Test Automation Using Pytest and Selenium WebDriver

Test Automation Using Pytest and Selenium WebDriver

Test Automation Using Pytest and Selenium WebDriver: For all your cross-browser, multi-device testing needs, look no further than the powerful combination of Selenium WebDriver and pytest.

Test Automation Using Pytest and Selenium WebDriver: For all your cross-browser, multi-device testing needs, look no further than the powerful combination of Selenium WebDriver and pytest.

One of the challenges that developers face is ensuring that their web application works seamlessly across a different set of devices, browsers, and operating systems platforms. This is where cross-browser testing plays a very crucial role in testing the web application since it helps in testing across different combinations. Based on the target market, development and product teams need to chart out a plan for the various activities involved in cross-browser compatibility testing.

Selenium – Introduction and WebDriver Interface

As far as testing a web application is concerned, there a couple of web frameworks available that automate the tests performed across different web browsers. Selenium is a very popular framework that is primarily used for the automation testing of web applications. It is an open-source tool with which web testing can be performed against popular browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Opera, and Microsoft Edge. The framework can also be used if the test has to be performed on Internet Explorer (latest version or the legacy versions).

Selenium WebDriver is considered one of the core components of the Selenium framework. Selenium WebDriver API is a collection of open-source APIs/language-specific bindings that accepts commands and sends them to the browser, against which the testing is performed. The individual who is responsible for developing the tests need not bother about the architecture details or other technical specifications of the web browser since WebDriver acts as an interface between the test suite/test case and web browser (achieved using the browser-specific WebDriver).

Selenium WebDriver supports different programming languages like Python, C#, Ruby, PERL, and Java. The diagram below shows a simplified view of the Selenium WebDriver Interface. We have already covered the Selenium WebDriver architecture in-depth in our earlier post.

Pytest Test Framework – Introduction and Advantages

Python has a couple of test frameworks that ease the task of web application testing; unittest and pytest are the most widely used frameworks. unittest is a part of the standard library (in Python) and comes as a part of the Python installation. For test automation using pytest, the more popular of the two, with Selenium WebDriver, you need to install pytest separately. Here are some of the advantages of the pytest framework:

  • Can be used by development teams, test teams, teams that are practicing Test-Driven Development (TDD), as well as in open-source projects.
  • Can be used in simple, as well as complex, functional test cases for applications and libraries.
  • Easy to port existing test suites to pytest for performing test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver.
  • Compatibility with other test frameworks like unittest and nose, so switching to this framework is very easy.
  • Supports parameterizing, which is instrumental in executing the same tests with different configurations using a simple marker. You can come up with more effective test cases/test suites with less repetitive code implementation.
  • The highh number of asserts that provides more detailed information about the failure scenarios.
  • Support of Fixtures and Classes. Using Fixtures, it becomes easy to make common test objects available throughout a module, session, function, or class. Fixtures and Classes will be covered in more detail in subsequent sections.
  • Good and up-to-date documentation.
  • xdist support through which test cases can be parallelized.

To summarize, Pytest is a software test framework which can be used to make simple, yet scalable test cases with ease.

Now that you are aware of the advantages of pytest over other test frameworks, let’s have a detailed look at the pytest framework and how it can be used with Selenium WebDriver framework in order to perform automated cross-browser testing for web applications.

Test Automation Using Pytest – Installation and Getting Started

As mentioned earlier, pytest is not a part of the standard Python installation and needs to be installed separately. In order to install pytest, you should execute the following command on the prompt/terminal:

pip install –U pytest

Once the installation is complete, you can verify whether the installation is successful, by typing the following command:

pytest --version

Below is the output when the above command is executed on Linux and Windows machine

PyCharm is a popular IDE that is used for pytest development. You can install the PyCharm Edu version for Windows, Linux, or macOS. For development, we are using PyCharm for Windows. Once PyCharm is installed, you should make sure that the default test runner is pytest. In order to change the default test runner, you should navigate to File -> Settings -> Tools -> Python Integrated Tools and change Default test runner for performing test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver.

Now that PyCharm Edu is installed and the default test runner is set to pytest, you need to install the Selenium package for Python to perform test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver. In order to install Selenium, you should invoke the command mentioned below in the terminal of PyCharm.

pip install -U selenium ( Syntax – pip install –U )

Shown below is the snapshot of the command execution:

Now that your development environment is all set, we look into some of the features and aspects of pytest.

Pytest – Usage, Exit Codes, and Compilation

pytest and py.test can be used interchangeably. In order to get information about the arguments that can be used with pytest, you can execute the command below on the terminal.

pytest --help     
#Command to get help about the options that can be used with pytest command 
# Details about fixtures pytest --fixtures  #Shows the available built-in function arguments

When pytest code is executed, it results in one of the following exit codes:


| 0 | Test cases/test suites are executed successfully and end result was PASS |

| 1 | Test cases/test suites were executed, but some tests FAILED |

| 2 | Test execution was stopped by the user |

| 3 | Unknown error occurred when the tests were executed |

| 4 | Usage of pytest command is incorrect |

| 5 | No tests were collected |

It is important that the file containing pytest code be named as **test_.py or _test.py. In order to compile and execute pytest source code for performing test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver, you can use the following command on the terminal

pytest <test_file_name.py> --verbose --capture=no

Let’s have a look at some examples of test automation using pytest. We start with a very simple example –test_pytest_example_1.py.

