Activate cash app card via phone number - 4 Easy steps

How to activate a Cash App card?

Cash App gives users a customized debit that can be used like any other debit card. It is free to order a Cash App card; all the users having a Cash App account can order this card without paying any charges.
However, there is a requirement that all the users must complete, that is to activate the Cash App card. Essentially, it is a mandatory requirement for using the cash card. However, if you also want to learn about alternative debit cards, there can be no better option than the cash card. Moreover, if you have recently got your Cash App card, you must move forward for Cash App card activation. However, if you have yet ordered a Cash App debit card, you must do it now. Here in this post, you can learn the step-by-step process to get a new cash card and activate it.

How can I get a new Cash App debit card?

  • You can get a Cash App card quickly and easily as the card is free to order. So, if you’re wondering how to get a Cash App card, then wonder no longer; all you need to do is:
  • Open Cash App on your mobile phone
  • Click on the “Cash Card” tab.
  • Click “Get Cash Card”
  • Click “Continue”
  • Enter the mailing address for the cash card; your card should arrive within no more than ten business days.

Once you get your Cash card, you’ll need to activate it to use it anywhere Visa is accepted, in stores and online. Moreover, you can customize this cash card, select its color and create a unique hashtag. But to access such features, you must know how to Cash App Direct Deposit by card. There are two different methods that you can follow to activate a Cash App card.
*** Activate Cash App card with a QR code**
*** How to withdraw money with a Cash App card**

How to activate a Cash App card with a QR code?

This is considered the most convenient way to activate your Cash App card with a QR code. Because all you have to do is to scan the QR code. This is for the Quick response; use the mobile camera and complete the scanning procedure. After this, you will be notified by the Cash App that your card has been activated:

  • Open Cash App on your mobile phone
  • Click on the Cash card icon
  • Click “Activate Cash Card”
  • Click “Ok” when Cash App requests permission to use your camera
  • Scan the QR code located on your Cash card to activate it.

How to activate a Cash App card without a QR code?

If your Cash card doesn’t have a QR code, don’t worry - you can still activate the Cash App card. What you’ll have to do is activate your Cash App card using the CVV code instead. To do that, you’ll need to:
Open Cash App
Click on the Cash card icon.
Click “Activate Cash Card”
For card activation without QR code, “Use CVV Instead.”
After this, on the next page, enter your CVV code and your cash card expiration date.

Conclusion:

To conclude, this is what you need to know about the Cash App card activation. We hope now you have learned how to activate a Cash App card. Although simple, however, sometimes there are some common activated Cash App card errors. Therefore, you should take all the steps carefully for activating your Cash App card. Further, for more information regarding this, you can directly reach out to our team.

#activate cash app card via phone #my cash app card won't activate #cash app transfer failed #where is the qr code on cash app card #activate cash app card #how to scan cash app card to activate?

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Activate cash app card via phone number - 4 Easy steps
Franz  Becker

Franz Becker

1648803600

Plpgsql Check: Extension That Allows to Check Plpgsql Source Code.

plpgsql_check

I founded this project, because I wanted to publish the code I wrote in the last two years, when I tried to write enhanced checking for PostgreSQL upstream. It was not fully successful - integration into upstream requires some larger plpgsql refactoring - probably it will not be done in next years (now is Dec 2013). But written code is fully functional and can be used in production (and it is used in production). So, I created this extension to be available for all plpgsql developers.

If you like it and if you would to join to development of this extension, register yourself to postgresql extension hacking google group.

Features

  • check fields of referenced database objects and types inside embedded SQL
  • using correct types of function parameters
  • unused variables and function argumens, unmodified OUT argumens
  • partially detection of dead code (due RETURN command)
  • detection of missing RETURN command in function
  • try to identify unwanted hidden casts, that can be performance issue like unused indexes
  • possibility to collect relations and functions used by function
  • possibility to check EXECUTE stmt agaist SQL injection vulnerability

I invite any ideas, patches, bugreports.

plpgsql_check is next generation of plpgsql_lint. It allows to check source code by explicit call plpgsql_check_function.

PostgreSQL PostgreSQL 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 are supported.

The SQL statements inside PL/pgSQL functions are checked by validator for semantic errors. These errors can be found by plpgsql_check_function:

Active mode

postgres=# CREATE EXTENSION plpgsql_check;
LOAD
postgres=# CREATE TABLE t1(a int, b int);
CREATE TABLE

postgres=#
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.f1()
RETURNS void
LANGUAGE plpgsql
AS $function$
DECLARE r record;
BEGIN
  FOR r IN SELECT * FROM t1
  LOOP
    RAISE NOTICE '%', r.c; -- there is bug - table t1 missing "c" column
  END LOOP;
END;
$function$;

CREATE FUNCTION

postgres=# select f1(); -- execution doesn't find a bug due to empty table t1
  f1 
 ────
   
 (1 row)

postgres=# \x
Expanded display is on.
postgres=# select * from plpgsql_check_function_tb('f1()');
─[ RECORD 1 ]───────────────────────────
functionid │ f1
lineno     │ 6
statement  │ RAISE
sqlstate   │ 42703
message    │ record "r" has no field "c"
detail     │ [null]
hint       │ [null]
level      │ error
position   │ 0
query      │ [null]

postgres=# \sf+ f1
    CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.f1()
     RETURNS void
     LANGUAGE plpgsql
1       AS $function$
2       DECLARE r record;
3       BEGIN
4         FOR r IN SELECT * FROM t1
5         LOOP
6           RAISE NOTICE '%', r.c; -- there is bug - table t1 missing "c" column
7         END LOOP;
8       END;
9       $function$

Function plpgsql_check_function() has three possible formats: text, json or xml

select * from plpgsql_check_function('f1()', fatal_errors := false);
                         plpgsql_check_function                         
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 error:42703:4:SQL statement:column "c" of relation "t1" does not exist
 Query: update t1 set c = 30
 --                   ^
 error:42P01:7:RAISE:missing FROM-clause entry for table "r"
 Query: SELECT r.c
 --            ^
 error:42601:7:RAISE:too few parameters specified for RAISE
(7 rows)

postgres=# select * from plpgsql_check_function('fx()', format:='xml');
                 plpgsql_check_function                     
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
 <Function oid="16400">                                        ↵
   <Issue>                                                     ↵
     <Level>error</level>                                      ↵
     <Sqlstate>42P01</Sqlstate>                                ↵
     <Message>relation "foo111" does not exist</Message>       ↵
     <Stmt lineno="3">RETURN</Stmt>                            ↵
     <Query position="23">SELECT (select a from foo111)</Query>↵
   </Issue>                                                    ↵
  </Function>
 (1 row)

Arguments

You can set level of warnings via function's parameters:

Mandatory arguments

  • function name or function signature - these functions requires function specification. Any function in PostgreSQL can be specified by Oid or by name or by signature. When you know oid or complete function's signature, you can use a regprocedure type parameter like 'fx()'::regprocedure or 16799::regprocedure. Possible alternative is using a name only, when function's name is unique - like 'fx'. When the name is not unique or the function doesn't exists it raises a error.

Optional arguments

relid DEFAULT 0 - oid of relation assigned with trigger function. It is necessary for check of any trigger function.

fatal_errors boolean DEFAULT true - stop on first error

other_warnings boolean DEFAULT true - show warnings like different attributes number in assignmenet on left and right side, variable overlaps function's parameter, unused variables, unwanted casting, ..

extra_warnings boolean DEFAULT true - show warnings like missing RETURN, shadowed variables, dead code, never read (unused) function's parameter, unmodified variables, modified auto variables, ..

performance_warnings boolean DEFAULT false - performance related warnings like declared type with type modificator, casting, implicit casts in where clause (can be reason why index is not used), ..

security_warnings boolean DEFAULT false - security related checks like SQL injection vulnerability detection

anyelementtype regtype DEFAULT 'int' - a real type used instead anyelement type

anyenumtype regtype DEFAULT '-' - a real type used instead anyenum type

anyrangetype regtype DEFAULT 'int4range' - a real type used instead anyrange type

anycompatibletype DEFAULT 'int' - a real type used instead anycompatible type

anycompatiblerangetype DEFAULT 'int4range' - a real type used instead anycompatible range type

without_warnings DEFAULT false - disable all warnings

all_warnings DEFAULT false - enable all warnings

newtable DEFAULT NULL, oldtable DEFAULT NULL - the names of NEW or OLD transitive tables. These parameters are required when transitive tables are used.

