Xgen: XSD Parser & Go/C/Java/Rust/TypeScript Code Generator

xgen

Introduction

xgen is a library written in pure Go providing a set of functions that allow you to parse XSD (XML schema definition) files. This library needs Go version 1.10 or later. The full API docs can be seen using go's built-in documentation tool, or online at go.dev.

xgen commands automatically compiles XML schema files into the multi-language type or class declarations code.

Install the command line tool first.

go get -u -v github.com/xuri/xgen/cmd/...

The command below will walk on the xsd path and generate Go language struct code under the output directory.

$ xgen -i /path/to/your/xsd -o /path/to/your/output -l Go

Usage:

$ xgen [<flag> ...] <XSD file or directory> ...
   -i <path> Input file path or directory for the XML schema definition
   -o <path> Output file path or directory for the generated code
   -p        Specify the package name
   -l        Specify the language of generated code (Go/C/Java/Rust/TypeScript)
   -h        Output this help and exit
   -v        Output version and exit

XSD (XML Schema Definition)

XSD, a recommendation of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), specifies how to formally describe the elements in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) document. It can be used by programmers to verify each piece of item content in a document. They can check if it adheres to the description of the element it is placed in.

XSD can be used to express a set of rules to which an XML document must conform in order to be considered "valid" according to that schema. However, unlike most other schema languages, XSD was also designed with the intent that determination of a document's validity would produce a collection of information adhering to specific data types. Such a post-validation infoset can be useful in the development of XML document processing software.

Contributing

Contributions are welcome! Open a pull request to fix a bug, or open an issue to discuss a new feature or change. XSD is compliant with XML Schema Part 1: Structures Second Edition.

Author: Xuri
Source Code: https://github.com/xuri/xgen 
License: BSD-3-Clause license

#go #golang #generator #xml 

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Xgen: XSD Parser & Go/C/Java/Rust/TypeScript Code Generator
Monty  Boehm

Monty Boehm

1675304280

How to Use Hotwire Rails

Introduction

We are back with another exciting and much-talked-about Rails tutorial on how to use Hotwire with the Rails application. This Hotwire Rails tutorial is an alternate method for building modern web applications that consume a pinch of JavaScript.

Rails 7 Hotwire is the default front-end framework shipped with Rails 7 after it was launched. It is used to represent HTML over the wire in the Rails application. Previously, we used to add a hotwire-rails gem in our gem file and then run rails hotwire: install. However, with the introduction of Rails 7, the gem got deprecated. Now, we use turbo-rails and stimulus rails directly, which work as Hotwire’s SPA-like page accelerator and Hotwire’s modest JavaScript framework.

What is Hotwire?

Hotwire is a package of different frameworks that help to build applications. It simplifies the developer’s work for writing web pages without the need to write JavaScript, and instead sending HTML code over the wire.

Introduction to The Hotwire Framework:

1. Turbo:

It uses simplified techniques to build web applications while decreasing the usage of JavaScript in the application. Turbo offers numerous handling methods for the HTML data sent over the wire and displaying the application’s data without actually loading the entire page. It helps to maintain the simplicity of web applications without destroying the single-page application experience by using the below techniques:

Turbo Frames: Turbo Frames help to load the different sections of our markup without any dependency as it divides the page into different contexts separately called frames and updates these frames individually.
Turbo Drive: Every link doesn’t have to make the entire page reload when clicked. Only the HTML contained within the tag will be displayed.
Turbo Streams: To add real-time features to the application, this technique is used. It helps to bring real-time data to the application using CRUD actions.

2. Stimulus

It represents the JavaScript framework, which is required when JS is a requirement in the application. The interaction with the HTML is possible with the help of a stimulus, as the controllers that help those interactions are written by a stimulus.

3. Strada

Not much information is available about Strada as it has not been officially released yet. However, it works with native applications, and by using HTML bridge attributes, interaction is made possible between web applications and native apps.

Simple diagrammatic representation of Hotwire Stack:

Hotwire Stack

Prerequisites For Hotwire Rails Tutorial

As we are implementing the Ruby on Rails Hotwire tutorial, make sure about the following installations before you can get started.

  • Ruby on Rails
  • Hotwire gem
  • PostgreSQL/SQLite (choose any one database)
  • Turbo Rails
  • Stimulus.js

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Create a new Rails Project

Find the following commands to create a rails application.

mkdir ~/projects/railshotwire
cd ~/projects/railshotwire
echo "source 'https://rubygems.org'" > Gemfile
echo "gem 'rails', '~> 7.0.0'" >> Gemfile
bundle install  
bundle exec rails new . --force -d=postgresql

Now create some files for the project, up till now no usage of Rails Hotwire can be seen.
Fire the following command in your terminal.