#pytest in action – test_pytest_example_1.py 
def function_1(var):   
return var + 1   
def test_success():   
assert function_1(4) == 5   
def test_failure():   
assert function_1(2) == 5

In the above code snippet, we create a function named function_1  which takes one argument named var . There are two test cases:  test_success()  and  test_failure() . The test cases are executed in serial order and the assert is issued on an execution of the test cases. Compile the code using the command mentioned below

pytest --verbose --capture=no test_pytest_example_1.py

As seen in the output, the result of the first test case is PASS (shown in blue) and a result of the second test case is FAIL (shown in red).

pytest makes use of the assert available in Python for verification of results. It gives out meaningful information which can be used for verification and debugging. pytest.raises is commonly used to raise exceptions; below is an example where a Factorial of a number is calculated. In one test case, a negative number is passed as an input to the factorial function and AssertionError is raised.

factorial_example.py  contains the implementation that uses recursion in order to calculate factorial of the input number. Before the factorial is calculated, the input parameter check is performed. Assert would be raised in case the input number is negative.

def factorial_function(number):    
# Perform a check whether the input number is positive or not, if it is not    
# positive, raise an assert     
assert number >= 0\. and type(number) is int, "The input is not recognized"       
if number == 0:         
return 1     
# recursive function to calculate factorial         
return number * factorial_function(number – 1)

test_factorial_example.py  is a pytest implementation which use factorial functionality. Three test cases are implemented –  test_standard_library  (output from factorial_function is compared with the output obtained from math.factorial module),  test_negative_number  (assertion is raised when the input number is negative), and (results of output from factorial_function are compared with specific values).

# Import the necessary modules/packages required for implementation 
import pytest import math   
from factorial_example import factorial_function  
def test_factorial_functionality():     
print("Inside test_factorial_functionality")       
assert factorial_function(0) == 1     
assert factorial_function(4)== 24   
def test_standard_library():     
print("Inside test_standard_library")      
for i in range(5): 
# verify whether factorial is calculated correctly       
# by checking against result against  standard       
# library - math.factorial()         
assert math.factorial(i) == factorial_function(i)   
def test_negative_number():     
print("Inside test_negative_number")      
# This test case would pass if Assertion Error    
# is raised. In this case, the input number is negative    
# hence, the test case passes     
with pytest.raises(AssertionError):         

You can execute the code using the command py.test –capture=no test_factorial_example.py , either on the command prompt or on the Terminal of PyCharm IDE. As seen in the snapshot, all the test cases have passed and logs under “print statement” are output on the console

Test Automation Using Pytest – Fixtures (Usage and Implementation)

Consider an example where you have to execute certain MySQL queries on a database that contains employee information within an organization. The time taken to execute a query would depend on the number of records (i.e. employees) in the database. Before queries are executed, required operations (w.r.t database connectivity) have to be performed and the “returned handle” would be used in a subsequent implementation involving the database. Database operations can be CPU intensive (as the number of records increases); hence, repetitive implementation and execution should be avoided. There are two ways in which this issue can be solved:

  1. With the help of classic xunit style setup along with teardown methods.
  2. By using fixtures (recommended).

The xunit style of fixtures is already supported in unittest but pytest has a much better way of dealing with fixtures. Fixtures are a set of resources that have to set up before the test starts and have to be cleaned up after the execution of tests is complete. It contains a lot of improvements over the classic implementation of setup and teardown functions. The main advantages of using fixtures are

  • Can be used by development teams, test teams, teams that are practicing Test-Driven Development (TDD), as well as in open-source projects.
  • Can be used in simple, as well as complex, functional test cases for applications and libraries.
  • Easy to port existing test suites to pytest for performing test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver.
  • Compatibility with other test frameworks like unittest and nose, so switching to this framework is very easy.
  • Supports parameterizing, which is instrumental in executing the same tests with different configurations using a simple marker. You can come up with more effective test cases/test suites with less repetitive code implementation.
  • The highh number of asserts that provides more detailed information about the failure scenarios.
  • Support of Fixtures and Classes. Using Fixtures, it becomes easy to make common test objects available throughout a module, session, function, or class. Fixtures and Classes will be covered in more detail in subsequent sections.
  • Good and up-to-date documentation.
  • xdist support through which test cases can be parallelized.

Ever since the launch of version 3.5, the fixtures of higher scope are prioritized above the lower scope fixtures in terms of instantiating. Higher scope fixture includes sessions, and lower scope fixture would include classes, functions, and others. You can even ‘‘parameterize" these fixture functions in order to execute them multiple times along with the execution of dependent tests.