Triggers

When you want to check any trigger, you have to enter a relation that will be used together with trigger function

CREATE TABLE bar(a int, b int);

postgres=# \sf+ foo_trg
    CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.foo_trg()
         RETURNS trigger
         LANGUAGE plpgsql
1       AS $function$
2       BEGIN
3         NEW.c := NEW.a + NEW.b;
4         RETURN NEW;
5       END;
6       $function$

Missing relation specification

postgres=# select * from plpgsql_check_function('foo_trg()');
ERROR:  missing trigger relation
HINT:  Trigger relation oid must be valid

Correct trigger checking (with specified relation)

postgres=# select * from plpgsql_check_function('foo_trg()', 'bar');
                 plpgsql_check_function                 
--------------------------------------------------------
 error:42703:3:assignment:record "new" has no field "c"
(1 row)

For triggers with transitive tables you can set a oldtable or newtable parameters:

create or replace function footab_trig_func()
returns trigger as $$
declare x int;
begin
  if false then
    -- should be ok;
    select count(*) from newtab into x; 

    -- should fail;
    select count(*) from newtab where d = 10 into x;
  end if;
  return null;
end;
$$ language plpgsql;

select * from plpgsql_check_function('footab_trig_func','footab', newtable := 'newtab');

Mass check

You can use the plpgsql_check_function for mass check functions and mass check triggers. Please, test following queries:

-- check all nontrigger plpgsql functions
SELECT p.oid, p.proname, plpgsql_check_function(p.oid)
   FROM pg_catalog.pg_namespace n
   JOIN pg_catalog.pg_proc p ON pronamespace = n.oid
   JOIN pg_catalog.pg_language l ON p.prolang = l.oid
  WHERE l.lanname = 'plpgsql' AND p.prorettype <> 2279;

or

SELECT p.proname, tgrelid::regclass, cf.*
   FROM pg_proc p
        JOIN pg_trigger t ON t.tgfoid = p.oid 
        JOIN pg_language l ON p.prolang = l.oid
        JOIN pg_namespace n ON p.pronamespace = n.oid,
        LATERAL plpgsql_check_function(p.oid, t.tgrelid) cf
  WHERE n.nspname = 'public' and l.lanname = 'plpgsql'

or

-- check all plpgsql functions (functions or trigger functions with defined triggers)
SELECT
    (pcf).functionid::regprocedure, (pcf).lineno, (pcf).statement,
    (pcf).sqlstate, (pcf).message, (pcf).detail, (pcf).hint, (pcf).level,
    (pcf)."position", (pcf).query, (pcf).context
FROM
(
    SELECT
        plpgsql_check_function_tb(pg_proc.oid, COALESCE(pg_trigger.tgrelid, 0)) AS pcf
    FROM pg_proc
    LEFT JOIN pg_trigger
        ON (pg_trigger.tgfoid = pg_proc.oid)
    WHERE
        prolang = (SELECT lang.oid FROM pg_language lang WHERE lang.lanname = 'plpgsql') AND
        pronamespace <> (SELECT nsp.oid FROM pg_namespace nsp WHERE nsp.nspname = 'pg_catalog') AND
        -- ignore unused triggers
        (pg_proc.prorettype <> (SELECT typ.oid FROM pg_type typ WHERE typ.typname = 'trigger') OR
         pg_trigger.tgfoid IS NOT NULL)
    OFFSET 0
) ss
ORDER BY (pcf).functionid::regprocedure::text, (pcf).lineno

Passive mode

Functions should be checked on start - plpgsql_check module must be loaded.

Configuration

plpgsql_check.mode = [ disabled | by_function | fresh_start | every_start ]
plpgsql_check.fatal_errors = [ yes | no ]

plpgsql_check.show_nonperformance_warnings = false
plpgsql_check.show_performance_warnings = false

Default mode is by_function, that means that the enhanced check is done only in active mode - by plpgsql_check_function. fresh_start means cold start.

You can enable passive mode by

load 'plpgsql'; -- 1.1 and higher doesn't need it
load 'plpgsql_check';
set plpgsql_check.mode = 'every_start';

SELECT fx(10); -- run functions - function is checked before runtime starts it

Limits

plpgsql_check should find almost all errors on really static code. When developer use some PLpgSQL's dynamic features like dynamic SQL or record data type, then false positives are possible. These should be rare - in well written code - and then the affected function should be redesigned or plpgsql_check should be disabled for this function.

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION f1()
RETURNS void AS $$
DECLARE r record;
BEGIN
  FOR r IN EXECUTE 'SELECT * FROM t1'
  LOOP
    RAISE NOTICE '%', r.c;
  END LOOP;
END;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql SET plpgsql.enable_check TO false;

A usage of plpgsql_check adds a small overhead (in enabled passive mode) and you should use it only in develop or preprod environments.

Dynamic SQL

This module doesn't check queries that are assembled in runtime. It is not possible to identify results of dynamic queries - so plpgsql_check cannot to set correct type to record variables and cannot to check a dependent SQLs and expressions.

When type of record's variable is not know, you can assign it explicitly with pragma type:

DECLARE r record;
BEGIN
  EXECUTE format('SELECT * FROM %I', _tablename) INTO r;
  PERFORM plpgsql_check_pragma('type: r (id int, processed bool)');
  IF NOT r.processed THEN
    ...

Attention: The SQL injection check can detect only some SQL injection vulnerabilities. This tool cannot be used for security audit! Some issues should not be detected. This check can raise false alarms too - probably when variable is sanitized by other command or when value is of some compose type. 

Refcursors

plpgsql_check should not to detect structure of referenced cursors. A reference on cursor in PLpgSQL is implemented as name of global cursor. In check time, the name is not known (not in all possibilities), and global cursor doesn't exist. It is significant break for any static analyse. PLpgSQL cannot to set correct type for record variables and cannot to check a dependent SQLs and expressions. A solution is same like dynamic SQL. Don't use record variable as target when you use refcursor type or disable plpgsql_check for these functions.

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION foo(refcur_var refcursor)
RETURNS void AS $$
DECLARE
  rec_var record;
BEGIN
  FETCH refcur_var INTO rec_var; -- this is STOP for plpgsql_check
  RAISE NOTICE '%', rec_var;     -- record rec_var is not assigned yet error

In this case a record type should not be used (use known rowtype instead):

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION foo(refcur_var refcursor)
RETURNS void AS $$
DECLARE
  rec_var some_rowtype;
BEGIN
  FETCH refcur_var INTO rec_var;
  RAISE NOTICE '%', rec_var;

Temporary tables

plpgsql_check cannot verify queries over temporary tables that are created in plpgsql's function runtime. For this use case it is necessary to create a fake temp table or disable plpgsql_check for this function.

In reality temp tables are stored in own (per user) schema with higher priority than persistent tables. So you can do (with following trick safetly):

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.disable_dml()
RETURNS trigger
LANGUAGE plpgsql AS $function$
BEGIN
  RAISE EXCEPTION SQLSTATE '42P01'
     USING message = format('this instance of %I table doesn''t allow any DML operation', TG_TABLE_NAME),
           hint = format('you should to run "CREATE TEMP TABLE %1$I(LIKE %1$I INCLUDING ALL);" statement',
                         TG_TABLE_NAME);
  RETURN NULL;
END;
$function$;

CREATE TABLE foo(a int, b int); -- doesn't hold data ever
CREATE TRIGGER foo_disable_dml
   BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON foo
   EXECUTE PROCEDURE disable_dml();

postgres=# INSERT INTO  foo VALUES(10,20);
ERROR:  this instance of foo table doesn't allow any DML operation
HINT:  you should to run "CREATE TEMP TABLE foo(LIKE foo INCLUDING ALL);" statement
postgres=# 

CREATE TABLE
postgres=# INSERT INTO  foo VALUES(10,20);
INSERT 0 1

This trick emulates GLOBAL TEMP tables partially and it allows a statical validation. Other possibility is using a [template foreign data wrapper] (https://github.com/okbob/template_fdw)

You can use pragma table and create ephemeral table:

BEGIN
   CREATE TEMP TABLE xxx(a int);
   PERFORM plpgsql_check_pragma('table: xxx(a int)');
   INSERT INTO xxx VALUES(10);

Dependency list

A function plpgsql_show_dependency_tb can show all functions, operators and relations used inside processed function:

postgres=# select * from plpgsql_show_dependency_tb('testfunc(int,float)');
┌──────────┬───────┬────────┬─────────┬────────────────────────────┐
│   type   │  oid  │ schema │  name   │           params           │
╞══════════╪═══════╪════════╪═════════╪════════════════════════════╡
│ FUNCTION │ 36008 │ public │ myfunc1 │ (integer,double precision) │
│ FUNCTION │ 35999 │ public │ myfunc2 │ (integer,double precision) │
│ OPERATOR │ 36007 │ public │ **      │ (integer,integer)          │
│ RELATION │ 36005 │ public │ myview  │                            │
│ RELATION │ 36002 │ public │ mytable │                            │
└──────────┴───────┴────────┴─────────┴────────────────────────────┘
(4 rows)

Profiler

The plpgsql_check contains simple profiler of plpgsql functions and procedures. It can work with/without a access to shared memory. It depends on shared_preload_libraries config. When plpgsql_check was initialized by shared_preload_libraries, then it can allocate shared memory, and function's profiles are stored there. When plpgsql_check cannot to allocate shared momory, the profile is stored in session memory.