  • For creating a default controller for the application
echo "class HomeController < ApplicationController" > app/controllers/home_controller.rb
echo "end" >> app/controllers/home_controller.rb
  • For creating another controller for the application
echo "class OtherController < ApplicationController" > app/controllers/other_controller.rb
echo "end" >> app/controllers/home_controller.rb
  • For creating routes for the application
echo "Rails.application.routes.draw do" > config/routes.rb
echo '  get "home/index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo '  get "other/index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo '  root to: "home#index"' >> config/routes.rb
echo 'end' >> config/routes.rb
  • For creating a default view for the application
mkdir app/views/home
echo '<h1>This is Rails Hotwire homepage</h1>' > app/views/home/index.html.erb
echo '<div><%= link_to "Enter to other page", other_index_path %></div>' >> app/views/home/index.html.erb
  • For creating another view for the application
mkdir app/views/other
echo '<h1>This is Another page</h1>' > app/views/other/index.html.erb
echo '<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>' >> app/views/other/index.html.erb
  • For creating a database and schema.rb file for the application
bin/rails db:create
bin/rails db:migrate
  • For checking the application run bin/rails s and open your browser, your running application will have the below view.

Rails Hotwire Home Page

Additionally, you can clone the code and browse through the project. Here’s the source code of the repository: Rails 7 Hotwire application

Now, let’s see how Hotwire Rails can work its magic with various Turbo techniques.

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Drive

Go to your localhost:3000 on your web browser and right-click on the Inspect and open a Network tab of the DevTools of the browser.

Now click on go to another page link that appears on the home page to redirect from the home page to another page. In our Network tab, we can see that this action of navigation is achieved via XHR. It appears only the part inside HTML is reloaded, here neither the CSS is reloaded nor the JS is reloaded when the navigation action is performed.

Hotwire Rails Turbo Drive

By performing this action we can see that Turbo Drive helps to represent the HTML response without loading the full page and only follows redirect and reindeer HTML responses which helps to make the application faster to access.

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Frame

This technique helps to divide the current page into different sections called frames that can be updated separately independently when new data is added from the server.
Below we discuss the different use cases of Turbo frame like inline edition, sorting, searching, and filtering of data.

Let’s perform some practical actions to see the example of these use cases.

Make changes in the app/controllers/home_controller.rb file

#CODE

class HomeController < ApplicationController
   def turbo_frame_form
   end
   
   def turbo_frame submit
      extracted_anynumber = params[:any][:anynumber]
      render :turbo_frame_form, status: :ok, locals: {anynumber: extracted_anynumber,      comment: 'turbo_frame_submit ok' }
   end
end

Turbo Frame

Add app/views/home/turbo_frame_form.html.erb file to the application and add this content inside the file.

#CODE

<section>

    <%= turbo_frame_tag 'anyframe' do %>
            
      <div>
          <h2>Frame view</h2>
          <%= form_with scope: :any, url: turbo_frame_submit_path, local: true do |form| %>
              <%= form.label :anynumber, 'Type an integer (odd or even)', 'class' => 'my-0  d-inline'  %>
              <%= form.text_field :anynumber, type: 'number', 'required' => 'true', 'value' => "#{local_assigns[:anynumber] || 0}",  'aria-describedby' => 'anynumber' %>
              <%= form.submit 'Submit this number', 'id' => 'submit-number' %>
          <% end %>
      </div>
      <div>
        <h2>Data of the view</h2>
        <pre style="font-size: .7rem;"><%= JSON.pretty_generate(local_assigns) %></pre> 
      </div>
      
    <% end %>

</section>

Add the content inside file

Make some adjustments in routes.rb

#CODE

Rails.application.routes.draw do
  get 'home/index'
  get 'other/index'

  get '/home/turbo_frame_form' => 'home#turbo_frame_form', as: 'turbo_frame_form'
  post '/home/turbo_frame_submit' => 'home#turbo_frame_submit', as: 'turbo_frame_submit'


  root to: "home#index"
end
  • Next step is to change homepage view in app/views/home/index.html.erb

#CODE

<h1>This is Rails Hotwire home page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to other page", other_index_path %></div>

<%= turbo_frame_tag 'anyframe' do %>        
  <div>
      <h2>Home view</h2>
      <%= form_with scope: :any, url: turbo_frame_submit_path, local: true do |form| %>
          <%= form.label :anynumber, 'Type an integer (odd or even)', 'class' => 'my-0  d-inline'  %>
          <%= form.text_field :anynumber, type: 'number', 'required' => 'true', 'value' => "#{local_assigns[:anynumber] || 0}",  'aria-describedby' => 'anynumber' %>
          <%= form.submit 'Submit this number', 'id' => 'submit-number' %>
      <% end %>
  <div>
<% end %>