Fixture parameterization has been widely used to write exhaustive test functions. Below is a simple code for test automation using pytest where setup() and teardown()  of ‘resource 1’ is called, even when the test_2 is executed. Since this is a simple implementation (with fewer computations), there are not many overheads even when unnecessary setup and module calls are invoked, but it could hamper the overall code performance in case any CPU-intensive operations (like database connectivity) are involved.

#Import all the necessary modules import pytest   
def resource_1_setup():     
print('Setup for resource 1 called')   
def resource_1_teardown():     
print('Teardown for resource 1 called')   
def setup_module(module):     
print('\nSetup of module is called')     
def teardown_module(module):     
print('\nTeardown of module is called')     
def test_1_using_resource_1():     
print('Test 1 that uses Resource 1')   
def test_2_not_using_resource_1():     
print('\nTest 2 does not need Resource 1')

Execute the test case ‘test_2_not_using_resource_1’ by invoking the following command on the terminal:

pytest --capture=no --verbose test_fixtures.py::test_2_not_using_resource_1

As observed from the output [Filename – Pytest-Fixtures-problem.png], even though “test_2” is executed, the fixture functions for “resource 1” are unnecessarily invoked. This problem can be fixed by using fixtures; we will have a look at these in the upcoming example.

As seen in the example below, we define a fixture function resource_1_setup()  (similar to setup in xunit style implementation) and resource_1_teardown()  (similar to teardown in xunit style implementation). The fixture function has “module scope” using @pytest.fixture(scope=’module’) .

#Import all the necessary modules import pytest   
#Implement the fixture that has module scope 
def resource_1_setup(request):     
print('\nSetup for resource 1 called')       
def resource_1_teardown():         
print('\nTeardown for resource 1 called')       
# An alternative option for executing teardown code is to make use of the addfinalizer method of the request-context     
# object to register finalization functions.     
# Source - https://docs.pytest.org/en/latest/fixture.html     
def test_1_using_resource_1(resource_1_setup):     
print('Test 1 uses resource 1')   
def test_2_not_using_resource_1():     
print('\n Test 2 does not need Resource 1')

We execute the code by triggering all the test cases. As shown in the output below [Filename – Pytest-Fixtures-all-tests-executed.png], “setup for resource 1” is called only for Test 1 and not for Test 2.

Now, we execute only test case 2, that is, test_2_not_using_resource_1() . As seen in the output below [Filename – Pytest-Fixtures-only-2-tests-executed.png], setup and teardown functions for Resource 1 are not called since the only test case 2 is executed. This is where fixtures can be highly effective since it eliminates repetitive code and execution of unnecessary code. Official documentation about fixtures in pytest can be found here.

Test Automation Using Pytest with Selenium WebDriver

When you are looking out for a test automation framework, you would probably require a test framework that meets all your requirements. The framework should have the ability to log events, generate test reports, and should have good community support. Pytest fulfils all these requirements and test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver is highly recommended as it does not involve a steep learning curve.

When you are planning to develop test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver, the first concern that you need to look into is when you should load the browser. Loading a new browser instance after each test is not recommended since it is not a scalable solution and might increase the overall test execution time. It is recommended to load the browser (under test) before the actual test cases have started and unloaded/closed the browser instance as soon as the tests are complete. This is possible by using Fixtures in pytest. As mentioned earlier, Fixtures make extensive use of a concept know as dependency injection, where dependencies can be loaded before the actual tests have started.

By default, fixtures have function scope, depending on the requirements; you can change the implemented fixture’s scope to a module, session, or class. Like the lifetime of variables in C language, the scope of fixtures indicates how many times the particular fixture will be created.


| Function | Fixture is executed/run once per test session |

| Session | One fixture is created for the entire test session |

| Class | Only one fixture is created per class of tests |

| Module | Fixture is created once per module |

Once the tests have been executed, you might be interested to capture the test results in a report format (like HTML). You need to install pytest-html module for the same

pip install pytest-html

Below is the snapshot of the command in execution:

Now that you have knowledge about pytest fixtures, Selenium, and Selenium WebDriver interface, let’s have a look at an example with all these things in action. Before you start the implementation, please ensure that you download Gecko driver for Firefox and ChromeDriver for Chrome from here and here respectively. In order to avoid mentioning the path/location where the drivers have been downloaded, make sure that you place these respective drivers at the location where the corresponding browsers are present. In the snapshot below, you can see that we have copied Geckodriver.exe in the location where Firefox browser (firefox.exe) is present.