Due dependencies, shared_preload_libraries should to contains plpgsql first

postgres=# show shared_preload_libraries ;
┌──────────────────────────┐
│ shared_preload_libraries │
╞══════════════════════════╡
│ plpgsql,plpgsql_check    │
└──────────────────────────┘
(1 row)

The profiler is active when GUC plpgsql_check.profiler is on. The profiler doesn't require shared memory, but if there are not shared memory, then the profile is limmitted just to active session.

When plpgsql_check is initialized by shared_preload_libraries, another GUC is available to configure the amount of shared memory used by the profiler: plpgsql_check.profiler_max_shared_chunks. This defines the maximum number of statements chunk that can be stored in shared memory. For each plpgsql function (or procedure), the whole content is split into chunks of 30 statements. If needed, multiple chunks can be used to store the whole content of a single function. A single chunk is 1704 bytes. The default value for this GUC is 15000, which should be enough for big projects containing hundred of thousands of statements in plpgsql, and will consume about 24MB of memory. If your project doesn't require that much number of chunks, you can set this parameter to a smaller number in order to decrease the memory usage. The minimum value is 50 (which should consume about 83kB of memory), and the maximum value is 100000 (which should consume about 163MB of memory). Changing this parameter requires a PostgreSQL restart.

The profiler will also retrieve the query identifier for each instruction that contains an expression or optimizable statement. Note that this requires pg_stat_statements, or another similar third-party extension), to be installed. There are some limitations to the query identifier retrieval:

  • if a plpgsql expression contains underlying statements, only the top level query identifier will be retrieved
  • the profiler doesn't compute query identifier by itself but relies on external extension, such as pg_stat_statements, for that. It means that depending on the external extension behavior, you may not be able to see a query identifier for some statements. That's for instance the case with DDL statements, as pg_stat_statements doesn't expose the query identifier for such queries.
  • a query identifier is retrieved only for instructions containing expressions. This means that plpgsql_profiler_function_tb() function can report less query identifier than instructions on a single line.

Attention: A update of shared profiles can decrease performance on servers under higher load.

The profile can be displayed by function plpgsql_profiler_function_tb:

postgres=# select lineno, avg_time, source from plpgsql_profiler_function_tb('fx(int)');
┌────────┬──────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
│ lineno │ avg_time │                              source                               │
╞════════╪══════════╪═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╡
│      1 │          │                                                                   │
│      2 │          │ declare result int = 0;                                           │
│      3 │    0.075 │ begin                                                             │
│      4 │    0.202 │   for i in 1..$1 loop                                             │
│      5 │    0.005 │     select result + i into result; select result + i into result; │
│      6 │          │   end loop;                                                       │
│      7 │        0 │   return result;                                                  │
│      8 │          │ end;                                                              │
└────────┴──────────┴───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
(9 rows)

The profile per statements (not per line) can be displayed by function plpgsql_profiler_function_statements_tb:

        CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.fx1(a integer)
         RETURNS integer
         LANGUAGE plpgsql
1       AS $function$
2       begin
3         if a > 10 then
4           raise notice 'ahoj';
5           return -1;
6         else
7           raise notice 'nazdar';
8           return 1;
9         end if;
10      end;
11      $function$

postgres=# select stmtid, parent_stmtid, parent_note, lineno, exec_stmts, stmtname
             from plpgsql_profiler_function_statements_tb('fx1');
┌────────┬───────────────┬─────────────┬────────┬────────────┬─────────────────┐
│ stmtid │ parent_stmtid │ parent_note │ lineno │ exec_stmts │    stmtname     │
╞════════╪═══════════════╪═════════════╪════════╪════════════╪═════════════════╡
│      0 │             ∅ │ ∅           │      2 │          0 │ statement block │
│      1 │             0 │ body        │      3 │          0 │ IF              │
│      2 │             1 │ then body   │      4 │          0 │ RAISE           │
│      3 │             1 │ then body   │      5 │          0 │ RETURN          │
│      4 │             1 │ else body   │      7 │          0 │ RAISE           │
│      5 │             1 │ else body   │      8 │          0 │ RETURN          │
└────────┴───────────────┴─────────────┴────────┴────────────┴─────────────────┘
(6 rows)

All stored profiles can be displayed by calling function plpgsql_profiler_functions_all:

postgres=# select * from plpgsql_profiler_functions_all();
┌───────────────────────┬────────────┬────────────┬──────────┬─────────────┬──────────┬──────────┐
│        funcoid        │ exec_count │ total_time │ avg_time │ stddev_time │ min_time │ max_time │
╞═══════════════════════╪════════════╪════════════╪══════════╪═════════════╪══════════╪══════════╡
│ fxx(double precision) │          1 │       0.01 │     0.01 │        0.00 │     0.01 │     0.01 │
└───────────────────────┴────────────┴────────────┴──────────┴─────────────┴──────────┴──────────┘
(1 row)

There are two functions for cleaning stored profiles: plpgsql_profiler_reset_all() and plpgsql_profiler_reset(regprocedure).

Coverage metrics

plpgsql_check provides two functions:

  • plpgsql_coverage_statements(name)
  • plpgsql_coverage_branches(name)

Note

There is another very good PLpgSQL profiler - https://bitbucket.org/openscg/plprofiler

My extension is designed to be simple for use and practical. Nothing more or less.

plprofiler is more complex. It build call graphs and from this graph it can creates flame graph of execution times.

Both extensions can be used together with buildin PostgreSQL's feature - tracking functions.

set track_functions to 'pl';
...
select * from pg_stat_user_functions;

Tracer

plpgsql_check provides a tracing possibility - in this mode you can see notices on start or end functions (terse and default verbosity) and start or end statements (verbose verbosity). For default and verbose verbosity the content of function arguments is displayed. The content of related variables are displayed when verbosity is verbose.

postgres=# do $$ begin perform fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule'); end; $$;
NOTICE:  #0 ->> start of inline_code_block (Oid=0)
NOTICE:  #2   ->> start of function fx(integer,integer,date,text) (Oid=16405)
NOTICE:  #2        call by inline_code_block line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:  #2       "a" => '10', "b" => null, "c" => '2020-08-03', "d" => 'stěhule'
NOTICE:  #4     ->> start of function fx(integer) (Oid=16404)
NOTICE:  #4          call by fx(integer,integer,date,text) line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:  #4         "a" => '10'
NOTICE:  #4     <<- end of function fx (elapsed time=0.098 ms)
NOTICE:  #2   <<- end of function fx (elapsed time=0.399 ms)
NOTICE:  #0 <<- end of block (elapsed time=0.754 ms)

The number after # is a execution frame counter (this number is related to deep of error context stack). It allows to pair start end and of function.

Tracing is enabled by setting plpgsql_check.tracer to on. Attention - enabling this behaviour has significant negative impact on performance (unlike the profiler). You can set a level for output used by tracer plpgsql_check.tracer_errlevel (default is notice). The output content is limited by length specified by plpgsql_check.tracer_variable_max_length configuration variable.

In terse verbose mode the output is reduced:

postgres=# set plpgsql_check.tracer_verbosity TO terse;
SET
postgres=# do $$ begin perform fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule'); end; $$;
NOTICE:  #0 start of inline code block (oid=0)
NOTICE:  #2 start of fx (oid=16405)
NOTICE:  #4 start of fx (oid=16404)
NOTICE:  #4 end of fx
NOTICE:  #2 end of fx
NOTICE:  #0 end of inline code block

In verbose mode the output is extended about statement details:

postgres=# do $$ begin perform fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule'); end; $$;
NOTICE:  #0            ->> start of block inline_code_block (oid=0)
NOTICE:  #0.1       1  --> start of PERFORM
NOTICE:  #2              ->> start of function fx(integer,integer,date,text) (oid=16405)
NOTICE:  #2                   call by inline_code_block line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:  #2                  "a" => '10', "b" => null, "c" => '2020-08-04', "d" => 'stěhule'
NOTICE:  #2.1       1    --> start of PERFORM
NOTICE:  #2.1                "a" => '10'
NOTICE:  #4                ->> start of function fx(integer) (oid=16404)
NOTICE:  #4                     call by fx(integer,integer,date,text) line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:  #4                    "a" => '10'
NOTICE:  #4.1       6      --> start of assignment
NOTICE:  #4.1                  "a" => '10', "b" => '20'
NOTICE:  #4.1              <-- end of assignment (elapsed time=0.076 ms)
NOTICE:  #4.1                  "res" => '130'
NOTICE:  #4.2       7      --> start of RETURN
NOTICE:  #4.2                  "res" => '130'
NOTICE:  #4.2              <-- end of RETURN (elapsed time=0.054 ms)
NOTICE:  #4                <<- end of function fx (elapsed time=0.373 ms)
NOTICE:  #2.1            <-- end of PERFORM (elapsed time=0.589 ms)
NOTICE:  #2              <<- end of function fx (elapsed time=0.727 ms)
NOTICE:  #0.1          <-- end of PERFORM (elapsed time=1.147 ms)
NOTICE:  #0            <<- end of block (elapsed time=1.286 ms)

