can use the az webapp create command. In the following example, replace <app-name> with a globally unique app name (valid characters are a-z, 0-9, and -). The runtime is set to PHP|7.0. To see all supported runtimes, run az webapp list-runtimes.

# Bash
az webapp create --resource-group myResourceGroup --plan myAppServicePlan --name <app-name> --runtime "PHP|7.0" --deployment-local-git
# PowerShell
az --% webapp create --resource-group myResourceGroup --plan myAppServicePlan --name <app-name> --runtime "PHP|7.0" --deployment-local-git

When the web app has been created, the Azure CLI shows output similar to the following example:

Local git is configured with url of 'https://<username>@<app-name>.scm.azurewebsites.net/<app-name>.git'
{
  "availabilityState": "Normal",
  "clientAffinityEnabled": true,
  "clientCertEnabled": false,
  "cloningInfo": null,
  "containerSize": 0,
  "dailyMemoryTimeQuota": 0,
  "defaultHostName": "<app-name>.azurewebsites.net",
  "deploymentLocalGitUrl": "https://<username>@<app-name>.scm.azurewebsites.net/<app-name>.git",
  "enabled": true,
  < JSON data removed for brevity. >
}

You’ve created an empty new web app, with git deployment enabled.

Note

The URL of the Git remote is shown in the deploymentLocalGitUrl property, with the format https://<username>@<app-name>.scm.azurewebsites.net/<app-name>.git. Save this URL as you need it later.

Configure database settings

As pointed out previously, you can connect to your Azure MySQL database using environment variables in App Service.

In the Cloud Shell, you set environment variables as app settings by using the az webapp config appsettings set command.

The following command configures the app settings DB_HOST, DB_DATABASE, DB_USERNAME, and DB_PASSWORD. Replace the placeholders _<appname>_ and _<mysql_server_name>_.

az webapp config appsettings set --name <app_name> --resource-group myResourceGroup --settings DB_HOST="<mysql_server_name>.mysql.database.azure.com" DB_DATABASE="sampledb" DB_USERNAME="[email protected]<mysql_server_name>" DB_PASSWORD="MySQLAzure2017" MYSQL_SSL="true"

You can use the PHP getenv method to access the settings. the Laravel code uses an env wrapper over the PHP getenv. For example, the MySQL configuration in config/database.php looks like the following code:

'mysql' => [
    'driver'    => 'mysql',
    'host'      => env('DB_HOST', 'localhost'),
    'database'  => env('DB_DATABASE', 'forge'),
    'username'  => env('DB_USERNAME', 'forge'),
    'password'  => env('DB_PASSWORD', ''),
    ...
],

Configure Laravel environment variables

Laravel needs an application key in App Service. You can configure it with app settings.

In the local terminal window, use php artisan to generate a new application key without saving it to .env.

php artisan key:generate --show

In the Cloud Shell, set the application key in the App Service app by using the az webapp config appsettings set command. Replace the placeholders _<appname>_ and _<outputofphpartisankey:generate>_.

az webapp config appsettings set --name <app_name> --resource-group myResourceGroup --settings APP_KEY="<output_of_php_artisan_key:generate>" APP_DEBUG="true"

APP_DEBUG="true" tells Laravel to return debugging information when the deployed app encounters errors. When running a production application, set it to false, which is more secure.

Set the virtual application path

Set the virtual application path for the app. This step is required because the Laravel application lifecycle begins in the public directory instead of the application's root directory. Other PHP frameworks whose lifecycle start in the root directory can work without manual configuration of the virtual application path.

In the Cloud Shell, set the virtual application path by using the az resource update command. Replace the _<appname>_ placeholder.

az resource update --name web --resource-group myResourceGroup --namespace Microsoft.Web --resource-type config --parent sites/<app_name> --set properties.virtualApplications[0].physicalPath="site\wwwroot\public" --api-version 2015-06-01

By default, Azure App Service points the root virtual application path (/) to the root directory of the deployed application files (sites\wwwroot).

Push to Azure from Git

Back in the local terminal window, add an Azure remote to your local Git repository. Replace _<deploymentLocalGitUrl-from-create-step>_ with the URL of the Git remote that you saved from Create a web app.

git remote add azure <deploymentLocalGitUrl-from-create-step>

Push to the Azure remote to deploy your app with the following command. When Git Credential Manager prompts you for credentials, make sure you enter the credentials you created in Configure a deployment user, not the credentials you use to sign in to the Azure portal.

git push azure master

This command may take a few minutes to run. While running, it displays information similar to the following example:

Counting objects: 3, done.
Delta compression using up to 8 threads.
Compressing objects: 100% (3/3), done.
Writing objects: 100% (3/3), 291 bytes | 0 bytes/s, done.
Total 3 (delta 2), reused 0 (delta 0)
remote: Updating branch 'master'.
remote: Updating submodules.
remote: Preparing deployment for commit id 'a5e076db9c'.
remote: Running custom deployment command...
remote: Running deployment command...
...
< Output has been truncated for readability >

Note

You may notice that the deployment process installs Composer packages at the end. App Service does not run these automations during default deployment, so this sample repository has three additional files in its root directory to enable it:

  • .deployment - This file tells App Service to run bash deploy.sh as the custom deployment script.
  • deploy.sh - The custom deployment script. If you review the file, you will see that it runs php composer.phar install after npm install.
  • composer.phar - The Composer package manager.

You can use this approach to add any step to your Git-based deployment to App Service. For more information, see Custom Deployment Script.

Browse to the Azure app

Browse to http://<app_name>.azurewebsites.net and add a few tasks to the list.

Congratulations, you're running a data-driven PHP app in Azure App Service.

Update model locally and redeploy

In this step, you make a simple change to the task data model and the webapp, and then publish the update to Azure.