Now that you have the setup ready, let’s get started with the implementation. Import all the necessary modules in the beginning so that you avoid errors. In our case, the modules imported are selenium, pytest, pytest-html. Two fixture functions – driver_init()  and  chrome_driver_init()  have the “class” scope. As seen in the fixture function driver_init() , an instance of Firefox is created using GeckoDriver, whereas in chrome_driver_init() , an instance of Chrome browser is created using ChromeDriver. yield contains the implementation of teardown; code inside yield is responsible for doing the cleanup activity. A class is used to group test cases, in this case, there are two important classes, Test_URL()  and Test_URL_Chrome() . The implemented classes are making use of the fixtures that were implemented using mark.usefixtures [ @pytest.mark.usefixtures(“driver_init”) ]. The test case performs a simple test of invoking the respective browser (Firefox/Chrome) and opening the supplied URL i.e. https://www.lambdatest.com/ Filename – test_selenium_webdriver-2.py

# Import the 'modules' that are required for execution   
import pytest import pytest_html from selenium 
import webdriver from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options 
import Options from selenium.webdriver.common.keys 
import Keys from time import sleep   
#Fixture for Firefox @pytest.fixture(scope="class") 
def driver_init(request):     ff_driver = webdriver.Firefox()     
request.cls.driver = ff_driver     yield     ff_driver.close()   
#Fixture for Chrome @pytest.fixture(scope="class") 
def chrome_driver_init(request):     
chrome_driver = webdriver.Chrome()     
request.cls.driver = chrome_driver     yield     chrome_driver.close()   
@pytest.mark.usefixtures("driver_init") class BasicTest:     pass class Test_URL(BasicTest):         
def test_open_url(self):             
class Basic_Chrome_Test:     
pass class Test_URL_Chrome(Basic_Chrome_Test):         
def test_open_url(self):             

Since we require the test output in an HTML file, we make us of –html=&nbsp;argumentt while executing the test code. The complete command to execute test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver:

| 1 |

py.test.exe --capture=no --verbose --html=pytest_selenium_test_report.html test_selenium_webdriver-1.py


Below is the execution output, testcase test_open_url() is executed for the class Test_URL  and Test_URL_Chrome() . The test report is pytest_selenium_test_report.html [Image – PyTest-Selenium-Output-1.png]. Here is a test report for further clarity.

As seen in the above implementation, the only difference between fixture function for Firefox and Chrome browser is the setting up of the respective browser. The majority of the implementation is same for both the browsers, so it becomes important to optimize the code by avoiding repetition of code. This is possible by making use of parameterized fixtures. As seen in the implementation [Filename – test_selenium_webdriver-1.py], the major change is addition of parameters to fixtures, as in @pytest.fixture(params=[“chrome”, “firefox”],scope=”class”) . Depending on the browser in use, the corresponding WebDriver is used to invoke the browser.

# Import the 'modules' that are required for execution   
import pytest import pytest_html from selenium 
import webdriver from selenium.webdriver.chrome.options 
import Options from selenium.webdriver.common.keys 
import Keys from time import sleep   
#Fixture for Firefox @pytest.fixture(params=["chrome", "firefox"],scope="class") 
def driver_init(request):     
if request.param == "chrome":         
web_driver = webdriver.Chrome()     
if request.param == "firefox":         
web_driver = webdriver.Firefox()     
request.cls.driver = web_driver     yield     
@pytest.mark.usefixtures("driver_init") class BasicTest:     
pass class Test_URL(BasicTest):         
def test_open_url(self):             

In our case, we are using the Chrome and Firefox browsers and the test case Test_URL()  would be executed for each browser separately. As seen in the output, the test case is invoked once with parameters as “firefox” and “chrome.”

Cross-Browser Testing With Pytest, Selenium and Lambdatest

There is always a limitation on the amount of testing that you can perform on your local machine or test machines since thorough testing has to be performed on different kinds of devices, operating systems, and browsers. Setting up a local test environment is not a scalable and economical option. This is where your test team can utilize the power of Lambdatest’s cross-browser testing on the cloud capabilities.

You can perform manual as well as automated cross-browser testing of your web application or website on different browsers (even old versions) and devices. You can also perform real-time testing by using their Tunnel feature which lets you use their test infrastructure from the terminal. LambdaTest Selenium Automation Grid enables you to perform end-to-end automation tests on a secure, reliable, and scalable Selenium infrastructure. You can utilize the LambdaTest Selenium Grid to not only increase the overall code-coverage (via testing), but to also decrease the overall time required to execute your automation scripts written in Python.


Test automation using Pytest with Selenium WebDriver is a very favourable option as a framework that has good features with which test engineers can come up with implementation that is easy to implement and which is scalable. It can be used for writing test cases for simple scenarios as well as highly complex scenarios. A developer who is well-versed with the Python, unittest/other test frameworks based on Python would find pytest easy to learn. With pytest leverages concepts like dependency injection, there is less cost involved in the maintainability of the source code.

Since the number of devices are increasing with each passing day, it becomes highly impractical to manually test your code against different devices, operating systems, and browsers; this is where testers/developers can utilize Lambdatest’s cross-browser testing tool, which allows you to perform test automation using pytest with Selenium WebDriver effortlessly.

