Wilford  Pagac

Wilford Pagac

1596852000

Billions of Devices Impacted by Secure Boot Bypass

The “BootHole” bug could allow cyberattackers to load malware, steal information and move laterally into corporate, OT, IoT and home networks.

Billions of Windows and Linux devices are vulnerable to cyberattacks stemming from a bug in the GRUB2 bootloader, researchers are warning.

GRUB2 (which stands for the GRand Unified Bootloader version 2) is the default bootloader for the majority of computing systems. Its job is to manage part of the start-up process – it either presents a menu and awaits user input, or automatically transfers control to an operating system kernel.

Secure Boot is an industry standard that ensures that a device boots using only trusted software. When a computer starts, the firmware checks the signatures of UEFI firmware drivers, EFI applications and the operating system. If the signatures are valid, the computer boots, and the firmware gives control to the operating system. According to Eclypsium researchers, the bug tracked as CVE-2020-10713 could allow attackers to get around these protections and execute arbitrary code during the boot-up process, even when Secure Boot is enabled and properly performing signature verification.

Dubbed BootHole by Eclypsium because it opens up a hole in the boot process, the new bug is a buffer overflow vulnerability in the way that GRUB2 parses content from the GRUB2 config file (grub.cfg), according to Eclypsium.

“The GRUB2 config file is a text file and typically is not signed like other files and executables,” researchers wrote in the firm’s analysis, released on Wednesday. As a result, Secure Boot doesn’t check it. Thus, an attacker could modify the contents of the GRUB2 configuration file to include attack code. And further, that file is loaded before the operating system is loaded, so the attack code runs first.

“In this way, attackers gain persistence on the device,” explained researchers.

On the technical front, Red Hat noted that the grub.cfg file is composed of several string tokens.

“The configuration file is loaded and parsed at GRUB initialization right after the initial boot loader, called shim, has loaded it,” the project said in an advisory issued on Wednesday. “During the parser stage, the configuration values are copied to internal buffers stored in memory. Configuration tokens that are longer in length than the internal buffer size end up leading to a buffer overflow issue. An attacker may leverage this flaw to execute arbitrary code, further hijacking the machine’s boot process and bypassing Secure Boot protection. Consequently, it is possible for unsigned binary code to be loaded, further jeopardizing the integrity of the system.”

Once in, attackers have “near total control” over a target machine: “Organizations should be monitoring their systems for threats and ransomware that use vulnerable bootloaders to infect or damage systems,” according to the analysis.

The bug carries a high-severity CVSS rating of 8.2 (Red Hat deems it “moderate” in severity, and Microsoft characterizes it as “important”). BootHole likely avoided a critical rating because in order to exploit it, an attacker would need to first gain administrative privileges.

“An attacker would first need to establish access to the system such as gaining physical access, obtain the ability to alter a pxe-boot network, or have remote access to a networked system with root access,” according to Red Hat.

The bad news is that GRUB2 is nearly ubiquitous across the computing landscape.

“The vulnerability is in the GRUB2 bootloader utilized by most Linux systems,” the researchers said. “The problem also extends to any Windows device that uses Secure Boot with the standard Microsoft Third Party UEFI Certificate Authority.”

They added that the majority of computers (laptops, desktops, servers and workstations) are vulnerable, and that the vulnerability also affects network appliances, proprietary gear specific to healthcare, financial and other verticals, internet-of-things (IoT) devices, and operational technology (OT) and SCADA equipment in industrial environments. In all, billions of devices are susceptible.

Worse, no simple patch or firmware update can fix the issue, according to Eclypsium.

“Mitigation is complex and can be risky and will require the specific vulnerable program to be signed and deployed, and vulnerable programs should be revoked to prevent adversaries from using older, vulnerable versions in an attack,” the researchers said. “The three-stage mitigation process will likely take years for organizations to complete patching.”

On the supplier side, the fix will require the release of new installers and bootloaders for all versions of Linux, as well as new versions of vendors’ “shims” (the aforementioned first-stage boot loaders) to be signed by the Microsoft Third-Party UEFI certificate authority, Eclypsium warned. Also, hardware-makers that provision their own keys into their hardware at the factory level (which sign GRUB2 directly) will need to provide updates, and revoke their own vulnerable versions of GRUB2.

“It is important to note that until all affected versions are added to the [Secure Boot revocation list, a.k.a. dbx], an attacker would be able to use a vulnerable version of shim and GRUB2 to attack the system,” researchers explained. “This means that every device that trusts the Microsoft 3rd Party UEFI CA will be vulnerable for that period of time.”