For the tasks scenario, you modify the application so that you can mark a task as complete.

Add a column

In the local terminal window, navigate to the root of the Git repository.

Generate a new database migration for the tasks table:

php artisan make:migration add_complete_column --table=tasks

This command shows you the name of the migration file that's generated. Find this file in database/migrations and open it.

Replace the up method with the following code:

public function up()
{
    Schema::table('tasks', function (Blueprint $table) {
        $table->boolean('complete')->default(False);
    });
}

The preceding code adds a boolean column in the tasks table called complete.

Replace the down method with the following code for the rollback action:

public function down()
{
    Schema::table('tasks', function (Blueprint $table) {
        $table->dropColumn('complete');
    });
}

In the local terminal window, run Laravel database migrations to make the change in the local database.

php artisan migrate

Based on the Laravel naming convention, the model Task (see app/Task.php) maps to the tasks table by default.

Update application logic

Open the routes/web.php file. The application defines its routes and business logic here.

At the end of the file, add a route with the following code:

/**
 * Toggle Task completeness
 */
Route::post('/task/{id}', function ($id) {
    error_log('INFO: post /task/'.$id);
    $task = Task::findOrFail($id);

    $task->complete = !$task->complete;
    $task->save();

    return redirect('/');
});

The preceding code makes a simple update to the data model by toggling the value of complete.

Update the view

Open the resources/views/tasks.blade.php file. Search for the <tr> opening tag and replace it with:

<tr class="{{ $task->complete ? 'success' : 'active' }}" >

The preceding code changes the row color depending on whether the task is complete.

In the next line, you have the following code:

<td class="table-text"><div>{{ $task->name }}</div></td>

Replace the entire line with the following code:

<td>
    <form action="{{ url('task/'.$task->id) }}" method="POST">
        {{ csrf_field() }}

        <button type="submit" class="btn btn-xs">
            <i class="fa {{$task->complete ? 'fa-check-square-o' : 'fa-square-o'}}"></i>
        </button>
        {{ $task->name }}
    </form>
</td>

The preceding code adds the submit button that references the route that you defined earlier.

Test the changes locally

In the local terminal window, run the development server from the root directory of the Git repository.

php artisan serve

To see the task status change, navigate to http://localhost:8000 and select the checkbox.

To stop PHP, type Ctrl + C in the terminal.

Publish changes to Azure

In the local terminal window, run Laravel database migrations with the production connection string to make the change in the Azure database.

php artisan migrate --env=production --force

Commit all the changes in Git, and then push the code changes to Azure.

git add .
git commit -m "added complete checkbox"
git push azure master

Once the git push is complete, navigate to the Azure app and test the new functionality.

If you added any tasks, they are retained in the database. Updates to the data schema leave existing data intact.

Stream diagnostic logs

While the PHP application runs in Azure App Service, you can get the console logs piped to your terminal. That way, you can get the same diagnostic messages to help you debug application errors.

To start log streaming, use the az webapp log tail command in the Cloud Shell.

az webapp log tail --name <app_name> --resource-group myResourceGroup

Once log streaming has started, refresh the Azure app in the browser to get some web traffic. You can now see console logs piped to the terminal. If you don't see console logs immediately, check again in 30 seconds.

To stop log streaming at anytime, type Ctrl+C.

Manage the Azure app

Go to the Azure portal to manage the app you created.

From the left menu, click App Services, and then click the name of your Azure app.

You see your app's Overview page. Here, you can perform basic management tasks like stop, start, restart, browse, and delete.

The left menu provides pages for configuring your app.

Clean up resources

In the preceding steps, you created Azure resources in a resource group. If you don't expect to need these resources in the future, delete the resource group by running the following command in the Cloud Shell:

az group delete --name myResourceGroup

This command may take a minute to run.

Laravel 5.8 Tutorial: Build your First CRUD App with Laravel and MySQL (PHP 7.1+)

Laravel 5.8 Tutorial: Build your First CRUD App with Laravel and MySQL (PHP 7.1+)

Laravel 5.8 Tutorial: Build your First CRUD App with Laravel and MySQL (PHP 7.1+)

Originally published at techiediaries.com on 12 Mar 2019

Throughout this tutorial for beginners you'll learn to use Laravel 5.8 - the latest version of one of the most popular PHP frameworks - to create a CRUD web application with a MySQL database from scratch and step by step starting with the installation of Composer (PHP package manager) to implementing and serving your application.

Note: Laravel 5.8 is recently released and this tutorial is upgraded to the latest version.
Also read: Laravel 5.8 REST CRUD API Tutorial - Build a CRM [PART 1]: Eloquent Models and Relationships
Laravel 5.8 New Features

Let's start our tutorial by going through the most important features introduced in this version.

  • The hasOneThrough Eloquent relationship.
  • Better email validation,
  • Auto-Discovery Of Model Policies provided that the model and policy follow standard Laravel naming conventions
  • DynamoDB cache and session drivers,
  • Added support for PHPUnit 8.0 for unit testing,
  • Added support for Carbon 2.0, an easy to use PHP API extension for DateTime,
  • Added support Pheanstalk 4.0: a pure PHP 5.3+ client for the beanstalkd workqueue, etc.

The Laravel 5.8 version has also corrected numeroous bugs and introduced many improvements of the Artisan CLI.

Check out the official docs for details features of Laravel 5.8

Prerequisites

This tutorial assumes you have PHP and MySQL installed on your system. Follow the instructions for your operating system to install both of them.

You also need to be familiar with Linux/macOS bash where we'll be executing the commands in this tutorial.

Familiarly with PHP is required since Laravel is based on PHP.