Getting started with Selenium Automation Testing

Getting started with Selenium Automation Testing

Selenium is an open source tool which is used for automating the tests carried out on web browsers (Web applications are tested using any web browser). Take a look at how you can get going with the most popular automation testing platform

Selenium is an open source tool which is used for automating the tests carried out on web browsers (Web applications are tested using any web browser). Take a look at how you can get going with the most popular automation testing platform

Selenium has become very popular among testers because of the various advantages it offers. When we talk about automation testing, the first thing that often comes to our mind is our favorite automation testing tool. Selenium won the hearts of many testers and developers with its simplicity, availability, and ease of use. With its advent in 2004, Selenium made the life of automation testers easier and is now a favorite tool for many automation testers.

What is Selenium?

Selenium was invented with the introduction of a basic tool named as “JavaScriptTestRunner,” by Jason Huggins at ThoughtWorks to test their internal Time and Expenses application. Now it has gained popularity among software testers and developers as an open source portable automation testing framework. It has the capability to automate browsers with specific browser bindings for automating web applications for testing purposes. It is a suite of four tools designed for different purposes. Let’s get to know Selenium in detail and the different tools that it offers.

Selenium Suite of Tools

Selenium has four major components with a different approach for automation testing which is popular as the Selenium suite of tools. Every software tester or developer choose tools out of it depending upon the testing requirement for the organization.

Selenium RC (Remote Control)

Selenium Core was the first tool in the suite of tools. However, it was deprecated as it had some issues related to cross-domain testing because of same origin policy. So, to overcome that, Selenium Remote Control (Selenium RC) was introduced after Selenium Core. RC turned out to be a solution to the cross-domain issue. RC has an HTTP proxy server which helps in tricking the browser into believing that both the Selenium Wore and web app which is being tested are from the same domain, removing the cross-domain issue.

Selenium RC is divided into two parts which help in overcoming the cross-domain issue:

  1. Selenium Remote Server
  2. Selenium Remote Client

But the major issue with RC was the time taken to execute a test. As the Selenium server communicates using HTTP requests, it was more time-consuming. Because of this limitation, RC also is now largely obsolete.

Selenium IDE

Selenium IDE, earlier known as Selenium recorder, is a tool used to record, edit, debug, and replay functional tests. Selenium IDE is implemented as an extension to the Chrome browser and an add-on in Firefox browser. With the Selenium IDE plugin, you can record and export tests in any of the supported programming languages like Ruby, Java, PHP, Javascript, and more.

Selenium Grid

Selenium Grid is based on a hub-node architecture. With Selenium Grid, you can run parallel test sessions across different browsers. The hub controls Selenium scripts running on different nodes (specific browsers inside an OS) and test scripts running on different nodes can be written in any programming language.

Selenium Grid was used with RC to test multiple tests on remote machines. Now, as people find **WebDriver **works better than RC, Grid works with both WebDriver and RC.

Selenium WebDriver

Selenium WebDriver is an enhanced version of Selenium RC and the most used tool. It accepts commands via the client API and sends them to browsers. Simply put, Selenium WebDriver is a browser-specific driver which helps in accessing and launching the different browsers. It provides an interface to write and run automation scripts. Every browser has different drivers to run tests.

  • Mozilla Firefox uses Firefox Driver (Gecko Driver)
  • Google Chrome uses Chrome Driver
  • Internet Explorer uses Internet Explorer Driver
  • Opera uses Opera Driver
  • Safari uses Safari Driver and
  • HTM Unit Driver used to simulate browsers using headless browser HtmlUnit

Selenium Client API

The Client API is the latest tool in the Suite of tools. With Selenium Client API, you can write test scripts in various programming languages instead of writing test scripts in Selenese. The Selenium Client API is available for Java, JavaScript, C#, Ruby, and Python. These scripts can communicate with Selenium with predefined commands and functions of Client API.

Why Use Selenium for Automation Testing?

Since we are now familiar with Selenium and its suite of tools, let’s find out the various benefits of Selenium which make it stand from the crowd as a tool for automation testing:

  1. Open-Source: Since it is an open source tool, it doesn’t require any licensing costs, which give it an upper hand over other automation testing tools.
  2. Tool for Every Need: As mentioned earlier, Selenium has a suite of tools, so it suits every need of the users. You can use various tools like WebDriver, Grid, and IDE for fulfilling your different needs.
  3. Supports All Major Languages: The major challenge that a tester or developer faces with an automation testing tool is the support for languages. Since Selenium supports all major languages like Java, JavaScript, Python, Ruby, C#, Perl, .Net and PHP, it is easier for testers to use.
  4. Browser and Operating System Support: Selenium supports different browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Internet Explorer, Edge, and Safari and different operating systems like Windows, Linux, and Mac. This makes it flexible to use.
  5. Community Support: Selenium has an active open community which helps you solve your issues and queries related to it. This makes it the best choice as your automation testing tool.

Here’s a quick comparison table of Selenium with other available tools:

Since **Selenium WebDriver **is the most used tool, we’ll be using it to execute some test cases. To understand the complete process on a very simple level, Selenium **WebDriver Architecture **consists of:

Basically, Selenium WebDriver works in three layers: Browser Driver, Remote Driver, and Language Bindings.