Change HomePage

After making all the changes, restart the rails server and refresh the browser, the default view will appear on the browser.

restart the rails serverNow in the field enter any digit, after entering the digit click on submit button, and as the submit button is clicked we can see the Turbo Frame in action in the below screen, we can observe that the frame part changed, the first title and first link didn’t move.

submit button is clicked

Hotwire Rails: Turbo Streams

Turbo Streams deliver page updates over WebSocket, SSE or in response to form submissions by only using HTML and a series of CRUD-like operations, you are free to say that either

  • Update the piece of HTML while responding to all the other actions like the post, put, patch, and delete except the GET action.
  • Transmit a change to all users, without reloading the browser page.

This transmit can be represented by a simple example.

  • Make changes in app/controllers/other_controller.rb file of rails application

#CODE

class OtherController < ApplicationController

  def post_something
    respond_to do |format|
      format.turbo_stream {  }
    end
  end

   end

file of rails application

Add the below line in routes.rb file of the application

#CODE

post '/other/post_something' => 'other#post_something', as: 'post_something'
Add the below line

Superb! Rails will now attempt to locate the app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template at any moment the ‘/other/post_something’ endpoint is reached.

For this, we need to add app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template in the rails application.

#CODE

<turbo-stream action="append" target="messages">
  <template>
    <div id="message_1">This changes the existing message!</div>
  </template>
</turbo-stream>
Add template in the rails application

This states that the response will try to append the template of the turbo frame with ID “messages”.

Now change the index.html.erb file in app/views/other paths with the below content.

#CODE

<h1>This is Another page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>

<div style="margin-top: 3rem;">
  <%= form_with scope: :any, url: post_something_path do |form| %>
      <%= form.submit 'Post any message %>
  <% end %>
  <turbo-frame id="messages">
    <div>An empty message</div>
  </turbo-frame>
</div>
change the index.html.erb file
  • After making all the changes, restart the rails server and refresh the browser, and go to the other page.

go to the other page

  • Once the above screen appears, click on the Post any message button

Post any message button

This action shows that after submitting the response, the Turbo Streams help the developer to append the message, without reloading the page.

Another use case we can test is that rather than appending the message, the developer replaces the message. For that, we need to change the content of app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template file and change the value of the action attribute from append to replace and check the changes in the browser.

#CODE

<turbo-stream action="replace" target="messages">
  <template>
    <div id="message_1">This changes the existing message!</div>
  </template>
</turbo-stream>

change the value of the action attributeWhen we click on Post any message button, the message that appear below that button will get replaced with the message that is mentioned in the app/views/other/post_something.turbo_stream.erb template

click on Post any message button

Stimulus

There are some cases in an application where JS is needed, therefore to cover those scenarios we require Hotwire JS tool. Hotwire has a JS tool because in some scenarios Turbo-* tools are not sufficient. But as we know that Hotwire is used to reduce the usage of JS in an application, Stimulus considers HTML as the single source of truth. Consider the case where we have to give elements on a page some JavaScript attributes, such as data controller, data-action, and data target. For that, a stimulus controller that can access elements and receive events based on those characteristics will be created.

Make a change in app/views/other/index.html.erb template file in rails application

#CODE

<h1>This is Another page</h1>
<div><%= link_to "Enter to home page", root_path %></div>

<div style="margin-top: 2rem;">
  <%= form_with scope: :any, url: post_something_path do |form| %>
      <%= form.submit 'Post something' %>
  <% end %>
  <turbo-frame id="messages">
    <div>An empty message</div>
  </turbo-frame>
</div>

<div style="margin-top: 2rem;">
  <h2>Stimulus</h2>  
  <div data-controller="hello">
    <input data-hello-target="name" type="text">
    <button data-action="click->hello#greet">
      Greet
    </button>
    <span data-hello-target="output">
    </span>
  </div>
</div>

Make A changeMake changes in the hello_controller.js in path app/JavaScript/controllers and add a stimulus controller in the file, which helps to bring the HTML into life.

#CODE

import { Controller } from "@hotwired/stimulus"

export default class extends Controller {
  static targets = [ "name", "output" ]

  greet() {
    this.outputTarget.textContent =
      `Hello, ${this.nameTarget.value}!`
  }
}

add a stimulus controller in the fileGo to your browser after making the changes in the code and click on Enter to other page link which will navigate to the localhost:3000/other/index page there you can see the changes implemented by the stimulus controller that is designed to augment your HTML with just enough behavior to make it more responsive.