For development I will be using a Ubuntu 16.04 machine so the commands in this tutorial are targeting this system but you should be able to follow this tutorial in any operating system you use.

Installing PHP 7.1

Laravel v5.8 requires PHP 7.1 or above so you need the latest version of PHP installed on your system. The process is straightforward on most systems.

On Ubuntu, you can follow these instructions.

First add the ondrej/php PPA which contains the latest version of PHP:

$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:ondrej/php
$ sudo apt-get update

Next, install PHP 7.1 using the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.1

If you are using Ubuntu 18.04, PHP 7.2 is included in the default Ubuntu repository for 18.04 so you should be able to install it using the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install php
This tutorial is tested with PHP 7.1 but you can also use more recent versions like PHP 7.2 or PHP 7.3

Installing the Required PHP 7.1 Modules

Laravel requires a bunch of modules. You can install them using the following command:

$ sudo apt-get install php7.1 php7.1-cli php7.1-common php7.1-json php7.1-opcache php7.1-mysql php7.1-mbstring php7.1-mcrypt php7.1-zip php7.1-fpm php7.1-xml
Installing PHP Composer

Let's start our journey by install Composer, The PHP package manager.

Navigate in your home directory, then download the installer from the official website using curl:

$ cd ~
$ curl -sS https://getcomposer.org/installer -o composer-setup.php

You can then install composer globally on your system by using the following command:

$ sudo php composer-setup.php --install-dir=/usr/local/bin --filename=composer

As of this writing Composer 1.8 will be installed on your system. You can make sure your installation works as expected by running composer in your terminal:

$ composer

You should get the following output:

   ______
  / ____/___  ____ ___  ____  ____  ________  _____
 / /   / __ \/ __ `__ \/ __ \/ __ \/ ___/ _ \/ ___/
/ /___/ /_/ / / / / / / /_/ / /_/ (__  )  __/ /
\____/\____/_/ /_/ /_/ .___/\____/____/\___/_/
                    /_/
Composer version 1.8.0 2018-12-03 10:31:16

Usage:
command [options] [arguments]

Options:
-h, --help Display this help message
-q, --quiet Do not output any message
-V, --version Display this application version
--ansi Force ANSI output
--no-ansi Disable ANSI output
-n, --no-interaction Do not ask any interactive question
--profile Display timing and memory usage information
--no-plugins Whether to disable plugins.
-d, --working-dir=WORKING-DIR If specified, use the given directory as working directory.
-v|vv|vvv, --verbose Increase the verbosity of messages: 1 for normal output, 2 for more verbose output and 3 for debug

For more information check out this tutorial.

If you've successfully installed Composer in your system, you are ready to create a Laravel 5.8 project.

Installing and Creating a Laravel 5.8 Project

In this section we'll introduce Laravel and then proceed it to install and create a Laravel 5.8 project.

About Laravel

Laravel docs describe it as:

Laravel is a web application framework with expressive, elegant syntax. We believe development must be an enjoyable and creative experience to be truly fulfilling. Laravel attempts to take the pain out of development by easing common tasks used in the majority of web projects, such as:
  • Simple, fast routing engine.
  • Powerful dependency injection container.
  • Multiple back-ends for session and cache storage.
  • Expressive, intuitive database ORM.
  • Database agnostic schema migrations.
  • Robust background job processing.
  • Real-time event broadcasting.
Laravel is accessible, yet powerful, providing tools needed for large, robust applications.

Generating a Laravel 5.8 project is easy and straightforward. In your terminal, run the following command:

$ composer create-project  --prefer-dist  laravel/laravel laravel-first-crud-app

This will install laravel/laravel v5.8.3.

Note: Make sure you have PHP 7.1 installed on your system. Otherwise, composer will use Laravel 5.5 for your project.

You can verify the installed version in your project using:

$ cd laravel-first-crud-app
$ php artisan -V
Laravel Framework 5.8.19
Installing the Front-End Dependencies

In your generated project, you can see that a package.json file is generated which includes many front-end libraries that can be used by your project:

  • axios,
  • bootstrap,
  • cross-env,
  • jquery,
  • laravel-mix,
  • lodash,
  • popper.js,
  • resolve-url-loader,
  • sass,
  • sass-loader,
  • vue.
Note: You can use your preferred libraries with Laravel not specifically the ones added to package.json.
The package.json file in your Laravel project includes a few packages such as vue and axios to help you get started building your JavaScript application.
It also includes bootstrap to help you get started with Bootstrap for styling your UI.
It include Laravel Mix to help you compile your SASS files to plain CSS.

You need to use npm to install the front-end dependencies:

$ npm install

After running this command a node_modules folder will be created and the dependencies will be installed into it.

Note: You need to have Node.js and npm installed on your system before you can install the front-end dependencies.
Creating a MySQL Database

Let's now create a MySQL database that we'll use to persist dat ain our Laravel application. In your terminal, run the following command to run the mysql client:

$ mysql -u root -p

When prompted, enter the password for your MySQL server when you've installed it.

Next, run the following SQL statement to create a db database:

mysql> create database db;

Open the .env file and update the credentials to access your MySQL database:

DB_CONNECTION=mysql
DB_HOST=127.0.0.1
DB_PORT=3306
DB_DATABASE=db
DB_USERNAME=root
DB_PASSWORD=******

You need to enter the database name, the username and password.

At this point, you can run the migrate command to create your database and a bunch of SQL tables needed by Laravel:

$ php artisan migrate
Note: You can run the migrate command at any other points of your development to add other SQL tables in your database or to later your database if you need to add any changes later.
Creating your First Laravel Model

Laravel uses the MVC architectural pattern to organize your application in three decoupled parts:

  • The Model which encapsulates the data access layer,
  • The View which encapsulates the representation layer,
  • Controller which encapsulates the code to control the application and communicates with the model and view layers.