Core Components of WebDriver Architecture

Selenium Client Library/Language Bindings

Selenium bindings/client libraries are created by developers to support multiple programming languages. For instance, if you want to use the browser driver in Python, use the Python bindings. You can download all the bindings on the official website.

JSON Protocol Over HTTP

JavaScript Object Notation is used as a data transfer protocol to send data from a server to a client on the web. With JSON, it is very easy to write and read data with data structures like Array and Object support. This wire protocol provides a transport mechanism and defines a RESTful web service using JSON over HTTP.

Browser-Specific Driver

Each web browser has a specific browser driver for Selenium bindings. The browser driver accepts commands from the server and sends it to the browser without loss of any internal logic of browser functionalities. Browser drivers are also specific to programming languages like Ruby, C#, Java, and more for web automation.

Here are the steps when we run any test script using WebDriver:

  1. An HTTP request gets generated for every Selenium command and gets sent to browser driver.
  2. The specific browser driver receives the HTTP request through the HTTP server.
  3. HTTP Server sends all the steps to perform a function, which are executed on the browser.
  4. The test execution report is sent back to server and HTTP server sends it to the Automation script.


**Selenium WebDriver **supports all the major browser like Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, and Safari browsers.

Setting Up Selenium on Your Local Machine

Let’s understand the steps of how we can configure Selenium in your local machine and running a test in your local browser.

  1. Install Code editor or IDE (like Eclipse or IntelliJ)

Note: We’ll be using IntelliJ code editor for writing Automation script.

  1. Download and install Java Runtime environment in your local system.
  2. Download Java Development Kit
  3. Download and install all Java Selenium Files (Selenium Server Standalone)
  4. Install Browser Specific Drivers ( In this blog, we’ll perform Automation on Chrome, so Chrome Driver for this case)
Sample Selenium Script for Web Automation

Here is the sample automation script which can be run to automate the testing process on the local chrome browser. Since we are using IntelliJ as our code editor, so we’ll write the same in IntelliJ.

Sample Script

import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
public class TestSelenium {
public static void main(String[] args){
System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver","C:\\Users\\Admin\\Desktop\\LT Automation\\chromedriver_win32\\chromedriver.exe");
WebDriver driver= new ChromeDriver();
try {
WebElement signup = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id="navbarCollapse"]/ul/li[2]/a"));
WebElement login= driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id="modalSignUp"]/div/div/div/div/div[4]/p/a"));
String windowHandle = driver.getWindowHandle();
WebElement TextBox = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id="login-modal-form"]/div[1]/div/input"));
TextBox.sendKeys("[email protected]");
WebElement Password = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id="login-modal-form"]/div[2]/div/input"));
WebElement proceed = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id="login-modal-form"]/div[4]/button"));
catch (Exception e) {

This code will launch a website (here, https://hackr.io/), find “Signup/Login” element, click on the Signup/login button, then go to the login page by finding “Login.” After that, enter the credentials to the login page and click the login button to be redirected to Hackr.io homepage.

Online Selenium Grid

The major challenge in running Selenium on a local machine is the limited number of browsers in the local machine. Since you can have only one version of a particular browser installed in your local machine, if the need comes to test on some downgraded or upgraded version of that browser, you’ll need to upgrade or downgrade the already installed browser in your local machine. Also, you can install only a specific number of browsers in the system. So, if the need comes it becomes almost impossible to test across all browsers and operating systems. That's where an online Selenium Grid can help.

With the help of an online Selenium Grid on the cloud, you can test across all the browsers, browser versions, operating systems, resolutions for cross-browser compatibility. Online platforms which provide Selenium Grids, like LambdaTest, SauceLabs, and BrowserStack, can help you perform cross-browser tests on cloud grid of various browsers-OS combinations.

Common Selenium Command and Operations

While writing an automation script, you will be using many repeated commands and doing various operations. Let’s have a quick look at the most common and used commands in Selenium automation testing.

**Page Visit: **The first thing to do visit a webpage to start automation testing.


**Find an Element: **Find elements to automate them.

// find just one, the first one Selenium finds
WebElement element = driver.findElement(locator);
// find all instances of the element on the page
List<WebElement> elements = driver.findElements(locator);

**Actions on Elements: **Work on found elements.

// chain actions together
// store the element and then click it

WebElement element = driver.findElement(locator);

**Multiple Element Commands: **Common commands to click, submit, clear, input, etc.

element.click(); // clicks an element
element.submit(); // submits a form
element.clear(); // clears an input field of its text
element.sendKeys("input text"); // types text into an input field

**Question Commands: **Check conditions for elements.

element.isDisplayed(); // is it visible to the human eye?
element.isEnabled(); // can it be selected?
element.isSelected(); // is it selected?