Special feature of tracer is tracing of ASSERT statement when plpgsql_check.trace_assert is on. When plpgsql_check.trace_assert_verbosity is DEFAULT, then all function's or procedure's variables are displayed when assert expression is false. When this configuration is VERBOSE then all variables from all plpgsql frames are displayed. This behaviour is independent on plpgsql.check_asserts value. It can be used, although the assertions are disabled in plpgsql runtime.

postgres=# set plpgsql_check.tracer to off;
postgres=# set plpgsql_check.trace_assert_verbosity TO verbose;

postgres=# do $$ begin perform fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule'); end; $$;
NOTICE:  #4 PLpgSQL assert expression (false) on line 12 of fx(integer) is false
NOTICE:   "a" => '10', "res" => null, "b" => '20'
NOTICE:  #2 PL/pgSQL function fx(integer,integer,date,text) line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:   "a" => '10', "b" => null, "c" => '2020-08-05', "d" => 'stěhule'
NOTICE:  #0 PL/pgSQL function inline_code_block line 1 at PERFORM
ERROR:  assertion failed
CONTEXT:  PL/pgSQL function fx(integer) line 12 at ASSERT
SQL statement "SELECT fx(a)"
PL/pgSQL function fx(integer,integer,date,text) line 1 at PERFORM
SQL statement "SELECT fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule')"
PL/pgSQL function inline_code_block line 1 at PERFORM

postgres=# set plpgsql.check_asserts to off;
SET
postgres=# do $$ begin perform fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule'); end; $$;
NOTICE:  #4 PLpgSQL assert expression (false) on line 12 of fx(integer) is false
NOTICE:   "a" => '10', "res" => null, "b" => '20'
NOTICE:  #2 PL/pgSQL function fx(integer,integer,date,text) line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:   "a" => '10', "b" => null, "c" => '2020-08-05', "d" => 'stěhule'
NOTICE:  #0 PL/pgSQL function inline_code_block line 1 at PERFORM
DO

Attention - SECURITY

Tracer prints content of variables or function arguments. For security definer function, this content can hold security sensitive data. This is reason why tracer is disabled by default and should be enabled only with super user rights plpgsql_check.enable_tracer.

Pragma

You can configure plpgsql_check behave inside checked function with "pragma" function. This is a analogy of PL/SQL or ADA language of PRAGMA feature. PLpgSQL doesn't support PRAGMA, but plpgsql_check detects function named plpgsql_check_pragma and get options from parameters of this function. These plpgsql_check options are valid to end of group of statements.

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test()
RETURNS void AS $$
BEGIN
  ...
  -- for following statements disable check
  PERFORM plpgsql_check_pragma('disable:check');
  ...
  -- enable check again
  PERFORM plpgsql_check_pragma('enable:check');
  ...
END;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;

The function plpgsql_check_pragma is immutable function that returns one. It is defined by plpgsql_check extension. You can declare alternative plpgsql_check_pragma function like:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION plpgsql_check_pragma(VARIADIC args[])
RETURNS int AS $$
SELECT 1
$$ LANGUAGE sql IMMUTABLE;

Using pragma function in declaration part of top block sets options on function level too.

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test()
RETURNS void AS $$
DECLARE
  aux int := plpgsql_check_pragma('disable:extra_warnings');
  ...

Shorter syntax for pragma is supported too:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test()
RETURNS void AS $$
DECLARE r record;
BEGIN
  PERFORM 'PRAGMA:TYPE:r (a int, b int)';
  PERFORM 'PRAGMA:TABLE: x (like pg_class)';
  ...

Supported pragmas

echo:str - print string (for testing)

status:check,status:tracer, status:other_warnings, status:performance_warnings, status:extra_warnings,status:security_warnings

enable:check,enable:tracer, enable:other_warnings, enable:performance_warnings, enable:extra_warnings,enable:security_warnings

disable:check,disable:tracer, disable:other_warnings, disable:performance_warnings, disable:extra_warnings,disable:security_warnings

type:varname typename or type:varname (fieldname type, ...) - set type to variable of record type

table: name (column_name type, ...) or table: name (like tablename) - create ephereal table

Pragmas enable:tracer and disable:tracerare active for Postgres 12 and higher

Compilation

You need a development environment for PostgreSQL extensions:

make clean
make install

result:

[pavel@localhost plpgsql_check]$ make USE_PGXS=1 clean
rm -f plpgsql_check.so   libplpgsql_check.a  libplpgsql_check.pc
rm -f plpgsql_check.o
rm -rf results/ regression.diffs regression.out tmp_check/ log/
[pavel@localhost plpgsql_check]$ make USE_PGXS=1 all
clang -O2 -Wall -Wmissing-prototypes -Wpointer-arith -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wendif-labels -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wformat-security -fno-strict-aliasing -fwrapv -fpic -I/usr/local/pgsql/lib/pgxs/src/makefiles/../../src/pl/plpgsql/src -I. -I./ -I/usr/local/pgsql/include/server -I/usr/local/pgsql/include/internal -D_GNU_SOURCE   -c -o plpgsql_check.o plpgsql_check.c
clang -O2 -Wall -Wmissing-prototypes -Wpointer-arith -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wendif-labels -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wformat-security -fno-strict-aliasing -fwrapv -fpic -I/usr/local/pgsql/lib/pgxs/src/makefiles/../../src/pl/plpgsql/src -shared -o plpgsql_check.so plpgsql_check.o -L/usr/local/pgsql/lib -Wl,--as-needed -Wl,-rpath,'/usr/local/pgsql/lib',--enable-new-dtags  
[pavel@localhost plpgsql_check]$ su root
Password: *******
[root@localhost plpgsql_check]# make USE_PGXS=1 install
/usr/bin/mkdir -p '/usr/local/pgsql/lib'
/usr/bin/mkdir -p '/usr/local/pgsql/share/extension'
/usr/bin/mkdir -p '/usr/local/pgsql/share/extension'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 755  plpgsql_check.so '/usr/local/pgsql/lib/plpgsql_check.so'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 plpgsql_check.control '/usr/local/pgsql/share/extension/'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 plpgsql_check--0.9.sql '/usr/local/pgsql/share/extension/'
[root@localhost plpgsql_check]# exit
[pavel@localhost plpgsql_check]$ make USE_PGXS=1 installcheck
/usr/local/pgsql/lib/pgxs/src/makefiles/../../src/test/regress/pg_regress --inputdir=./ --psqldir='/usr/local/pgsql/bin'    --dbname=pl_regression --load-language=plpgsql --dbname=contrib_regression plpgsql_check_passive plpgsql_check_active plpgsql_check_active-9.5
(using postmaster on Unix socket, default port)
============== dropping database "contrib_regression" ==============
DROP DATABASE
============== creating database "contrib_regression" ==============
CREATE DATABASE
ALTER DATABASE
============== installing plpgsql                     ==============
CREATE LANGUAGE
============== running regression test queries        ==============
test plpgsql_check_passive    ... ok
test plpgsql_check_active     ... ok
test plpgsql_check_active-9.5 ... ok

=====================
 All 3 tests passed. 
=====================

Compilation on Ubuntu

Sometimes successful compilation can require libicu-dev package (PostgreSQL 10 and higher - when pg was compiled with ICU support)

sudo apt install libicu-dev

Compilation plpgsql_check on Windows

You can check precompiled dll libraries http://okbob.blogspot.cz/2015/02/plpgsqlcheck-is-available-for-microsoft.html

or compile by self:

  1. Download and install PostgreSQL for Win32 from http://www.enterprisedb.com
  2. Download and install Microsoft Visual C++ Express
  3. Lern tutorial http://blog.2ndquadrant.com/compiling-postgresql-extensions-visual-studio-windows
  4. Build plpgsql_check.dll
  5. Install plugin
  6. copy plpgsql_check.dll to PostgreSQL\14\lib
  7. copy plpgsql_check.control and plpgsql_check--2.1.sql to PostgreSQL\14\share\extension

Checked on

  • gcc on Linux (against all supported PostgreSQL)
  • clang 3.4 on Linux (against PostgreSQL 10)
  • for success regress tests the PostgreSQL 10 or higher is required

Compilation against PostgreSQL 10 requires libICU!

Licence

Copyright (c) Pavel Stehule (pavel.stehule@gmail.com)

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Note

If you like it, send a postcard to address

Pavel Stehule
Skalice 12
256 01 Benesov u Prahy
Czech Republic

I invite any questions, comments, bug reports, patches on mail address pavel.stehule@gmail.com


Author: okbob
Source Code: https://github.com/okbob/plpgsql_check
License: View license

#postgresql 

Plpgsql Check: Extension That Allows to Check Plpgsql Source Code.

plpgsql_check

I founded this project, because I wanted to publish the code I wrote in the last two years, when I tried to write enhanced checking for PostgreSQL upstream. It was not fully successful - integration into upstream requires some larger plpgsql refactoring - probably it will not be done in next years (now is Dec 2013). But written code is fully functional and can be used in production (and it is used in production). So, I created this extension to be available for all plpgsql developers.

If you like it and if you would to join to development of this extension, register yourself to postgresql extension hacking google group.