Wikipedia defines MVC as:

Model–view–controller is an architectural pattern commonly used for developing user interfacesthat divides an application into three interconnected parts. This is done to separate internal representations of information from the ways information is presented to and accepted from the user.

Now, let's create our first Laravel Model. In your terminal, run the following command:

$ php artisan make:model Contact --migration

This will create a Contact model and a migration file. In the terminal, we get an output similar to:

Model created successfully.
Created Migration: 2019_01_27_193840_create_contacts_table

Open the database/migrations/xxxxxx_create_contacts_table migration file and update it accordingly:

<?php

use Illuminate\Support\Facades\Schema;
use Illuminate\Database\Schema\Blueprint;
use Illuminate\Database\Migrations\Migration;

class CreateContactsTable extends Migration
{
/**
* Run the migrations.
*
* @return void
*/
public function up()
{
Schema::create('contacts', function (Blueprint $table) {
$table->increments('id');
$table->timestamps();
$table->string('first_name');
$table->string('last_name');
$table->string('email');
$table->string('job_title');
$table->string('city');
$table->string('country');
});
}

/**
 * Reverse the migrations.
 *
 * @return void
 */
public function down()
{
    Schema::dropIfExists('contacts');
}

}

We added the first_namelast_nameemailjob_titlecity and country fields in the contacts table.

You can now create the contacts table in the database using the following command:

$ php artisan migrate

Now, let's look at our Contact model, which will be used to interact with the contacts database table. Open the app/Contact.php and update it:

<?php

namespace App;

use Illuminate\Database\Eloquent\Model;

class Contact extends Model
{
protected $fillable = [
'first_name',
'last_name',
'email',
'city',
'country',
'job_title'
];
}

Creating the Controller and Routes

After creating the model and migrated our database. Let's now create the controller and the routes for working with the Contact model. In your terminal, run the following command:

$ php artisan make:controller ContactController --resource
Laravel resource routing assigns the typical "CRUD" routes to a controller with a single line of code. For example, you may wish to create a controller that handles all HTTP requests for "photos" stored by your application. Using the make:controller Artisan command, we can quickly create such a controller:
This command will generate a controller at app/Http/Controllers/PhotoController.php. The controller will contain a method for each of the available resource operations.

Open the app/Http/Controllers/ContactController.php file. This is the initial content:

<?php

namespace App\Http\Controllers;

use Illuminate\Http\Request;

class ContactController extends Controller
{
/**
* Display a listing of the resource.
*
* @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
*/
public function index()
{
//
}

/**
 * Show the form for creating a new resource.
 *
 * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
 */
public function create()
{
    //
}

/**
 * Store a newly created resource in storage.
 *
 * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
 * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
 */
public function store(Request $request)
{
    //
}

/**
 * Display the specified resource.
 *
 * @param  int  $id
 * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
 */
public function show($id)
{
    //
}

/**
 * Show the form for editing the specified resource.
 *
 * @param  int  $id
 * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
 */
public function edit($id)
{
    //
}

/**
 * Update the specified resource in storage.
 *
 * @param  \Illuminate\Http\Request  $request
 * @param  int  $id
 * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
 */
public function update(Request $request, $id)
{
    //
}

/**
 * Remove the specified resource from storage.
 *
 * @param  int  $id
 * @return \Illuminate\Http\Response
 */
public function destroy($id)
{
    //
}

}

The ContactController class extends Controller class available from Laravel and defines a bunch of methods which will be used to do the CRUD operations against the Contact model.

You can read the role of the method on the comment above it.

Now we need to provide implementations for these methods.

But before that, let's add routing. Open the routes/web.php file and update it accordingly:

<?php
Route::get('/', function () {
return view('welcome');
});

Route::resource('contacts', 'ContactController');

Using the resource() static method of Route, you can create multiple routes to expose multiple actions on the resource.

These routes are mapped to various ContactController methods which will need to implement in the next section:

  • GET/contacts, mapped to the index() method,
  • GET /contacts/create, mapped to the create() method,
  • POST /contacts, mapped to the store() method,
  • GET /contacts/{contact}, mapped to the show() method,
  • GET /contacts/{contact}/edit, mapped to the edit() method,
  • PUT/PATCH /contacts/{contact}, mapped to the update() method,
  • DELETE /contacts/{contact}, mapped to the destroy() method.

These routes are used to serve HTML templates and also as API endpoints for working with the Contactmodel.

Note: If you want to create a controller that will only expose a RESTful API, you can use the apiResource method to exclude the routes that are used to serve the HTML templates:
Route::apiResource('contacts', 'ContactController');
Implementing the CRUD Operations

Let's now implement the controller methods alongside the views.

C: Implementing the Create Operation and Adding a Form

The ContactController includes the store() method that maps to the POST /contacts API endpoint which will be used to create a contact in the database and the create() that maps to the GET /contacts/create route which will be used to serve the HTML form used to submit the contact to POST /contacts API endpoint.

Let's implement these two methods.

Re-open the app/Http/Controllers/ContactController.php file and start by importing the Contactmodel:

use App\Contact;

Next, locate the store() method and update it accordingly:

    public function store(Request $request)
{
$request->validate([
'first_name'=>'required',
'last_name'=>'required',
'email'=>'required'
]);

    $contact = new Contact([
        'first_name' =&gt; $request-&gt;get('first_name'),
        'last_name' =&gt; $request-&gt;get('last_name'),
        'email' =&gt; $request-&gt;get('email'),
        'job_title' =&gt; $request-&gt;get('job_title'),
        'city' =&gt; $request-&gt;get('city'),
        'country' =&gt; $request-&gt;get('country')
    ]);
    $contact-&gt;save();
    return redirect('/contacts')-&gt;with('success', 'Contact saved!');
}

Next, locate the create() method and update it:

    public function create()
{
return view('contacts.create');
}

The create() function makes use of the view() method to return the create.blade.php template which needs to be present in the resources/views folder.