Eclypsium has coordinated responsible disclosure of BootHole with a raft of affected vendors and Linux distros, including Microsoft, the UEFI Security Response Team (USRT), Oracle, Red Hat (Fedora and RHEL), Canonical (Ubuntu), SuSE (SLES and openSUSE), Debian, Citrix, VMware, and various OEMs and software vendors, several of which have issued their own advisories.

Microsoft will be releasing a set of signed dbx updates, which can be applied to systems to block shims that can be used to load the vulnerable versions of GRUB2, according to Eclypsium.

“Due to the risk of bricking systems or otherwise breaking operational or recovery workflows, these dbx updates will initially be made available for interested parties to manually apply to their systems rather than pushing the revocation entries and applying them automatically,” the firm noted. “Organizations should additionally ensure they have appropriate capabilities for monitoring UEFI bootloaders and firmware and verifying UEFI configurations, including revocation lists, in their systems.”

Organizations should also test device-recovery capabilities, including the “reset to factory defaults” functionality, so they can recover it if a device is negatively impacted by an update.

Complimentary Threatpost Webinar: Want to learn more about Confidential Computing and how it can supercharge your cloud security? This webinar “Cloud Security Audit: A Confidential Computing Roundtable_” brings top cloud-security experts together to explore how Confidential Computing is a game changer for securing dynamic cloud data and preventing IP exposure. Join us Wednesday Aug. 12 at 2 p.m. ETfor this** FREE _**live webinar.

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DISCUSSION

  • John Gammel on July 30, 2020
  • I’m working to determine if my devices where I have disable SecureBoot for my own technical reasons have this vulnerability. Any thoughts?
  • ** Reply**
  • Arjen Lentz on July 30, 2020
  • From Linux, there’s no way you can write to grub files unless you’re root already. And the fix is easy, not hard as the article declares. The various Linux distros have already put out updates. It doesn’t do anything unless you were to be compromised and then reboot - the update will be processed before the next reboot. In short, not even a storm in a teacup. In InfoSec, it’s important to not overstate issues, otherwise one quickly gets into “crying wolf” situations where people don’t take things seriously when there’s really something going on.
  • ** Reply**
  • Chris on August 4, 2020
  • Testing the “reset to factory defaults” is a great tip I hadn’t thought about. I shared this info with my mailing list [external link removed]
  • ** Reply**

Leave A Comment

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Notify me when new comments are added.

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Billions of Devices Impacted by Secure Boot Bypass
Wilford  Pagac

Wilford Pagac

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Best Custom Web & Mobile App Development Company

Everything around us has become smart, like smart infrastructures, smart cities, autonomous vehicles, to name a few. The innovation of smart devices makes it possible to achieve these heights in science and technology. But, data is vulnerable, there is a risk of attack by cybercriminals. To get started, let’s know about IoT devices.

What are IoT devices?

The Internet Of Things(IoT) is a system that interrelates computer devices like sensors, software, and actuators, digital machines, etc. They are linked together with particular objects that work through the internet and transfer data over devices without humans interference.

Famous examples are Amazon Alexa, Apple SIRI, Interconnected baby monitors, video doorbells, and smart thermostats.

How could your IoT devices be vulnerable?

When technologies grow and evolve, risks are also on the high stakes. Ransomware attacks are on the continuous increase; securing data has become the top priority.

When you think your smart home won’t fudge a thing against cybercriminals, you should also know that they are vulnerable. When cybercriminals access our smart voice speakers like Amazon Alexa or Apple Siri, it becomes easy for them to steal your data.

Cybersecurity report 2020 says popular hacking forums expose 770 million email addresses and 21 million unique passwords, 620 million accounts have been compromised from 16 hacked websites.

The attacks are likely to increase every year. To help you secure your data of IoT devices, here are some best tips you can implement.

Tips to secure your IoT devices

1. Change Default Router Name

Your router has the default name of make and model. When we stick with the manufacturer name, attackers can quickly identify our make and model. So give the router name different from your addresses, without giving away personal information.

2. Know your connected network and connected devices

If your devices are connected to the internet, these connections are vulnerable to cyber attacks when your devices don’t have the proper security. Almost every web interface is equipped with multiple devices, so it’s hard to track the device. But, it’s crucial to stay aware of them.

3. Change default usernames and passwords

When we use the default usernames and passwords, it is attackable. Because the cybercriminals possibly know the default passwords come with IoT devices. So use strong passwords to access our IoT devices.

4. Manage strong, Unique passwords for your IoT devices and accounts

Use strong or unique passwords that are easily assumed, such as ‘123456’ or ‘password1234’ to protect your accounts. Give strong and complex passwords formed by combinations of alphabets, numeric, and not easily bypassed symbols.