Features

  • check fields of referenced database objects and types inside embedded SQL
  • using correct types of function parameters
  • unused variables and function argumens, unmodified OUT argumens
  • partially detection of dead code (due RETURN command)
  • detection of missing RETURN command in function
  • try to identify unwanted hidden casts, that can be performance issue like unused indexes
  • possibility to collect relations and functions used by function
  • possibility to check EXECUTE stmt agaist SQL injection vulnerability

I invite any ideas, patches, bugreports.

plpgsql_check is next generation of plpgsql_lint. It allows to check source code by explicit call plpgsql_check_function.

PostgreSQL PostgreSQL 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14 are supported.

The SQL statements inside PL/pgSQL functions are checked by validator for semantic errors. These errors can be found by plpgsql_check_function:

Active mode

postgres=# CREATE EXTENSION plpgsql_check;
LOAD
postgres=# CREATE TABLE t1(a int, b int);
CREATE TABLE

postgres=#
CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.f1()
RETURNS void
LANGUAGE plpgsql
AS $function$
DECLARE r record;
BEGIN
  FOR r IN SELECT * FROM t1
  LOOP
    RAISE NOTICE '%', r.c; -- there is bug - table t1 missing "c" column
  END LOOP;
END;
$function$;

CREATE FUNCTION

postgres=# select f1(); -- execution doesn't find a bug due to empty table t1
  f1 
 ────
   
 (1 row)

postgres=# \x
Expanded display is on.
postgres=# select * from plpgsql_check_function_tb('f1()');
─[ RECORD 1 ]───────────────────────────
functionid │ f1
lineno     │ 6
statement  │ RAISE
sqlstate   │ 42703
message    │ record "r" has no field "c"
detail     │ [null]
hint       │ [null]
level      │ error
position   │ 0
query      │ [null]

postgres=# \sf+ f1
    CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.f1()
     RETURNS void
     LANGUAGE plpgsql
1       AS $function$
2       DECLARE r record;
3       BEGIN
4         FOR r IN SELECT * FROM t1
5         LOOP
6           RAISE NOTICE '%', r.c; -- there is bug - table t1 missing "c" column
7         END LOOP;
8       END;
9       $function$

Function plpgsql_check_function() has three possible formats: text, json or xml

select * from plpgsql_check_function('f1()', fatal_errors := false);
                         plpgsql_check_function                         
------------------------------------------------------------------------
 error:42703:4:SQL statement:column "c" of relation "t1" does not exist
 Query: update t1 set c = 30
 --                   ^
 error:42P01:7:RAISE:missing FROM-clause entry for table "r"
 Query: SELECT r.c
 --            ^
 error:42601:7:RAISE:too few parameters specified for RAISE
(7 rows)

postgres=# select * from plpgsql_check_function('fx()', format:='xml');
                 plpgsql_check_function                     
────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
 <Function oid="16400">                                        ↵
   <Issue>                                                     ↵
     <Level>error</level>                                      ↵
     <Sqlstate>42P01</Sqlstate>                                ↵
     <Message>relation "foo111" does not exist</Message>       ↵
     <Stmt lineno="3">RETURN</Stmt>                            ↵
     <Query position="23">SELECT (select a from foo111)</Query>↵
   </Issue>                                                    ↵
  </Function>
 (1 row)

Arguments

You can set level of warnings via function's parameters:

Mandatory arguments

  • function name or function signature - these functions requires function specification. Any function in PostgreSQL can be specified by Oid or by name or by signature. When you know oid or complete function's signature, you can use a regprocedure type parameter like 'fx()'::regprocedure or 16799::regprocedure. Possible alternative is using a name only, when function's name is unique - like 'fx'. When the name is not unique or the function doesn't exists it raises a error.

Optional arguments

relid DEFAULT 0 - oid of relation assigned with trigger function. It is necessary for check of any trigger function.

fatal_errors boolean DEFAULT true - stop on first error

other_warnings boolean DEFAULT true - show warnings like different attributes number in assignmenet on left and right side, variable overlaps function's parameter, unused variables, unwanted casting, ..

extra_warnings boolean DEFAULT true - show warnings like missing RETURN, shadowed variables, dead code, never read (unused) function's parameter, unmodified variables, modified auto variables, ..

performance_warnings boolean DEFAULT false - performance related warnings like declared type with type modificator, casting, implicit casts in where clause (can be reason why index is not used), ..

security_warnings boolean DEFAULT false - security related checks like SQL injection vulnerability detection

anyelementtype regtype DEFAULT 'int' - a real type used instead anyelement type

anyenumtype regtype DEFAULT '-' - a real type used instead anyenum type

anyrangetype regtype DEFAULT 'int4range' - a real type used instead anyrange type

anycompatibletype DEFAULT 'int' - a real type used instead anycompatible type

anycompatiblerangetype DEFAULT 'int4range' - a real type used instead anycompatible range type

without_warnings DEFAULT false - disable all warnings

all_warnings DEFAULT false - enable all warnings

newtable DEFAULT NULL, oldtable DEFAULT NULL - the names of NEW or OLD transitive tables. These parameters are required when transitive tables are used.

Triggers

When you want to check any trigger, you have to enter a relation that will be used together with trigger function

CREATE TABLE bar(a int, b int);

postgres=# \sf+ foo_trg
    CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.foo_trg()
         RETURNS trigger
         LANGUAGE plpgsql
1       AS $function$
2       BEGIN
3         NEW.c := NEW.a + NEW.b;
4         RETURN NEW;
5       END;
6       $function$

Missing relation specification

postgres=# select * from plpgsql_check_function('foo_trg()');
ERROR:  missing trigger relation
HINT:  Trigger relation oid must be valid

Correct trigger checking (with specified relation)

postgres=# select * from plpgsql_check_function('foo_trg()', 'bar');
                 plpgsql_check_function                 
--------------------------------------------------------
 error:42703:3:assignment:record "new" has no field "c"
(1 row)

For triggers with transitive tables you can set a oldtable or newtable parameters:

create or replace function footab_trig_func()
returns trigger as $$
declare x int;
begin
  if false then
    -- should be ok;
    select count(*) from newtab into x; 

    -- should fail;
    select count(*) from newtab where d = 10 into x;
  end if;
  return null;
end;
$$ language plpgsql;

select * from plpgsql_check_function('footab_trig_func','footab', newtable := 'newtab');

Mass check

You can use the plpgsql_check_function for mass check functions and mass check triggers. Please, test following queries:

-- check all nontrigger plpgsql functions
SELECT p.oid, p.proname, plpgsql_check_function(p.oid)
   FROM pg_catalog.pg_namespace n
   JOIN pg_catalog.pg_proc p ON pronamespace = n.oid
   JOIN pg_catalog.pg_language l ON p.prolang = l.oid
  WHERE l.lanname = 'plpgsql' AND p.prorettype <> 2279;

or

SELECT p.proname, tgrelid::regclass, cf.*
   FROM pg_proc p
        JOIN pg_trigger t ON t.tgfoid = p.oid 
        JOIN pg_language l ON p.prolang = l.oid
        JOIN pg_namespace n ON p.pronamespace = n.oid,
        LATERAL plpgsql_check_function(p.oid, t.tgrelid) cf
  WHERE n.nspname = 'public' and l.lanname = 'plpgsql'

or

-- check all plpgsql functions (functions or trigger functions with defined triggers)
SELECT
    (pcf).functionid::regprocedure, (pcf).lineno, (pcf).statement,
    (pcf).sqlstate, (pcf).message, (pcf).detail, (pcf).hint, (pcf).level,
    (pcf)."position", (pcf).query, (pcf).context
FROM
(
    SELECT
        plpgsql_check_function_tb(pg_proc.oid, COALESCE(pg_trigger.tgrelid, 0)) AS pcf
    FROM pg_proc
    LEFT JOIN pg_trigger
        ON (pg_trigger.tgfoid = pg_proc.oid)
    WHERE
        prolang = (SELECT lang.oid FROM pg_language lang WHERE lang.lanname = 'plpgsql') AND
        pronamespace <> (SELECT nsp.oid FROM pg_namespace nsp WHERE nsp.nspname = 'pg_catalog') AND
        -- ignore unused triggers
        (pg_proc.prorettype <> (SELECT typ.oid FROM pg_type typ WHERE typ.typname = 'trigger') OR
         pg_trigger.tgfoid IS NOT NULL)
    OFFSET 0
) ss
ORDER BY (pcf).functionid::regprocedure::text, (pcf).lineno

Passive mode

Functions should be checked on start - plpgsql_check module must be loaded.

Configuration

plpgsql_check.mode = [ disabled | by_function | fresh_start | every_start ]
plpgsql_check.fatal_errors = [ yes | no ]

plpgsql_check.show_nonperformance_warnings = false
plpgsql_check.show_performance_warnings = false

Default mode is by_function, that means that the enhanced check is done only in active mode - by plpgsql_check_function. fresh_start means cold start.