Before creating the create.blade.php template we need to create a base template that will be extended by the create template and all the other templates that will create later in this tutorial.

In the resources/views folder, create a base.blade.php file:

$ cd resources/views
$ touch base.blade.php

Open the resources/views/base.blade.php file and add the following blade template:

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
<meta name="viewport" content="width=device-width, initial-scale=1.0">
<title>Laravel 5.8 & MySQL CRUD Tutorial</title>
<link href="{{ asset('css/app.css') }}" rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" />
</head>
<body>
<div class="container">
@yield('main')
</div>
<script src="{{ asset('js/app.js') }}" type="text/js"></script>
</body>
</html>

Now, let's create the create.blade.php template. First, create a contacts folder in the views folder:

$ mkdir contacts

Next, create the template

$ cd contacts
$ touch create.blade.php

Open the resources/views/contacts/create.blade.php file and add the following code:

@extends('base')

@section('main')
<div class="row">
<div class="col-sm-8 offset-sm-2">
<h1 class="display-3">Add a contact</h1>
<div>
@if ($errors->any())
<div class="alert alert-danger">
<ul>
@foreach ($errors->all() as $error)
<li>{{ $error }}</li>
@endforeach
</ul>
</div><br />
@endif
<form method="post" action="{{ route('contacts.store') }}">
@csrf
<div class="form-group">
<label for="first_name">First Name:</label>
<input type="text" class="form-control" name="first_name"/>
</div>

      &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
          &lt;label for="last_name"&gt;Last Name:&lt;/label&gt;
          &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="last_name"/&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;

      &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
          &lt;label for="email"&gt;Email:&lt;/label&gt;
          &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="email"/&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;
      &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
          &lt;label for="city"&gt;City:&lt;/label&gt;
          &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="city"/&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;
      &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
          &lt;label for="country"&gt;Country:&lt;/label&gt;
          &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="country"/&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;
      &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
          &lt;label for="job_title"&gt;Job Title:&lt;/label&gt;
          &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="job_title"/&gt;
      &lt;/div&gt;                         
      &lt;button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary-outline"&gt;Add contact&lt;/button&gt;
  &lt;/form&gt;

</div>
</div>
</div>
@endsection

This is a screenshot of our create form!

Fill out the form and click on the Add contact button to create a contact in the database. You should be redirected to /contacts route which doesn't have a view associated to it yet.

R: Implementing the Read Operation and Getting Data

Next, let's implement the read operation to get and display contacts data from our MySQL database.

Go to the app/Http/Controllers/ContactController.php file, locate the index() method and update it:

    public function index()
{
$contacts = Contact::all();

    return view('contacts.index', compact('contacts'));
}

Next, you need to create the the index template. Create a resources/views/contacts.index.blade.phpfile:

$ touch index.blade.php

Open the resources/views/contacts/index.blade.php file and add the following code:

@extends('base')

@section('main')
<div class="row">
<div class="col-sm-12">
<h1 class="display-3">Contacts</h1>
<table class="table table-striped">
<thead>
<tr>
<td>ID</td>
<td>Name</td>
<td>Email</td>
<td>Job Title</td>
<td>City</td>
<td>Country</td>
<td colspan = 2>Actions</td>
</tr>
</thead>
<tbody>
@foreach($contacts as $contact)
<tr>
<td>{{$contact->id}}</td>
<td>{{$contact->first_name}} {{$contact->last_name}}</td>
<td>{{$contact->email}}</td>
<td>{{$contact->job_title}}</td>
<td>{{$contact->city}}</td>
<td>{{$contact->country}}</td>
<td>
<a href="{{ route('contacts.edit',$contact->id)}}" class="btn btn-primary">Edit</a>
</td>
<td>
<form action="{{ route('contacts.destroy', $contact->id)}}" method="post">
@csrf
@method('DELETE')
<button class="btn btn-danger" type="submit">Delete</button>
</form>
</td>
</tr>
@endforeach
</tbody>
</table>
<div>
</div>
@endsection

U: Implementing the Update Operation

Next, we need to implement the update operation. Go to the app/Http/Controllers/ContactController.php file, locate the edit($id) method and update it:

    public function edit($id)
{
$contact = Contact::find($id);
return view('contacts.edit', compact('contact'));
}

Next, you need to implement the update() method:

    public function update(Request $request, $id)
{
$request->validate([
'first_name'=>'required',
'last_name'=>'required',
'email'=>'required'
]);

    $contact = Contact::find($id);
    $contact-&gt;first_name =  $request-&gt;get('first_name');
    $contact-&gt;last_name = $request-&gt;get('last_name');
    $contact-&gt;email = $request-&gt;get('email');
    $contact-&gt;job_title = $request-&gt;get('job_title');
    $contact-&gt;city = $request-&gt;get('city');
    $contact-&gt;country = $request-&gt;get('country');
    $contact-&gt;save();

    return redirect('/contacts')-&gt;with('success', 'Contact updated!');
}

Now, you need to add the edit template. Inside the resources/views/contacts/, create an edit.blade.php file:

$ touch edit.blade.php

Open the resources/views/contacts/edit.blade.php file and add this code:

@extends('base')
@section('main')
<div class="row">
<div class="col-sm-8 offset-sm-2">
<h1 class="display-3">Update a contact</h1>