**Get your Info: **Commands for retrieving information for an element.

// directly from an element
// by attribute name

To Sum Up

Selenium is one of the best automation testing tools to automate web browser interactions. You can perform automation testing by writing code in any of your preferred language supported by Selenium and can easily run your automation script to automate testing of an application or a process. Its ease of use makes it different from other tools and with the help of an online grid you can even run your tests in parallel across more than one browser. So, what are you waiting for? Write a beautiful automation Script and test your website! If you have any questions, let us know in the comments section below.

Happy Testing!

Selenium Python

Selenium Python

Selenium Python - is one of the widely used tools used for Web Browser Automation, and offers a lot of functionality and power over a browser.

Originally published by  prince mudda at  dzone.com

Selenium Python

Today, companies and applications are widely structured on web-based systems. The information that these systems contain is dense and requires extensive processing. Various tasks are repeated, tedious and take significant amounts of time and money. These repetitive tasks can be taken care of by Web Automation. The common tasks in web automation include form filling, screen scraping, data collection, transferring between applications, website testing, and generating periodic reports.

Web Automation Tool

There are many tools available for automation. A variety of skill levels are required for the automation tool. A non-programmer might simply have to record some test scripts; whereas programmers and advanced testers need more advanced libraries and scripts.

Web browser automation tools work by logging the number of steps involved in the transaction and then playing that number back in the target web pages by injecting JavaScript and then tracking the results. The macro-like web automation tools are much more flexible and sophisticated.

One of the most popular web automation testing tools is Selenium. It was originally developed at Thought Works in 2004 by Jason Huggins as an internal tool. Selenium supports automation in various popular browsers, languages, and platforms.

It can be easily used on platforms such as Windows, Linux, Solaris, and Macintosh. It also supports OS for mobile applications, such as iOS, mobile Windows, and Android.

Selenium supports different programming languages using drivers specific to each language. Selenium-supported languages include C #, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, and Ruby. Test scripts in Selenium can be encoded using any supported languages and can run directly in almost all modern web browsers.

Let us take a look at the main advantages of this automation tool before going to the deeper sessions of Selenium.

  • Creates quicker reports.
  • Allows frequent testing of regressions.
  • Supports Agile.
  • Countless iterations can be done without impasse.
  • Easier documentation.
  • Errors in manual testing can be easily detected.
Initial Setup

We’ll have to do a couple of things to set up before we start. For functional tests to be written using Selenium Web Driver, a request must be sent to the Selenium server; test cases are then executed on different browsers. In our case, we’ll be working with Google Chrome. The very first step is to get chromedriver.exe to simulate the browser. The next step is to install the selenium package using pip. If your virtual environment is already there then simply type in the shell command line: pip install selenium

Now, we need to import the Selenium web driver to implement Python with Selenium. Before proceeding, we would like to understand more about Selenium Web Driver. It is a web-based automation testing framework that can test Web pages that have been initiated on different web browsers and operating systems.

Selenium WebDriver Client Library for Python allows us to use all the features of Selenium WebDriver and interact with Selenium Standalone Server in order to perform automated testing of both remote and distributed browser-based apps.

To import and configure dependencies to add libraries and functionalities, use the commands below to import Selenium Webdriver:

  • from selenium import webdriver
  • from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import keys
  • from selenium.import.*
Running Your First Selenium WebDriver Automation Script 

Let’s create a Python script with WebDriver, which uses Selenium classes and functions to automate browser interaction.

Here is a simple script to activate the browser:

driver = webdriver.Chrome()
assert "Google" in driver.title
element = driver.find_element_by_name("q")
assert "No results found." not in driver.page_source

Running the above code will create an instance of Chrome WebDriver. The driver.get method navigates to the page address provided by the URL. The page is loaded fully before WebDriver returns control to the script. However, WebDriver may not know if the page is loaded completely if the page uses a lot of AJAX on load.

The next line asserts that the title contains the word “Google”:

assert “Google” in driver.title

The next statement tries to locate the input text by its name attribute using the "find_element_by_name" method.

element = driver.find_element_by_name("q")

Now, we send keys. It’s similar to using your keyboard to enter keys. Use the "Keys" class imported from "selenium.webdriver.common.keys" to send special keys.


You will get the results if there is any once the submission of the page is done. Assertion can be made to make sure that results are found:

assert “No results found.” not in driver.page_source

The final step closes the window. In this script, the close() method is called, which will close one tab only. However, if only one tab was open, the browser will exit by default:

Locating Elements

Once the page is loaded, Selenium interacts with various elements on the page. There are a number of ways by which WebDriver finds elements using one of the "find_element_by_*" methods. We can use the most suitable method for our case.