You can enable passive mode by

load 'plpgsql'; -- 1.1 and higher doesn't need it
load 'plpgsql_check';
set plpgsql_check.mode = 'every_start';

SELECT fx(10); -- run functions - function is checked before runtime starts it

Limits

plpgsql_check should find almost all errors on really static code. When developer use some PLpgSQL's dynamic features like dynamic SQL or record data type, then false positives are possible. These should be rare - in well written code - and then the affected function should be redesigned or plpgsql_check should be disabled for this function.

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION f1()
RETURNS void AS $$
DECLARE r record;
BEGIN
  FOR r IN EXECUTE 'SELECT * FROM t1'
  LOOP
    RAISE NOTICE '%', r.c;
  END LOOP;
END;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql SET plpgsql.enable_check TO false;

A usage of plpgsql_check adds a small overhead (in enabled passive mode) and you should use it only in develop or preprod environments.

Dynamic SQL

This module doesn't check queries that are assembled in runtime. It is not possible to identify results of dynamic queries - so plpgsql_check cannot to set correct type to record variables and cannot to check a dependent SQLs and expressions.

When type of record's variable is not know, you can assign it explicitly with pragma type:

DECLARE r record;
BEGIN
  EXECUTE format('SELECT * FROM %I', _tablename) INTO r;
  PERFORM plpgsql_check_pragma('type: r (id int, processed bool)');
  IF NOT r.processed THEN
    ...

Attention: The SQL injection check can detect only some SQL injection vulnerabilities. This tool cannot be used for security audit! Some issues should not be detected. This check can raise false alarms too - probably when variable is sanitized by other command or when value is of some compose type. 

Refcursors

plpgsql_check should not to detect structure of referenced cursors. A reference on cursor in PLpgSQL is implemented as name of global cursor. In check time, the name is not known (not in all possibilities), and global cursor doesn't exist. It is significant break for any static analyse. PLpgSQL cannot to set correct type for record variables and cannot to check a dependent SQLs and expressions. A solution is same like dynamic SQL. Don't use record variable as target when you use refcursor type or disable plpgsql_check for these functions.

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION foo(refcur_var refcursor)
RETURNS void AS $$
DECLARE
  rec_var record;
BEGIN
  FETCH refcur_var INTO rec_var; -- this is STOP for plpgsql_check
  RAISE NOTICE '%', rec_var;     -- record rec_var is not assigned yet error

In this case a record type should not be used (use known rowtype instead):

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION foo(refcur_var refcursor)
RETURNS void AS $$
DECLARE
  rec_var some_rowtype;
BEGIN
  FETCH refcur_var INTO rec_var;
  RAISE NOTICE '%', rec_var;

Temporary tables

plpgsql_check cannot verify queries over temporary tables that are created in plpgsql's function runtime. For this use case it is necessary to create a fake temp table or disable plpgsql_check for this function.

In reality temp tables are stored in own (per user) schema with higher priority than persistent tables. So you can do (with following trick safetly):

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.disable_dml()
RETURNS trigger
LANGUAGE plpgsql AS $function$
BEGIN
  RAISE EXCEPTION SQLSTATE '42P01'
     USING message = format('this instance of %I table doesn''t allow any DML operation', TG_TABLE_NAME),
           hint = format('you should to run "CREATE TEMP TABLE %1$I(LIKE %1$I INCLUDING ALL);" statement',
                         TG_TABLE_NAME);
  RETURN NULL;
END;
$function$;

CREATE TABLE foo(a int, b int); -- doesn't hold data ever
CREATE TRIGGER foo_disable_dml
   BEFORE INSERT OR UPDATE OR DELETE ON foo
   EXECUTE PROCEDURE disable_dml();

postgres=# INSERT INTO  foo VALUES(10,20);
ERROR:  this instance of foo table doesn't allow any DML operation
HINT:  you should to run "CREATE TEMP TABLE foo(LIKE foo INCLUDING ALL);" statement
postgres=# 

CREATE TABLE
postgres=# INSERT INTO  foo VALUES(10,20);
INSERT 0 1

This trick emulates GLOBAL TEMP tables partially and it allows a statical validation. Other possibility is using a [template foreign data wrapper] (https://github.com/okbob/template_fdw)

You can use pragma table and create ephemeral table:

BEGIN
   CREATE TEMP TABLE xxx(a int);
   PERFORM plpgsql_check_pragma('table: xxx(a int)');
   INSERT INTO xxx VALUES(10);

Dependency list

A function plpgsql_show_dependency_tb can show all functions, operators and relations used inside processed function:

postgres=# select * from plpgsql_show_dependency_tb('testfunc(int,float)');
┌──────────┬───────┬────────┬─────────┬────────────────────────────┐
│   type   │  oid  │ schema │  name   │           params           │
╞══════════╪═══════╪════════╪═════════╪════════════════════════════╡
│ FUNCTION │ 36008 │ public │ myfunc1 │ (integer,double precision) │
│ FUNCTION │ 35999 │ public │ myfunc2 │ (integer,double precision) │
│ OPERATOR │ 36007 │ public │ **      │ (integer,integer)          │
│ RELATION │ 36005 │ public │ myview  │                            │
│ RELATION │ 36002 │ public │ mytable │                            │
└──────────┴───────┴────────┴─────────┴────────────────────────────┘
(4 rows)

Profiler

The plpgsql_check contains simple profiler of plpgsql functions and procedures. It can work with/without a access to shared memory. It depends on shared_preload_libraries config. When plpgsql_check was initialized by shared_preload_libraries, then it can allocate shared memory, and function's profiles are stored there. When plpgsql_check cannot to allocate shared momory, the profile is stored in session memory.

Due dependencies, shared_preload_libraries should to contains plpgsql first

postgres=# show shared_preload_libraries ;
┌──────────────────────────┐
│ shared_preload_libraries │
╞══════════════════════════╡
│ plpgsql,plpgsql_check    │
└──────────────────────────┘
(1 row)

The profiler is active when GUC plpgsql_check.profiler is on. The profiler doesn't require shared memory, but if there are not shared memory, then the profile is limmitted just to active session.

When plpgsql_check is initialized by shared_preload_libraries, another GUC is available to configure the amount of shared memory used by the profiler: plpgsql_check.profiler_max_shared_chunks. This defines the maximum number of statements chunk that can be stored in shared memory. For each plpgsql function (or procedure), the whole content is split into chunks of 30 statements. If needed, multiple chunks can be used to store the whole content of a single function. A single chunk is 1704 bytes. The default value for this GUC is 15000, which should be enough for big projects containing hundred of thousands of statements in plpgsql, and will consume about 24MB of memory. If your project doesn't require that much number of chunks, you can set this parameter to a smaller number in order to decrease the memory usage. The minimum value is 50 (which should consume about 83kB of memory), and the maximum value is 100000 (which should consume about 163MB of memory). Changing this parameter requires a PostgreSQL restart.

The profiler will also retrieve the query identifier for each instruction that contains an expression or optimizable statement. Note that this requires pg_stat_statements, or another similar third-party extension), to be installed. There are some limitations to the query identifier retrieval:

  • if a plpgsql expression contains underlying statements, only the top level query identifier will be retrieved
  • the profiler doesn't compute query identifier by itself but relies on external extension, such as pg_stat_statements, for that. It means that depending on the external extension behavior, you may not be able to see a query identifier for some statements. That's for instance the case with DDL statements, as pg_stat_statements doesn't expose the query identifier for such queries.
  • a query identifier is retrieved only for instructions containing expressions. This means that plpgsql_profiler_function_tb() function can report less query identifier than instructions on a single line.

Attention: A update of shared profiles can decrease performance on servers under higher load.

The profile can be displayed by function plpgsql_profiler_function_tb:

postgres=# select lineno, avg_time, source from plpgsql_profiler_function_tb('fx(int)');
┌────────┬──────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┐
│ lineno │ avg_time │                              source                               │
╞════════╪══════════╪═══════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════╡
│      1 │          │                                                                   │
│      2 │          │ declare result int = 0;                                           │
│      3 │    0.075 │ begin                                                             │
│      4 │    0.202 │   for i in 1..$1 loop                                             │
│      5 │    0.005 │     select result + i into result; select result + i into result; │
│      6 │          │   end loop;                                                       │
│      7 │        0 │   return result;                                                  │
│      8 │          │ end;                                                              │
└────────┴──────────┴───────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────┘
(9 rows)

The profile per statements (not per line) can be displayed by function plpgsql_profiler_function_statements_tb:

        CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION public.fx1(a integer)
         RETURNS integer
         LANGUAGE plpgsql
1       AS $function$
2       begin
3         if a > 10 then
4           raise notice 'ahoj';
5           return -1;
6         else
7           raise notice 'nazdar';
8           return 1;
9         end if;
10      end;
11      $function$

postgres=# select stmtid, parent_stmtid, parent_note, lineno, exec_stmts, stmtname
             from plpgsql_profiler_function_statements_tb('fx1');
┌────────┬───────────────┬─────────────┬────────┬────────────┬─────────────────┐
│ stmtid │ parent_stmtid │ parent_note │ lineno │ exec_stmts │    stmtname     │
╞════════╪═══════════════╪═════════════╪════════╪════════════╪═════════════════╡
│      0 │             ∅ │ ∅           │      2 │          0 │ statement block │
│      1 │             0 │ body        │      3 │          0 │ IF              │
│      2 │             1 │ then body   │      4 │          0 │ RAISE           │
│      3 │             1 │ then body   │      5 │          0 │ RETURN          │
│      4 │             1 │ else body   │      7 │          0 │ RAISE           │
│      5 │             1 │ else body   │      8 │          0 │ RETURN          │
└────────┴───────────────┴─────────────┴────────┴────────────┴─────────────────┘
(6 rows)