Also, change passwords for multiple accounts and change them regularly to avoid attacks. We can also set several attempts to wrong passwords to set locking the account to safeguard from the hackers.

5. Do not use Public WI-FI Networks

Are you try to keep an eye on your IoT devices through your mobile devices in different locations. I recommend you not to use the public WI-FI network to access them. Because they are easily accessible through for everyone, you are still in a hurry to access, use VPN that gives them protection against cyber-attacks, giving them privacy and security features, for example, using Express VPN.

6. Establish firewalls to discover the vulnerabilities

There are software and firewalls like intrusion detection system/intrusion prevention system in the market. This will be useful to screen and analyze the wire traffic of a network. You can identify the security weakness by the firewall scanners within the network structure. Use these firewalls to get rid of unwanted security issues and vulnerabilities.

7. Reconfigure your device settings

Every smart device comes with the insecure default settings, and sometimes we are not able to change these default settings configurations. These conditions need to be assessed and need to reconfigure the default settings.

8. Authenticate the IoT applications

Nowadays, every smart app offers authentication to secure the accounts. There are many types of authentication methods like single-factor authentication, two-step authentication, and multi-factor authentication. Use any one of these to send a one time password (OTP) to verify the user who logs in the smart device to keep our accounts from falling into the wrong hands.

9. Update the device software up to date

Every smart device manufacturer releases updates to fix bugs in their software. These security patches help us to improve our protection of the device. Also, update the software on the smartphone, which we are used to monitoring the IoT devices to avoid vulnerabilities.

10. Track the smartphones and keep them safe

When we connect the smart home to the smartphone and control them via smartphone, you need to keep them safe. If you miss the phone almost, every personal information is at risk to the cybercriminals. But sometimes it happens by accident, makes sure that you can clear all the data remotely.

However, securing smart devices is essential in the world of data. There are still cybercriminals bypassing the securities. So make sure to do the safety measures to avoid our accounts falling out into the wrong hands. I hope these steps will help you all to secure your IoT devices.

If you have any, feel free to share them in the comments! I’d love to know them.

Are you looking for more? Subscribe to weekly newsletters that can help your stay updated IoT application developments.

#iot #enterprise iot security #how iot can be used to enhance security #how to improve iot security #how to protect iot devices from hackers #how to secure iot devices #iot security #iot security devices #iot security offerings #iot security technologies iot security plus #iot vulnerable devices #risk based iot security program

Wilford  Pagac

Wilford Pagac

1596852000

Billions of Devices Impacted by Secure Boot Bypass

The “BootHole” bug could allow cyberattackers to load malware, steal information and move laterally into corporate, OT, IoT and home networks.

Billions of Windows and Linux devices are vulnerable to cyberattacks stemming from a bug in the GRUB2 bootloader, researchers are warning.

GRUB2 (which stands for the GRand Unified Bootloader version 2) is the default bootloader for the majority of computing systems. Its job is to manage part of the start-up process – it either presents a menu and awaits user input, or automatically transfers control to an operating system kernel.

Secure Boot is an industry standard that ensures that a device boots using only trusted software. When a computer starts, the firmware checks the signatures of UEFI firmware drivers, EFI applications and the operating system. If the signatures are valid, the computer boots, and the firmware gives control to the operating system. According to Eclypsium researchers, the bug tracked as CVE-2020-10713 could allow attackers to get around these protections and execute arbitrary code during the boot-up process, even when Secure Boot is enabled and properly performing signature verification.

Dubbed BootHole by Eclypsium because it opens up a hole in the boot process, the new bug is a buffer overflow vulnerability in the way that GRUB2 parses content from the GRUB2 config file (grub.cfg), according to Eclypsium.

“The GRUB2 config file is a text file and typically is not signed like other files and executables,” researchers wrote in the firm’s analysis, released on Wednesday. As a result, Secure Boot doesn’t check it. Thus, an attacker could modify the contents of the GRUB2 configuration file to include attack code. And further, that file is loaded before the operating system is loaded, so the attack code runs first.

“In this way, attackers gain persistence on the device,” explained researchers.

On the technical front, Red Hat noted that the grub.cfg file is composed of several string tokens.

“The configuration file is loaded and parsed at GRUB initialization right after the initial boot loader, called shim, has loaded it,” the project said in an advisory issued on Wednesday. “During the parser stage, the configuration values are copied to internal buffers stored in memory. Configuration tokens that are longer in length than the internal buffer size end up leading to a buffer overflow issue. An attacker may leverage this flaw to execute arbitrary code, further hijacking the machine’s boot process and bypassing Secure Boot protection. Consequently, it is possible for unsigned binary code to be loaded, further jeopardizing the integrity of the system.”