With just a little bit of work, Turbo and Stimulus together offer a complete answer for applications that are quick and compelling.

Using Rails 7 Hotwire helps to load the pages at a faster speed and allows you to render templates on the server, where you have access to your whole domain model. It is a productive development experience in ROR, without compromising any of the speed or responsiveness associated with SPA.

Conclusion

We hope you were satisfied with our Rails Hotwire tutorial. Write to us at service@bacancy.com for any query that you want to resolve, or if you want us to share a tutorial on your query.

For more such solutions on RoR, check out our Ruby on Rails Tutorials. We will always strive to amaze you and cater to your needs.

Original article source at: https://www.bacancytechnology.com/

#rails #ruby 

Samanta  Moore

Samanta Moore

1621137960

Guidelines for Java Code Reviews

Get a jump-start on your next code review session with this list.

Having another pair of eyes scan your code is always useful and helps you spot mistakes before you break production. You need not be an expert to review someone’s code. Some experience with the programming language and a review checklist should help you get started. We’ve put together a list of things you should keep in mind when you’re reviewing Java code. Read on!

1. Follow Java Code Conventions

2. Replace Imperative Code With Lambdas and Streams

3. Beware of the NullPointerException

4. Directly Assigning References From Client Code to a Field

5. Handle Exceptions With Care

#java #code quality #java tutorial #code analysis #code reviews #code review tips #code analysis tools #java tutorial for beginners #java code review

Tyrique  Littel

Tyrique Littel

1600135200

How to Install OpenJDK 11 on CentOS 8

What is OpenJDK?

OpenJDk or Open Java Development Kit is a free, open-source framework of the Java Platform, Standard Edition (or Java SE). It contains the virtual machine, the Java Class Library, and the Java compiler. The difference between the Oracle OpenJDK and Oracle JDK is that OpenJDK is a source code reference point for the open-source model. Simultaneously, the Oracle JDK is a continuation or advanced model of the OpenJDK, which is not open source and requires a license to use.

In this article, we will be installing OpenJDK on Centos 8.

#tutorials #alternatives #centos #centos 8 #configuration #dnf #frameworks #java #java development kit #java ee #java environment variables #java framework #java jdk #java jre #java platform #java sdk #java se #jdk #jre #open java development kit #open source #openjdk #openjdk 11 #openjdk 8 #openjdk runtime environment

Xgen: XSD Parser & Go/C/Java/Rust/TypeScript Code Generator

xgen

Introduction

xgen is a library written in pure Go providing a set of functions that allow you to parse XSD (XML schema definition) files. This library needs Go version 1.10 or later. The full API docs can be seen using go's built-in documentation tool, or online at go.dev.

xgen commands automatically compiles XML schema files into the multi-language type or class declarations code.

Install the command line tool first.

go get -u -v github.com/xuri/xgen/cmd/...

The command below will walk on the xsd path and generate Go language struct code under the output directory.

$ xgen -i /path/to/your/xsd -o /path/to/your/output -l Go

Usage:

$ xgen [<flag> ...] <XSD file or directory> ...
   -i <path> Input file path or directory for the XML schema definition
   -o <path> Output file path or directory for the generated code
   -p        Specify the package name
   -l        Specify the language of generated code (Go/C/Java/Rust/TypeScript)
   -h        Output this help and exit
   -v        Output version and exit

XSD (XML Schema Definition)

XSD, a recommendation of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), specifies how to formally describe the elements in an Extensible Markup Language (XML) document. It can be used by programmers to verify each piece of item content in a document. They can check if it adheres to the description of the element it is placed in.

XSD can be used to express a set of rules to which an XML document must conform in order to be considered "valid" according to that schema. However, unlike most other schema languages, XSD was also designed with the intent that determination of a document's validity would produce a collection of information adhering to specific data types. Such a post-validation infoset can be useful in the development of XML document processing software.

Contributing

Contributions are welcome! Open a pull request to fix a bug, or open an issue to discuss a new feature or change. XSD is compliant with XML Schema Part 1: Structures Second Edition.

Author: Xuri
Source Code: https://github.com/xuri/xgen 
License: BSD-3-Clause license

#go #golang #generator #xml 

Abdullah  Kozey

Abdullah Kozey

1626250440

Using WebAssembly threads from C, C++ and Rust

WebAssembly threads support is one of the most important performance additions to WebAssembly. It allows you to either run parts of your code in parallel on separate cores, or the same code over independent parts of the input data, scaling it to as many cores as the user has and significantly reducing the overall execution time.