All stored profiles can be displayed by calling function plpgsql_profiler_functions_all:

postgres=# select * from plpgsql_profiler_functions_all();
┌───────────────────────┬────────────┬────────────┬──────────┬─────────────┬──────────┬──────────┐
│        funcoid        │ exec_count │ total_time │ avg_time │ stddev_time │ min_time │ max_time │
╞═══════════════════════╪════════════╪════════════╪══════════╪═════════════╪══════════╪══════════╡
│ fxx(double precision) │          1 │       0.01 │     0.01 │        0.00 │     0.01 │     0.01 │
└───────────────────────┴────────────┴────────────┴──────────┴─────────────┴──────────┴──────────┘
(1 row)

There are two functions for cleaning stored profiles: plpgsql_profiler_reset_all() and plpgsql_profiler_reset(regprocedure).

Coverage metrics

plpgsql_check provides two functions:

  • plpgsql_coverage_statements(name)
  • plpgsql_coverage_branches(name)

Note

There is another very good PLpgSQL profiler - https://bitbucket.org/openscg/plprofiler

My extension is designed to be simple for use and practical. Nothing more or less.

plprofiler is more complex. It build call graphs and from this graph it can creates flame graph of execution times.

Both extensions can be used together with buildin PostgreSQL's feature - tracking functions.

set track_functions to 'pl';
...
select * from pg_stat_user_functions;

Tracer

plpgsql_check provides a tracing possibility - in this mode you can see notices on start or end functions (terse and default verbosity) and start or end statements (verbose verbosity). For default and verbose verbosity the content of function arguments is displayed. The content of related variables are displayed when verbosity is verbose.

postgres=# do $$ begin perform fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule'); end; $$;
NOTICE:  #0 ->> start of inline_code_block (Oid=0)
NOTICE:  #2   ->> start of function fx(integer,integer,date,text) (Oid=16405)
NOTICE:  #2        call by inline_code_block line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:  #2       "a" => '10', "b" => null, "c" => '2020-08-03', "d" => 'stěhule'
NOTICE:  #4     ->> start of function fx(integer) (Oid=16404)
NOTICE:  #4          call by fx(integer,integer,date,text) line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:  #4         "a" => '10'
NOTICE:  #4     <<- end of function fx (elapsed time=0.098 ms)
NOTICE:  #2   <<- end of function fx (elapsed time=0.399 ms)
NOTICE:  #0 <<- end of block (elapsed time=0.754 ms)

The number after # is a execution frame counter (this number is related to deep of error context stack). It allows to pair start end and of function.

Tracing is enabled by setting plpgsql_check.tracer to on. Attention - enabling this behaviour has significant negative impact on performance (unlike the profiler). You can set a level for output used by tracer plpgsql_check.tracer_errlevel (default is notice). The output content is limited by length specified by plpgsql_check.tracer_variable_max_length configuration variable.

In terse verbose mode the output is reduced:

postgres=# set plpgsql_check.tracer_verbosity TO terse;
SET
postgres=# do $$ begin perform fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule'); end; $$;
NOTICE:  #0 start of inline code block (oid=0)
NOTICE:  #2 start of fx (oid=16405)
NOTICE:  #4 start of fx (oid=16404)
NOTICE:  #4 end of fx
NOTICE:  #2 end of fx
NOTICE:  #0 end of inline code block

In verbose mode the output is extended about statement details:

postgres=# do $$ begin perform fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule'); end; $$;
NOTICE:  #0            ->> start of block inline_code_block (oid=0)
NOTICE:  #0.1       1  --> start of PERFORM
NOTICE:  #2              ->> start of function fx(integer,integer,date,text) (oid=16405)
NOTICE:  #2                   call by inline_code_block line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:  #2                  "a" => '10', "b" => null, "c" => '2020-08-04', "d" => 'stěhule'
NOTICE:  #2.1       1    --> start of PERFORM
NOTICE:  #2.1                "a" => '10'
NOTICE:  #4                ->> start of function fx(integer) (oid=16404)
NOTICE:  #4                     call by fx(integer,integer,date,text) line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:  #4                    "a" => '10'
NOTICE:  #4.1       6      --> start of assignment
NOTICE:  #4.1                  "a" => '10', "b" => '20'
NOTICE:  #4.1              <-- end of assignment (elapsed time=0.076 ms)
NOTICE:  #4.1                  "res" => '130'
NOTICE:  #4.2       7      --> start of RETURN
NOTICE:  #4.2                  "res" => '130'
NOTICE:  #4.2              <-- end of RETURN (elapsed time=0.054 ms)
NOTICE:  #4                <<- end of function fx (elapsed time=0.373 ms)
NOTICE:  #2.1            <-- end of PERFORM (elapsed time=0.589 ms)
NOTICE:  #2              <<- end of function fx (elapsed time=0.727 ms)
NOTICE:  #0.1          <-- end of PERFORM (elapsed time=1.147 ms)
NOTICE:  #0            <<- end of block (elapsed time=1.286 ms)

Special feature of tracer is tracing of ASSERT statement when plpgsql_check.trace_assert is on. When plpgsql_check.trace_assert_verbosity is DEFAULT, then all function's or procedure's variables are displayed when assert expression is false. When this configuration is VERBOSE then all variables from all plpgsql frames are displayed. This behaviour is independent on plpgsql.check_asserts value. It can be used, although the assertions are disabled in plpgsql runtime.

postgres=# set plpgsql_check.tracer to off;
postgres=# set plpgsql_check.trace_assert_verbosity TO verbose;

postgres=# do $$ begin perform fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule'); end; $$;
NOTICE:  #4 PLpgSQL assert expression (false) on line 12 of fx(integer) is false
NOTICE:   "a" => '10', "res" => null, "b" => '20'
NOTICE:  #2 PL/pgSQL function fx(integer,integer,date,text) line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:   "a" => '10', "b" => null, "c" => '2020-08-05', "d" => 'stěhule'
NOTICE:  #0 PL/pgSQL function inline_code_block line 1 at PERFORM
ERROR:  assertion failed
CONTEXT:  PL/pgSQL function fx(integer) line 12 at ASSERT
SQL statement "SELECT fx(a)"
PL/pgSQL function fx(integer,integer,date,text) line 1 at PERFORM
SQL statement "SELECT fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule')"
PL/pgSQL function inline_code_block line 1 at PERFORM

postgres=# set plpgsql.check_asserts to off;
SET
postgres=# do $$ begin perform fx(10,null, 'now', e'stěhule'); end; $$;
NOTICE:  #4 PLpgSQL assert expression (false) on line 12 of fx(integer) is false
NOTICE:   "a" => '10', "res" => null, "b" => '20'
NOTICE:  #2 PL/pgSQL function fx(integer,integer,date,text) line 1 at PERFORM
NOTICE:   "a" => '10', "b" => null, "c" => '2020-08-05', "d" => 'stěhule'
NOTICE:  #0 PL/pgSQL function inline_code_block line 1 at PERFORM
DO

Attention - SECURITY

Tracer prints content of variables or function arguments. For security definer function, this content can hold security sensitive data. This is reason why tracer is disabled by default and should be enabled only with super user rights plpgsql_check.enable_tracer.

Pragma

You can configure plpgsql_check behave inside checked function with "pragma" function. This is a analogy of PL/SQL or ADA language of PRAGMA feature. PLpgSQL doesn't support PRAGMA, but plpgsql_check detects function named plpgsql_check_pragma and get options from parameters of this function. These plpgsql_check options are valid to end of group of statements.

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test()
RETURNS void AS $$
BEGIN
  ...
  -- for following statements disable check
  PERFORM plpgsql_check_pragma('disable:check');
  ...
  -- enable check again
  PERFORM plpgsql_check_pragma('enable:check');
  ...
END;
$$ LANGUAGE plpgsql;

The function plpgsql_check_pragma is immutable function that returns one. It is defined by plpgsql_check extension. You can declare alternative plpgsql_check_pragma function like:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION plpgsql_check_pragma(VARIADIC args[])
RETURNS int AS $$
SELECT 1
$$ LANGUAGE sql IMMUTABLE;

Using pragma function in declaration part of top block sets options on function level too.

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test()
RETURNS void AS $$
DECLARE
  aux int := plpgsql_check_pragma('disable:extra_warnings');
  ...