Once in, attackers have “near total control” over a target machine: “Organizations should be monitoring their systems for threats and ransomware that use vulnerable bootloaders to infect or damage systems,” according to the analysis.

The bug carries a high-severity CVSS rating of 8.2 (Red Hat deems it “moderate” in severity, and Microsoft characterizes it as “important”). BootHole likely avoided a critical rating because in order to exploit it, an attacker would need to first gain administrative privileges.

“An attacker would first need to establish access to the system such as gaining physical access, obtain the ability to alter a pxe-boot network, or have remote access to a networked system with root access,” according to Red Hat.

The bad news is that GRUB2 is nearly ubiquitous across the computing landscape.

“The vulnerability is in the GRUB2 bootloader utilized by most Linux systems,” the researchers said. “The problem also extends to any Windows device that uses Secure Boot with the standard Microsoft Third Party UEFI Certificate Authority.”

They added that the majority of computers (laptops, desktops, servers and workstations) are vulnerable, and that the vulnerability also affects network appliances, proprietary gear specific to healthcare, financial and other verticals, internet-of-things (IoT) devices, and operational technology (OT) and SCADA equipment in industrial environments. In all, billions of devices are susceptible.

Worse, no simple patch or firmware update can fix the issue, according to Eclypsium.

“Mitigation is complex and can be risky and will require the specific vulnerable program to be signed and deployed, and vulnerable programs should be revoked to prevent adversaries from using older, vulnerable versions in an attack,” the researchers said. “The three-stage mitigation process will likely take years for organizations to complete patching.”

On the supplier side, the fix will require the release of new installers and bootloaders for all versions of Linux, as well as new versions of vendors’ “shims” (the aforementioned first-stage boot loaders) to be signed by the Microsoft Third-Party UEFI certificate authority, Eclypsium warned. Also, hardware-makers that provision their own keys into their hardware at the factory level (which sign GRUB2 directly) will need to provide updates, and revoke their own vulnerable versions of GRUB2.

“It is important to note that until all affected versions are added to the [Secure Boot revocation list, a.k.a. dbx], an attacker would be able to use a vulnerable version of shim and GRUB2 to attack the system,” researchers explained. “This means that every device that trusts the Microsoft 3rd Party UEFI CA will be vulnerable for that period of time.”

Eclypsium has coordinated responsible disclosure of BootHole with a raft of affected vendors and Linux distros, including Microsoft, the UEFI Security Response Team (USRT), Oracle, Red Hat (Fedora and RHEL), Canonical (Ubuntu), SuSE (SLES and openSUSE), Debian, Citrix, VMware, and various OEMs and software vendors, several of which have issued their own advisories.

Microsoft will be releasing a set of signed dbx updates, which can be applied to systems to block shims that can be used to load the vulnerable versions of GRUB2, according to Eclypsium.

“Due to the risk of bricking systems or otherwise breaking operational or recovery workflows, these dbx updates will initially be made available for interested parties to manually apply to their systems rather than pushing the revocation entries and applying them automatically,” the firm noted. “Organizations should additionally ensure they have appropriate capabilities for monitoring UEFI bootloaders and firmware and verifying UEFI configurations, including revocation lists, in their systems.”

Organizations should also test device-recovery capabilities, including the “reset to factory defaults” functionality, so they can recover it if a device is negatively impacted by an update.

Complimentary Threatpost Webinar: Want to learn more about Confidential Computing and how it can supercharge your cloud security? This webinar “Cloud Security Audit: A Confidential Computing Roundtable_” brings top cloud-security experts together to explore how Confidential Computing is a game changer for securing dynamic cloud data and preventing IP exposure. Join us Wednesday Aug. 12 at 2 p.m. ETfor this** FREE _**live webinar.

Write a comment

Share this article:

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macos bypass exploit chain

Black Hat 2020: ‘Zero-Click’ MacOS Exploit Chain Uses Microsoft Office Macros

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August 6, 2020

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The groups, all tied to the Winnti supply-chain specialist gang, were seen using the same Linux rootkit and backdoor combo.

