Cyril  Parisian

Cyril Parisian

1624690320

Avr-c for Arduino-uno

Arduino libraries are wrappers on top of libc functions. They abstract a lot of internal workings to allow an average user to run their project in Arduino boards without having to worry about implementation. For an average programmer, it’s better to stick with it. Cause venturing into Avr-c without a basic foundation in C and electronics will be confusing. But once you get past the learning curve, it will help you grow to appreciate the system and the effort that went into it.

We will dive head on into basic coding in this article. Keeping theory only as much as required. With that in mind, lets start with installing the dependencies.

Installation

Install all avr-c and all the dependencies.

$ sudo apt-get install gcc-avr binutils-avr avr-libc avrdude

Reference

When you start coding, You have to refer to Atmel data sheet one for two hundred times. For quick reference you can see the pin mapping that will help you start.

mcu to arduino pin mapping

Before we start with the first project. Lets start with building some terminology. DDRB is a data direction register for port B. In Arduino uno, there are 3 port registers:

  • B (bitmap for digital pins from 8 to 13)
  • C (analog input pins)
  • D (bitmap for digital pins from 0 to 7)

They control if the given pin is input or output by setting the corresponding bit as 0 or 1. If the bit is high its output and you can write to the pin, if the bit is low it acts as input and you can only read from the pins… By default all the values in the DDRB is set to 0x00, i.e. they are all input.

The current state of all the pins can be read using PINB. And if you want to set the bits to high or low you will perform operation in PORTB.

DDRB is 8 bit, with the lowest bit at PB0 represents digital pin 8 in Arduino board. Dot led is connected to pin 13. In DDRB is its bit 5 (PB5). For this we have to set DDRB = b’00010000’

#diy #c-programming #avr #arduino-uno #arduino

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Avr-c for Arduino-uno
Cyril  Parisian

Cyril Parisian

1624690320

Avr-c for Arduino-uno

Arduino libraries are wrappers on top of libc functions. They abstract a lot of internal workings to allow an average user to run their project in Arduino boards without having to worry about implementation. For an average programmer, it’s better to stick with it. Cause venturing into Avr-c without a basic foundation in C and electronics will be confusing. But once you get past the learning curve, it will help you grow to appreciate the system and the effort that went into it.

We will dive head on into basic coding in this article. Keeping theory only as much as required. With that in mind, lets start with installing the dependencies.

Installation

Install all avr-c and all the dependencies.

$ sudo apt-get install gcc-avr binutils-avr avr-libc avrdude

Reference

When you start coding, You have to refer to Atmel data sheet one for two hundred times. For quick reference you can see the pin mapping that will help you start.

mcu to arduino pin mapping

Before we start with the first project. Lets start with building some terminology. DDRB is a data direction register for port B. In Arduino uno, there are 3 port registers:

  • B (bitmap for digital pins from 8 to 13)
  • C (analog input pins)
  • D (bitmap for digital pins from 0 to 7)

They control if the given pin is input or output by setting the corresponding bit as 0 or 1. If the bit is high its output and you can write to the pin, if the bit is low it acts as input and you can only read from the pins… By default all the values in the DDRB is set to 0x00, i.e. they are all input.

The current state of all the pins can be read using PINB. And if you want to set the bits to high or low you will perform operation in PORTB.

DDRB is 8 bit, with the lowest bit at PB0 represents digital pin 8 in Arduino board. Dot led is connected to pin 13. In DDRB is its bit 5 (PB5). For this we have to set DDRB = b’00010000’

#diy #c-programming #avr #arduino-uno #arduino

Tamale  Moses

Tamale Moses

1624240146

How to Run C/C++ in Sublime Text?

C and C++ are the most powerful programming language in the world. Most of the super fast and complex libraries and algorithms are written in C or C++. Most powerful Kernel programs are also written in C. So, there is no way to skip it.

In programming competitions, most programmers prefer to write code in C or C++. Tourist is considered the worlds top programming contestant of all ages who write code in C++.

During programming competitions, programmers prefer to use a lightweight editor to focus on coding and algorithm designing. VimSublime Text, and Notepad++ are the most common editors for us. Apart from the competition, many software developers and professionals love to use Sublime Text just because of its flexibility.

I have discussed the steps we need to complete in this blog post before running a C/C++ code in Sublime Text. We will take the inputs from an input file and print outputs to an output file without using freopen file related functions in C/C++.

#cpp #c #c-programming #sublimetext #c++ #c/c++

Dicey Issues in C/C++

If you are familiar with C/C++then you must have come across some unusual things and if you haven’t, then you are about to. The below codes are checked twice before adding, so feel free to share this article with your friends. The following displays some of the issues:

  1. Using multiple variables in the print function
  2. Comparing Signed integer with unsigned integer
  3. Putting a semicolon at the end of the loop statement
  4. C preprocessor doesn’t need a semicolon
  5. Size of the string matters
  6. Macros and equations aren’t good friends
  7. Never compare Floating data type with double data type
  8. Arrays have a boundary
  9. Character constants are different from string literals
  10. Difference between single(=) and double(==) equal signs.

The below code generates no error since a print function can take any number of inputs but creates a mismatch with the variables. The print function is used to display characters, strings, integers, float, octal, and hexadecimal values onto the output screen. The format specifier is used to display the value of a variable.

  1. %d indicates Integer Format Specifier
  2. %f indicates Float Format Specifier
  3. %c indicates Character Format Specifier
  4. %s indicates String Format Specifier
  5. %u indicates Unsigned Integer Format Specifier
  6. %ld indicates Long Int Format Specifier

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A signed integer is a 32-bit datum that encodes an integer in the range [-2147483648 to 2147483647]. An unsigned integer is a 32-bit datum that encodes a non-negative integer in the range [0 to 4294967295]. The signed integer is represented in twos-complement notation. In the below code the signed integer will be converted to the maximum unsigned integer then compared with the unsigned integer.

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#problems-with-c #dicey-issues-in-c #c-programming #c++ #c #cplusplus

Ari  Bogisich

Ari Bogisich

1590587580

Loops in C++ | For, While, and Do While Loops in C++

In this Video We are going to see how to use Loops in C++. We will see How to use For, While, and Do While Loops in C++.
C++ is general purpose, compiled, object-oriented programming language and its concepts served as the basis for several other languages such as Java, Python, Ruby, Perl etc.

#c #c# #c++ #programming-c

Ari  Bogisich

Ari Bogisich

1589816580

Using isdigit() in C/C++

In this article, we’ll take a look at using the isdigit() function in C/C++. This is a very simple way to check if any value is a digit or not. Let’s look at how to use this function, using some simple examples.

#c programming #c++ #c #c#