Locating Element by Id

You can use the "findelementby_id" method to locate element by its id:

element = driver.find_element_by_id('element_id')

Locating Element by Name

To locate an element by name, you can use "findelementby_name" method:

element = driver.find_element_by_name('element_name')

Locating Element by XPath

If there is no appropriate id or name attribute for the item you want to locate, then you can use XPath. It can be used either to locate the element in absolute terms or relative to an element that has an id or name attribute. For example, let’s consider a contact form:

<form id="contactForm">
<input name="name" type="text" />
<input name="email" type="email" />
<input name="phone" type="tel" />
<input name="continue" type="submit" />

To locate the form elements, you can use XPath like this:

contact_form = driver.find_element_by_xpath("/html/body/form[1]")
contact_form = driver.find_element_by_xpath("//form[1]")
contact_form = driver.find_element_by_xpath("//form[@id='contactForm']")

Locating Hyperlinks by Link Text/partial Link Text

To locate a hyperlink, you can use "findelementby_link_text" or "find_element_by_partial_link_text." For example:

<a href="contact.html">Contact Us</a>
contact = driver.find_element_by_link_text('Contact Us')
contact = driver.find_element_by_partial_link_text('Cont')

Locating Elements by Tag Name

To locate an element by a tag, you can use "findelementby_tag." For example: <p>Lorem ipsum dolor</p>

element = driver.find_element_by_tag_name('p')

Locating Elements by Class Name

To locate an element by class name, you can use "findelementby_class_name." For example: <h1 class="heading">This is a heading</h1>

element = driver.find_element_by_class_name('heading')

Locating Elements by CSS Selectors

This method can be used when you need to locate an element by CSS selector syntax. For example: <p class="para"> Lorem ipsum dolor sit amet, consectetur adipiscing elit</p>

paragraph = driver.find_element_by_css_selector('p.para')

These are all the methods by which we can locate elements in a browser. Let’s write a test case using Selenium.

Writing a Test Case With Selenium

Selenium is primarily used to write test cases. However, there is no testing tool/framework provided by the Selenium package. We can use Python’s unittest module to write test cases. For our example, we will create an example unittest script and save it as google_search.py.

import unittest
from selenium import webdriver
from selenium.webdriver.common.keys import Keys
class GoogleSearch(unittest.TestCase):
def setUp(self):
self.driver = webdriver.Chrome()
def test_search_in_google_com(self):
driver = self.driver
self.assertIn("Google", driver.title)
element = driver.find_element_by_name("g")
assert "No results found." not in driver.page_source
def tearDown(self):
if __name__ == "__main__":

First, we import the unit test module, which is a built-in Python module based on Java’s Junit. Then, we create a class called GoogleSearch, where the test case class is inherited from "unittest.TestCase."

class GoogleSearch(unittest.TestCase):

The "setUp" is part of the initialization process; this method will be called before each test function you write in this test case class. An instance of Chrome WebDriver is then created.

def setUp(self):
self.driver = webdriver.Chrome()

In the test case method, the first line creates a local reference to the driver object created in the "setUp" method.

def test_search_in_google_com(self):
driver = self.driver

After every test method, the "tearDown" method will be called. This is a place where all the cleanup actions can be done. The browser window is closed in the current method.

def tearDown(self):

The final lines can be used to run the test suite:

if __name__ == "__main__":

Selenium is one of the widely used Web Browser Automation tools, as it offers plenty of functionality and control over all major web browsers. Although it is mainly used as a testing/automation tool for production or integration environment, but it can also be used as a web scraper

Originally published by  prince mudda at  dzone.com


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This article has been republished from pCloudy

While there is a substantial increment in the mobile apps market share, web apps are still prevalent with a significant user base. Enterprises are focusing on the quality at speed when it comes to web apps, before deployment. This is where testing has an important role to play. UI testing is still mostly a manual process unlike some functional testing which can be automated. But it is sensible to automate testing which will save time and effort. When it comes to automation, Selenium testing is the first thing that comes to mind as it is the most popular test automation tool in the world. So let’s learn more about selenium testing.

What is Selenium Testing

Selenium testing tool is open-source and it enables users to drive interactions with the page and test the app across various platforms. It allows users to control a browser from their preferred language like Java, JavaScript, C#, PHP, Python, etc. Selenium has many tools and APIs for automating user interactions on HTML JavaScript apps on browsers like IE, Chrome, Firefox, Safari, Opera, etc.

Selenium Framework is a code structure that helps to simplify and reuse the code. Without frameworks, we will place the code as well as data in the same place which is neither re-usable nor readable. Selenium automation frameworks are beneficial for higher portability, increased code re-usage, higher code readability, reduced script maintenance cost, etc.

What is Selenium Web Driver

Selenium WebDriver accepts commands via the client API and sends them to browsers. Selenium WebDriver is a browser-specific driver which helps in accessing and launching the different browsers like Chrome, Firefox, IE, etc. The WebDriver provides an interface to create and run automation scripts and every browser has different drivers to run the tests. The different drivers are IE Driver, Firefox Driver, Safari Driver, Chrome Driver, etc.

Selenium WebDriver was introduced to negate limitations of Selenium RC, which offers enhanced support for web pages where the elements on a page change without reloading. Many browsers support selenium WebDriver and it uses each browser’s native support for automation testing. The features are supported and direct calls are made depending on the browser that is being used.

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