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DISCUSSION

  • John Gammel on July 30, 2020
  • I’m working to determine if my devices where I have disable SecureBoot for my own technical reasons have this vulnerability. Any thoughts?
  • ** Reply**
  • Arjen Lentz on July 30, 2020
  • From Linux, there’s no way you can write to grub files unless you’re root already. And the fix is easy, not hard as the article declares. The various Linux distros have already put out updates. It doesn’t do anything unless you were to be compromised and then reboot - the update will be processed before the next reboot. In short, not even a storm in a teacup. In InfoSec, it’s important to not overstate issues, otherwise one quickly gets into “crying wolf” situations where people don’t take things seriously when there’s really something going on.
  • ** Reply**
  • Chris on August 4, 2020
  • Testing the “reset to factory defaults” is a great tip I hadn’t thought about. I shared this info with my mailing list [external link removed]
  • ** Reply**

Leave A Comment

Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment.

Notify me when new comments are added.

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.

INFOSEC INSIDER

  • data leak Autoclerk

Enterprise Data Security: It’s Time to Flip the Established Approach

  • July 16, 2020
  •  3

Helping Remote Workers Overcome Remote Attacks

  • June 10, 2020
  •  1

Understanding the Payload-Less Email Attacks Evading Your Security Team

  • June 4, 2020

Long Tail Analysis: A New Hope in the Cybercrime Battle

  • May 21, 2020

The Windows 7 Postmortem: What’s at Stake

  • May 19, 2020
  •  7

Newsletter

Subscribe to Threatpost Today Join thousands of people who receive the latest breaking cybersecurity news every day.

Subscribe now

Twitter

#Cisco** fixed a high-severity flaw allowing remote, unauthenticated attackers to cripple several of its popular smal… **https://t.co/cY6xtG9uYv

7 hours ago

#iot #vulnerabilities #arbitrary code execution #boothole #bootloader #buffer overflow #bug #bypass #cve-2020-10713 #eclypsium #grub2 #linux #microsoft #secure boot #security vulnerability

Security  IT

Security IT

1606927174

10 Cyber Security Tools to Watch Out for in 2021 - DZone Security

With an immense number of companies and entities climbing onto the digital bandwagon, cybersecurity considerations have come up as limelight. Besides, new technologies such as Big Data, IoT, and Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning are gradually more making inroads into our everyday lives, the threats related to cybercrime are mounting as well. Additionally, the usage of mobile and web apps in transacting financial information has put the complete digital stuff exposed to cybersecurity breaches. The inherent risks and vulnerabilities found in such apps can be exploited by attackers or cybercriminals to draw off crucial information data counting money. Internationally, cyber-security breaches have caused a yearly loss of USD 20.38 million in 2019 (Source: Statista). Plus, cybercrime has led to a 0.80 percent loss of the entire world’s Gross domestic product, which sums up to approx. USD 2.1 trillion in the year 2019 alone (Source: Cybriant.com).

In this article, take a look at ten cyber security tools to watch out for in 2021, including NMap, Wireshark, Metasploit, and more!

#security #cyber security #security testing #security testing tools #cyber security tools

Ida  Nader

Ida Nader

1602963300

Cloud Security: Is it Worth it?

Storing and managing corporate data by applying the cloud is becoming more and more popular. Companies grow, and it gets too expensive, and resources consuming to store their data on traditional servers. To prove it, look at the research conducted by Google in 2019 that includes insights for the cloud computing market for the next 10 years.

Around 80% of US respondents (about 1,100 businesses participated) revealed that they are thinking about cloud adoption by 2029. In 2019, only about 40% made a switch. 72% of businesses state that they’d like to automate security solutions by 2029, while now only 33% actually do it.

What do these numbers tell us? That companies seem to be suspicious about cloud security and prefer traditional on-premises data storage to the cloud environment. Why are they afraid to entrust cloud providers with their data? What to do to get rid of this fear? How to prove that the future of security is after the cloud?

In our article, we aim to answer these questions and more, but first, you need to be able to identify the reasons why companies have cloud-related trust issues. The first step in eliminating a problem is identifying it, let’s do it together!

#cloud-security #security-of-data #cybersecurity #cloud-computing #aws-security #azure-security #data-breaches #cyber-security

SecOps Teams Wrestle with Manual Processes, HR Gaps

Only about half of enterprises are satisfied with their ability to detect cybersecurity threats, according to a survey from Forrester Consulting – with respondents painting a picture of major resource and technology gaps hamstringing their efforts to block cyberattacks.

According to the just-released 2020 State of Security Operations survey of 314 enterprise security professionals, enterprise security teams around the world feel that they struggle with the growing pace, volume and sophistication of cyberattacks. A whopping 79 percent of enterprises covered in the survey have experienced a cyber-breach in the past year, and nearly 50 percent have been breached in the past six months.

#cloud security #hacks #malware #most recent threatlists #uncategorized #web security #2020 #automated triage #enterprise security #forrester consulting #manual processes #secops #security alerts #security defense #state of security operations #survey #workforce skills gap