    @if ($errors-&gt;any())
    &lt;div class="alert alert-danger"&gt;
        &lt;ul&gt;
            @foreach ($errors-&gt;all() as $error)
            &lt;li&gt;{{ $error }}&lt;/li&gt;
            @endforeach
        &lt;/ul&gt;
    &lt;/div&gt;
    &lt;br /&gt; 
    @endif
    &lt;form method="post" action="{{ route('contacts.update', $contact-&gt;id) }}"&gt;
        @method('PATCH') 
        @csrf
        &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;

            &lt;label for="first_name"&gt;First Name:&lt;/label&gt;
            &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="first_name" value={{ $contact-&gt;first_name }} /&gt;
        &lt;/div&gt;

        &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
            &lt;label for="last_name"&gt;Last Name:&lt;/label&gt;
            &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="last_name" value={{ $contact-&gt;last_name }} /&gt;
        &lt;/div&gt;

        &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
            &lt;label for="email"&gt;Email:&lt;/label&gt;
            &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="email" value={{ $contact-&gt;email }} /&gt;
        &lt;/div&gt;
        &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
            &lt;label for="city"&gt;City:&lt;/label&gt;
            &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="city" value={{ $contact-&gt;city }} /&gt;
        &lt;/div&gt;
        &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
            &lt;label for="country"&gt;Country:&lt;/label&gt;
            &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="country" value={{ $contact-&gt;country }} /&gt;
        &lt;/div&gt;
        &lt;div class="form-group"&gt;
            &lt;label for="job_title"&gt;Job Title:&lt;/label&gt;
            &lt;input type="text" class="form-control" name="job_title" value={{ $contact-&gt;job_title }} /&gt;
        &lt;/div&gt;
        &lt;button type="submit" class="btn btn-primary"&gt;Update&lt;/button&gt;
    &lt;/form&gt;
&lt;/div&gt;

</div>
@endsection

U: Implementing the Delete Operation

Finally, we'll proceed to implement the delete operation. Go to the app/Http/Controllers/ContactController.php file, locate the destroy() method and update it accordingly:

    public function destroy($id)
{
$contact = Contact::find($id);
$contact->delete();

    return redirect('/contacts')-&gt;with('success', 'Contact deleted!');
}

You can notice that when we redirect to the /contacts route in our CRUD API methods, we also pass a success message but it doesn't appear in our index template. Let's change that!

Go to the resources/views/contacts/index.blade.php file and add the following code:

<div class="col-sm-12">

@if(session()->get('success'))
<div class="alert alert-success">
{{ session()->get('success') }}
</div>
@endif
</div>

We also need to add a button to takes us to the create form. Add this code below the header:

    <div>
<a style="margin: 19px;" href="{{ route('contacts.create')}}" class="btn btn-primary">New contact</a>
</div>

This is a screenshot of the page after we created a contact:

Conclusion

We've reached the end of this tutorial. We created a CRUD application with Laravel 5.8, PHP 7.1 and MySQL.

Hope you enjoyed the tutorial and see you in the next one!


Originally published at techiediaries.com on 12 Mar 2019

=====================================

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How To Set Up Laravel App on Docker, With NGINX and MySQL

How To Set Up Laravel App on Docker, With NGINX and MySQL

Deploying Your Laravel App on Docker, With NGINX and MySQL ... The original post was also uploaded here: Laravel Application on Docker.

Now Shall We

Docker, the new sheriff in town whose new gold boots is getting everyone excited. Why? because Docker is development bliss since it ensures consistency on both your development and production cycles therefore standardizing your environment

I assume you're as excited about docker as the rest of us and hence explains why you have stumbled upon this post. I'll be honest, docker at first, without any prior knowledge is a nightmare, as any other new concept without prior knowledge, but once you do get the hang of it, it'll save you tonnes of time you'll have otherwise invested during deployment.

This post is intended mostly for beginners who probably have little or no knowledge about docker. The motivation behind this post lies on the fact that I wasn't able to find any comprehensive Laravel Docker tutorials online. I was only able in the end to accomplish this task through continuous reading of multiple blog posts and combining all this into a massive comprehensive series of steps that I'll attempt to document in this post.

Now Onto The Good Stuff..

Before I start, I assume that you already have your Laravel Application ready with you. If you don't, you can jump on to the Laravel Documentation Page and build yourself an app, then head back here and continue reading.

I also assume that you already have Docker installed on your machine. In case you don't, you have the following options:

  1. Windows 10 Pro Users: Docker Desktop
  2. Windows 10 Version that's below Windows 10 Pro Users: Docker Toolbox .This is because of Docker Desktop system requirements. Docker Toolbox leverages on the functionalities of VirtualBox.
  3. Linux Users: Docker CentOS . You can choose your Linux distribution (if its not CentOS) from the side menu on the screen that comes up and follow those distribution specific instructions.
First Step: Creating your 'docker-compose' file

What is a docker-compose file? This is a file that defines all your multiple docker containers and all these containers can be spawned up by running a relatively simple command like:

docker-compose -f docker-compose.prod.yml up --build

Here, we'll be setting up a development environment (Which can also be used in your production environment, with a few minor changes that I'll document in my next post :-))

Create a file in your root directory and name it: docker-compose.yml

You'll be defining the containers in the next steps in this file.

In our docker-compose file, we define three containers: mysql, nginx and our laravel app.

