Integrating Tensorflow and Qiskit for Quantum Machine Learning: Taking a step towards quantum machine learning. In this article, we will be talking about integrating Qiskit in custom Keras layers.

There exist two popular integrations of quantum computing packages in standard deep learning libraries:

- Tensorflow and Cirq as Tensorflow Quantum
- Pytorch and Qiskit

In this article, we will be talking about integrating Qiskit in custom Keras layers.

Quantum machine learning has an interesting application of assisting classical neural networks with *quantum* layers that involve computation not realisable classically. Recent work in academia has stressed on applications of _quantum-assisted deep learning _which can have complex activations, better representation, and other salient features not achievable in classical networks.

For the implementation side, this means finding a way to integrate quantum processing in normal deep neural networks. Several ways exist to achieve this. Here, we discuss integrating Qiskit as subclasses of Keras layers. Let’s get started.

This obviously depends on specific application. The thing to keep in mind is to be consistent in the inputs and outputs this layer has. With `eager_execution`

as default in Tensorflow 2.x, it is only natural to fall back to `numpy`

arrays as our default inputs to and outputs from all quantum layers.

```
from qiskit.aqua.operators import Z, Y, X
from qiskit.aqua.operators import StateFn
QUBITS = 4
operatorZ = Z ^ Z ^ Z ^ Z
operatorX = X ^ X ^ X ^ X
operatorY = Y ^ Y ^ Y ^ Y
def quantum_layer(initial_parameters):
## expecting parameters to be a numpy array
quantumRegister = QuantumRegister(QUBITS)
quantumCircuit = QuantumCircuit(quantumRegister)
quantumCircuit.h(range(4))
for i in range(len(initial_parameters)):
quantumCircuit.ry(initial_parameters[i] * np.pi, i)
psi = StateFn(quantumCircuit)
## two ways of doing the same thing
expectationX = (~psi @ operatorX @ psi).eval()
expectationZ = psi.adjoint().compose(operatorZ).compose(psi).eval().real
expectationY = (~psi @ operatorY @ psi).eval()
expectationZ = np.abs(np.real(expectationZ))
expectations = [expectationX, expectationY, expectationZ,
expectationX + expectationY + expectationZ]
return np.array(expectations)
view raw
quantum_layer.py hosted with ❤ by GitHub
```

Sample quantum layer

This is an arbitrary quantum layer taking in four inputs and outputting a numpy array of length 4. We calculate the expectations of standard Pauli operators, create a list, and return it. This layer would change according to the specifics of the underlying application.

tensorflow deep-learning quantum-computing qiskit machine-learning deep learning

Quantum Machine Learning: learning on neural networks. Analytical gradient computation, the Hadamard test, and more. This time, we’re going a little deeper into the rabbit hole and looking at how to build a neural network on a quantum computer.

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