In this article you will learn how to use WebAssembly threads to bring multithreaded applications written in languages like C, C++, and Rust to the web.

How WebAssembly threads work #

WebAssembly threads is not a separate feature, but a combination of several components that allows WebAssembly apps to use traditional multithreading paradigms on the web.

Web Workers #

First component is the regular Workers you know and love from JavaScript. WebAssembly threads use the new Worker constructor to create new underlying threads. Each thread loads a JavaScript glue, and then the main thread uses Worker#postMessage method to share the compiled WebAssembly.Module as well as a shared WebAssembly.Memory (see below) with those other threads. This establishes communication and allows all those threads to run the same WebAssembly code on the same shared memory without going through JavaScript again.

Web Workers have been around for over a decade now, are widely supported, and don’t require any special flags.

SharedArrayBuffer #

WebAssembly memory is represented by a WebAssembly.Memory object in the JavaScript API. By default WebAssembly.Memory is a wrapper around an ArrayBuffer—a raw byte buffer that can be accessed only by a single thread.

> new WebAssembly.Memory({ initial:1, maximum:10 }).buffer
ArrayBuffer { … }

To support multithreading, WebAssembly.Memory gained a shared variant too. When created with a shared flag via the JavaScript API, or by the WebAssembly binary itself, it becomes a wrapper around a SharedArrayBuffer instead. It’s a variation of ArrayBuffer that can be shared with other threads and read or modified simultaneously from either side.

> new WebAssembly.Memory({ initial:1, maximum:10, shared:true }).buffer
SharedArrayBuffer { … }

Unlike postMessage, normally used for communication between main thread and Web Workers, SharedArrayBuffer doesn’t require copying data or even waiting for the event loop to send and receive messages. Instead, any changes are seen by all threads nearly instantly, which makes it a much better compilation target for traditional synchronisation primitives.

SharedArrayBuffer has a complicated history. It was initially shipped in several browsers mid-2017, but had to be disabled in the beginning of 2018 due to discovery of Spectre vulnerabilities. The particular reason was that data extraction in Spectre relies on timing attacks—measuring execution time of a particular piece of code. To make this kind of attack harder, browsers reduced precision of standard timing APIs like Date.now and performance.now. However, shared memory, combined with a simple counter loop running in a separate thread is also a very reliable way to get high-precision timing, and it’s much harder to mitigate without significantly throttling runtime performance.

Instead, Chrome 68 (mid-2018) re-enabled SharedArrayBuffer again by leveraging Site Isolation—a feature that puts different websites into different processes and makes it much more difficult to use side-channel attacks like Spectre. However, this mitigation was still limited only to Chrome desktop, as Site Isolation is a fairly expensive feature, and couldn’t be enabled by default for all sites on low-memory mobile devices nor was it yet implemented by other vendors.

Fast-forward to 2020, Chrome and Firefox both have implementations of Site Isolation, and a standard way for websites to opt-in to the feature with COOP and COEP headers. An opt-in mechanism allows to use Site Isolation even on low-powered devices where enabling it for all the websites would be too expensive. To opt-in, add the following headers to the main document in your server configuration:

Cross-Origin-Embedder-Policy: require-corp
Cross-Origin-Opener-Policy: same-origin

Once you opt-in, you get access to SharedArrayBuffer (including WebAssembly.Memory backed by a SharedArrayBuffer), precise timers, memory measurement and other APIs that require an isolated origin for security reasons. Check out the Making your website “cross-origin isolated” using COOP and COEP for more details.

WebAssembly atomics #

While SharedArrayBuffer allows each thread to read and write to the same memory, for correct communication you want to make sure they don’t perform conflicting operations at the same time. For example, it’s possible for one thread to start reading data from a shared address, while another thread is writing to it, so the first thread will now get a corrupted result. This category of bugs is known as race conditions. In order to prevent race conditions, you need to somehow synchronize those accesses. This is where atomic operations come in.

WebAssembly atomics is an extension to the WebAssembly instruction set that allow to read and write small cells of data (usually 32- and 64-bit integers) “atomically”. That is, in a way that guarantees that no two threads are reading or writing to the same cell at the same time, preventing such conflicts at a low level. Additionally, WebAssembly atomics contain two more instruction kinds—“wait” and “notify”—that allow one thread to sleep (“wait”) on a given address in a shared memory until another thread wakes it up via “notify”.

  • All the higher-level synchronisation primitives, including channels, mutexes, and read-write locks build upon those instructions.

#rust #c, c++ #cplusplus #c++ #c #rust programming