So, for starters, our laravel app container will be defined as follows:

version: '2'

services:

The Application

app:
container_name: laravel_app
build:
context: ./
dockerfile: development/app.dockerfile
volumes:
- ./storage:/var/www/storage
env_file: '.env.prod'
environment:
- "DB_HOST=database"
- "REDIS_HOST=cache"

Overview of the Above Code:

  1. version - Feel free to change this to your choosing
  2. container_name - You'll use this name to refer to your container. i.e. if you'd want to close your container, you'll use this name to refer to it specifically. Also feel free to change it to your choosing.
  3. build - Used to build an image from a Dockerfile. Has the following additional options:
  • Context - Docker uses this context (basically, where your laravel files reside) to reference any files within it. In this case, the ./ refers to the root laravel folder assuming that the docker-compose file is stored in your laravel root folder.
  • dockerfile: docker images are built from Dockerfiles, which often contain additional commands that should be run inside the container. In this case, the dockerfile we use to build our appcontainer. Also note that we have used development/app.dockerfile .This means that our docker file is located in a 'development' folder on the root of our laravel app.
  1. volumes - Volumes are used by docker containers to share files between the host machine and the docker container that is running. The left hand side of the full colon represents our host machine and the right hand side represents our docker container. In this case, we're sharing all data in the storage folder on our laravel app with the docker container mounted at /var/www/storage
  2. env_file - This defines our laravel's .env file, in our case env.prod that we'll use to input docker container specific environment variables as we'll see later on this post.
  3. environment - This defines the environment variables that will be set on our docker machine. In this case, if we can execute a bash command inside our linux container and reference the environment variables we define here, i.e. echo $DB_HOST will print out: database

Our NGINX Container will be defined as follows:

# The Web Server
web:
container_name: nginx_server
build:
context: ./
dockerfile: development/web.dockerfile
volumes:
- ./storage/logs/:/var/log/nginx
ports:
- 8990:80

Overview of the Above Code:

  1. container_name - Again, the name of your container, which you can choose to change.
  2. build - Definition same as above. Here you can see that we define this container's dockerfile as web.dockerfile.
  3. volumes - Definition same as above. Here we share our laravel's logs folder with nginx's logs folder.
  4. ports - Here, we define the port in the host machine that our docker container will be listening on and the port on the virtual network created by docker during container deployment. This can be easily visualised by understanding that the left side of the colon defines the host machines, therefore ports on the host machine and the right side of the colon the docker container, therefore the ports on the docker container.

Our MySQL Container will be defined as follows:

# The Database
database:
container_name: mysql_database
image: mysql:5.7
volumes:
- dbdata:/var/lib/mysql
environment:
- "MYSQL_DATABASE=Baly"
- "MYSQL_USER=phpmyadmin"
- "MYSQL_PASSWORD=phpmyadmin"
- "MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=finallyJDBC2017."
ports:
- 8991:3306

Overview of the Above Code:

  1. container_name - Refer to above.
  2. image - In this case, we haven't defined a dockerfile to base our container build on, but rather an image. Our docker container will therefore be built from the image we've defined in this case mysql5:7image. You can switch this mysql version with the version you're developing with. Remember that, with reference to your laravel application, the newest versions of mysql may not work with your laravel app. This is because the newest versions MySQL use a different technique of authentication that may not be supported by either mysql or pdo php extensions. Therefore, beware when invoking mysql:latest instead of mysql:5.7.
  3. volumes - Still the same concept, except that now we've defined dbdata from our host machine that will map to /var/lib/mysql on the docker container.
  4. environment - Same concept as defined above, except that in this case, our mysql database will be initialized with the variables we have set. Therefore, our container after build, will automatically have a database named database , a user named secret identified by the password secret and a root password of secret_root. You can feel free to change these as you please. We define these settings in our env.prodfile so as not to collide our current .env file settings with our container file settings.
  5. ports - same as above, except that our mysql container will be listening on port 8991 on the host machine and 3306 (mysql's default port) on the container's network.

Defining your named volumes

Copy paste the following into your docker-compose.yml file:

volumes:
dbdata:

Ensure that you need to preserve the indenting in your docker-compose.yml file to ensure that docker-compose reads it correctly. In the end, your docker-compose file should look as follows:

version: '2'

services:

The Application

app:
container_name: laravel_app
build:
context: ./
dockerfile: development/app.dockerfile
volumes:
- ./storage:/var/www/storage
env_file: '.env.prod'
environment:
- "DB_HOST=database"
- "REDIS_HOST=cache"

The Web Server

web:
container_name: nginx_server
build:
context: ./
dockerfile: development/web.dockerfile
volumes:
- ./storage/logs/:/var/log/nginx
ports:
- 8990:80

The Database

database:
container_name: mysql_database
image: mysql:5.7
volumes:
- dbdata:/var/lib/mysql
environment:
- "MYSQL_DATABASE=Baly"
- "MYSQL_USER=phpmyadmin"
- "MYSQL_PASSWORD=phpmyadmin"
- "MYSQL_ROOT_PASSWORD=finallyJDBC2017."
ports:
- 8991:3306

# redis

cache:
image: redis:3.0-alpine

volumes:
dbdata:

Second Step: Defining our Dockerfiles.

In this step, we define the dockerfiles for the containers we just defined in our docker-compose file. These dockerfiles will represent a series of commands that we'll want to run inside our docker containers.

Defining our 'app' dockerfile (laravel_app)

Create a folder in your laravel app's root directory and name it development. Inside the folder you just created, create a file and name it app.dockerfile(yes, without any extensions). Open this file and copy paste the following code into it:

FROM php:7.2-fpm

COPY composer.lock composer.json /var/www/

COPY database /var/www/database

WORKDIR /var/www

RUN apt-get update && apt-get -y install git && apt-get -y install zip

RUN php -r "copy('https://getcomposer.org/installer', 'composer-setup.php');"
&& php -r "if (hash_file('SHA384', 'composer-setup.php') === 'a5c698ffe4b8e849a443b120cd5ba38043260d5c4023dbf93e1558871f1f07f58274fc6f4c93bcfd858c6bd0775cd8d1') { echo 'Installer verified'; } else { echo 'Installer corrupt'; unlink('composer-setup.php'); } echo PHP_EOL;"
&& php composer-setup.php
&& php -r "unlink('composer-setup.php');"
&& php composer.phar install --no-dev --no-scripts
&& rm composer.phar

COPY . /var/www

RUN chown -R www-data:www-data
/var/www/storage
/var/www/bootstrap/cache

RUN php artisan cache:clear

RUN php artisan optimize

RUN apt-get install -y libmcrypt-dev
libmagickwand-dev --no-install-recommends
&& pecl install mcrypt-1.0.2
&& docker-php-ext-install pdo_mysql
&& docker-php-ext-enable mcrypt

RUN mv .env.prod .env

RUN php artisan optimize

Overview of the Above Code

  1. From php:7.2-fpm - This means will be building our container from an image, php:7.2-fpm. Also, you can change this version to meet your development environment needs.
  2. COPY - In the first copy command, we copy our composer.lock and composer.json from our root folder (in our host machine) to /var/www/ in the docker container. In the second copy command, we copy our database folder in the host machine to /var/www/databasefolder in the docker container. This is because, one, we'll want to make sure that the dependencies we use in our development environment (in composer.json) will be reflected inside the container when we download dependencies and two, that we can access our migrate files inside the docker container in cases we may need to run migrate command.
  3. WORKDIR - We set the working directory to /var/www which means we don't have to cd to this folder (move to this folder) in cases we'll need to run bash commands.
  4. RUN - Here, we install all the dependencies that will be needed by laravel, including composer and the dependencies needed by composer. Please note the if(hash_file('SHA384'... line. The hash value defined there will change with every update, and therefore if your installer fails with the message: installer corrupt, consider getting the correct hash value from: Get Hash Value.
  5. COPY . /var/www - At this point we copy all our folder contents into /var/www folder in the docker container.
  6. RUN - In the final run commands, we clear our application cache and other cache and install the mysql driver that laravel uses to make connections to the database. Afterwards, we rename our .env.prodfile to .env since this file will contain the correct environment variables specific to the docker container environment and therefore should be used by laravel. We run php artisan optimize to remove the cached version of the .env file.

Please note that it is unnecessary to copy everything from our root folder (like vendor folder) and docker provides a .dockerignore file which works pretty much like a .gitignore file. Our dockeringore file will look as follows:

.git
.idea
.env
node_modules
vendor
storage/framework/cache/**
storage/framework/sessions/**
storage/framework/views/**
development

Save this file in the same folder as your app.dockerfile (development folder).

For your .env.prod file, copy paste your .env file and rename it to .env.prod. In the database settings, change the DB_HOST to match the name of your mysql container, and the password to match what you defined in your docker-compose.yml file. If you followed all my steps without changing a thing, then your .env.prod file should resemble the following:

DB_CONNECTION=mysql
DB_HOST=mysql_database
DB_PORT=3306
DB_DATABASE=Baly
DB_USERNAME=phpmyadmin
DB_PASSWORD=phpmyadmin

Defining our 'web' dockerfile

In the same folder you just created (the development folder) create a web.dockerfile. Copy paste the following to the dockerfile:

FROM nginx:1.10-alpine

ADD development/vhost.conf /etc/nginx/conf.d/default.conf

COPY public /var/www/public

Overview of the Above Code

We build our dockerfile from the image: nginx:1.10-alpine. We then replace nginx's default.conf file with the vhost.conf we'll create in a sec.

We also copy our laravel app's public directory to the public directory of nginx, that will server all our public assets.

Create a vhost.conf file in this same directory (development) and copy paste this into it:

server {
listen 80;
index index.php index.html;
root /var/www/public;
access_log /var/log/nginx/access.log;
error_log /var/log/nginx/error.log;
location / {
try_files $uri /index.php?$args;
}

location ~ \.php$ {
    fastcgi_split_path_info ^(.+\.php)(/.+)$;
    fastcgi_pass app:9000;
    fastcgi_index index.php;
    include fastcgi_params;
    fastcgi_param SCRIPT_FILENAME $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
    fastcgi_param PATH_INFO $fastcgi_path_info;
}

}

our php-fpm container will be listening on port 9000 and hence app:9000

Almost there...

So, to counter-check, you need to already have the following files:

  1. Root folder - docker-compose.yml and .env.prod
  2. development folder:
  • .dockerignore
  • app.dockerfile
  • web.dockerfile
  • vhost.conf

If so, then you're almost done, but first, some prerequisites:

If you are using Docker Toolbox on Windows and your laravel app folder is in a folder other than C:/users you will have trouble sharing volumes between your host machine and your docker containers. This is because any other folder that's not C:/users is not mounted by virtual box when your docker machine starts. Therefore, to fix this, first stop your running docker machine by running:

docker-machine stop

Then open virtualbox, right-click the machine named default and click on settings . Navigate to Shared Folders click on it, and add a new folder that defines the location of your laravel app folder. Remember to check against Auto mount. Afterwards, start your docker machine by running:

docker-machine start default
Drum Rolls...

Assuming you have done everything correctly, go ahead and run the following command:

docker-compose up --build

Make sure that you are running this command inside the root folder of your laravel app. This command builds your container images and finally starts them. If everything goes according to plan, you should be able to access your laravel app running inside your container at:

0.0.0.0:8990

Replace 8990 with the port you defined in your docker-compose.yml file if you used a different port.

Also, please note that for users using Docker Toolbox, docker creates a virtual network and assigns an IP address to it. You can find this IP address by searching for docker quickstart terminal and running it. The IP address assigned will be displayed in the terminal that pops up and you'll be able to access your laravel app by going to:

your-docker-machine-ip:8990

And there you have it folks! You have successfully deployed your laravel app on docker! Stay tuned for my next post where I'll be describing on how to deploy your Laravel app on a production environment.

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