Shorter syntax for pragma is supported too:

CREATE OR REPLACE FUNCTION test()
RETURNS void AS $$
DECLARE r record;
BEGIN
  PERFORM 'PRAGMA:TYPE:r (a int, b int)';
  PERFORM 'PRAGMA:TABLE: x (like pg_class)';
  ...

Supported pragmas

echo:str - print string (for testing)

status:check,status:tracer, status:other_warnings, status:performance_warnings, status:extra_warnings,status:security_warnings

enable:check,enable:tracer, enable:other_warnings, enable:performance_warnings, enable:extra_warnings,enable:security_warnings

disable:check,disable:tracer, disable:other_warnings, disable:performance_warnings, disable:extra_warnings,disable:security_warnings

type:varname typename or type:varname (fieldname type, ...) - set type to variable of record type

table: name (column_name type, ...) or table: name (like tablename) - create ephereal table

Pragmas enable:tracer and disable:tracerare active for Postgres 12 and higher

Compilation

You need a development environment for PostgreSQL extensions:

make clean
make install

result:

[pavel@localhost plpgsql_check]$ make USE_PGXS=1 clean
rm -f plpgsql_check.so   libplpgsql_check.a  libplpgsql_check.pc
rm -f plpgsql_check.o
rm -rf results/ regression.diffs regression.out tmp_check/ log/
[pavel@localhost plpgsql_check]$ make USE_PGXS=1 all
clang -O2 -Wall -Wmissing-prototypes -Wpointer-arith -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wendif-labels -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wformat-security -fno-strict-aliasing -fwrapv -fpic -I/usr/local/pgsql/lib/pgxs/src/makefiles/../../src/pl/plpgsql/src -I. -I./ -I/usr/local/pgsql/include/server -I/usr/local/pgsql/include/internal -D_GNU_SOURCE   -c -o plpgsql_check.o plpgsql_check.c
clang -O2 -Wall -Wmissing-prototypes -Wpointer-arith -Wdeclaration-after-statement -Wendif-labels -Wmissing-format-attribute -Wformat-security -fno-strict-aliasing -fwrapv -fpic -I/usr/local/pgsql/lib/pgxs/src/makefiles/../../src/pl/plpgsql/src -shared -o plpgsql_check.so plpgsql_check.o -L/usr/local/pgsql/lib -Wl,--as-needed -Wl,-rpath,'/usr/local/pgsql/lib',--enable-new-dtags  
[pavel@localhost plpgsql_check]$ su root
Password: *******
[root@localhost plpgsql_check]# make USE_PGXS=1 install
/usr/bin/mkdir -p '/usr/local/pgsql/lib'
/usr/bin/mkdir -p '/usr/local/pgsql/share/extension'
/usr/bin/mkdir -p '/usr/local/pgsql/share/extension'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 755  plpgsql_check.so '/usr/local/pgsql/lib/plpgsql_check.so'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 plpgsql_check.control '/usr/local/pgsql/share/extension/'
/usr/bin/install -c -m 644 plpgsql_check--0.9.sql '/usr/local/pgsql/share/extension/'
[root@localhost plpgsql_check]# exit
[pavel@localhost plpgsql_check]$ make USE_PGXS=1 installcheck
/usr/local/pgsql/lib/pgxs/src/makefiles/../../src/test/regress/pg_regress --inputdir=./ --psqldir='/usr/local/pgsql/bin'    --dbname=pl_regression --load-language=plpgsql --dbname=contrib_regression plpgsql_check_passive plpgsql_check_active plpgsql_check_active-9.5
(using postmaster on Unix socket, default port)
============== dropping database "contrib_regression" ==============
DROP DATABASE
============== creating database "contrib_regression" ==============
CREATE DATABASE
ALTER DATABASE
============== installing plpgsql                     ==============
CREATE LANGUAGE
============== running regression test queries        ==============
test plpgsql_check_passive    ... ok
test plpgsql_check_active     ... ok
test plpgsql_check_active-9.5 ... ok

=====================
 All 3 tests passed. 
=====================

Compilation on Ubuntu

Sometimes successful compilation can require libicu-dev package (PostgreSQL 10 and higher - when pg was compiled with ICU support)

sudo apt install libicu-dev

Compilation plpgsql_check on Windows

You can check precompiled dll libraries http://okbob.blogspot.cz/2015/02/plpgsqlcheck-is-available-for-microsoft.html

or compile by self:

  1. Download and install PostgreSQL for Win32 from http://www.enterprisedb.com
  2. Download and install Microsoft Visual C++ Express
  3. Lern tutorial http://blog.2ndquadrant.com/compiling-postgresql-extensions-visual-studio-windows
  4. Build plpgsql_check.dll
  5. Install plugin
  6. copy plpgsql_check.dll to PostgreSQL\14\lib
  7. copy plpgsql_check.control and plpgsql_check--2.1.sql to PostgreSQL\14\share\extension

Checked on

  • gcc on Linux (against all supported PostgreSQL)
  • clang 3.4 on Linux (against PostgreSQL 10)
  • for success regress tests the PostgreSQL 10 or higher is required

Compilation against PostgreSQL 10 requires libICU!

Licence

Copyright (c) Pavel Stehule (pavel.stehule@gmail.com)

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

Note

If you like it, send a postcard to address

Pavel Stehule
Skalice 12
256 01 Benesov u Prahy
Czech Republic

I invite any questions, comments, bug reports, patches on mail address pavel.stehule@gmail.com


Author: okbob
Source Code: https://github.com/okbob/plpgsql_check
License: View license

#postgresql 

Alex Colmen

1623751848

What is Cash App and how does Activate My Cash App Card?

Cash App is a smart phone payment app that is advanced through Square. Inc. The payments app permits users to transfer cash to 1 any other. Square Company added square cash for businesses functions for individuals, various companies, business proprietors for sending, receiving money which recognized as $cash tag.

The app allows its users for inquiring for and transferring money from one cash account to any other thru cash app or e-mail. It also allow users to withdraw cash thru its debit visa card called as cash card in ATM or any local bank account.

Cash App recorded approximately 7 million active users are in the month of February 18th in year 2018. In the month of January the app commenced the provider of helping bitcoin trading. It has its cash card that is black in Color. It is used for withdrawing money from ATM or bank account.

The card is customizable and may be used by signing at the Mobile App after which sign will be printed on the app and dispatched to person. Square cash company had added their different username which is known as $cashtag. It enables its users in transferring and requesting cash from unique users through coming into such user name. Cash card may be used everywhere in each online payments and in stores also.

How To Activate Cash App Card

When it involves a dependable money transfer app, the name of the Cash app comes into the limelight. Developed and advertised through Square Inc. it’s miles introduced in the market place with an purpose to cater to financial needs. This provider facilitates the users to transfer funds, receive cash requests, pay app bills, and many more. Most importantly, you may also purchase digital currencies including Bitcoin and invest in the stock market place. Like a bank account, it also offers its registered account holders a debit card (better known as Cash Card). With the help of a Cash app card, you may make payments, withdraw cash, and also do various things. To employ this kind of wonderful card, you want to Activate Cash App Card after you get it.

In the blog below, we’re going to share some essential information about the way to activate your cash app card. Moreover, you may also make yourself aware about additional helpful information about the Cash card. Hence, you want to consult the manual right here and find out a better way to use the Cash card to its fullest.

Easy steps to activate cash app card?

To activate your Cash Card the use of the QR code that arrived with it:
• Click the Cash Card tab to your Cash App home screen
• Click the picture of your Cash Card
• Click Activate Cash Card
• Click OK whilst your Cash App asks to apply your digital camera
• Line your digital camera up with the QR code till it comes into focus

Cash App Card Activation With A QR Code

Upon reception of your cash app card, you may also accept an activation QR code. You will want this code to activate your card, the usage of the following steps:

  1. The first issue is to open up the Cash App to your smart phone. Once you open up the app, click the balance amount on your Cash App screen (top middle of the home screen). If your account balance is $0, tap “Cash & BTC”.
  2. Look for the image of your Cash Card and click on it. A listing of alternatives will pop-up, tap “Scan QR Code”.
  3. When Cash App requests permission to apply your smart phone’s camera, click “OK”. Place your smart phone of the QR code in order that it could be visible immediately via the camera. Once the app procedures the QR code information, your card will be officially activated.

Also Know: Cash App Login

Cash App Card Activation Without A QR Code

Unlike the opposite payment apps, Square Cash App we could the users activate their cash cards through scanning a code. Basically, this technique is referred to as automatic or without a card technique. Why? Because on this technique users do not require to have access to a cash card. What matters most is only a QR code. Moreover, it’s also really well worth noting that a Cash App card constantly comes with an different QR code with the shipping of the brand new coins card. If you have also were given your brand new card, follow these steps to activate your Cash App Visa Debit in Cash App on smart phone.
• Navigate to the Cash App mobile app to your phone.
• Then, the next step is to choose a cash-card icon to be had on the home display from the left corner.
• Further, from the drop down menu choose “Activate cash card” to feature a life to it.
• Now Square Cash App might ask you to grant permission to get right of entry to your smart phone’s camera.
• Allow Cash App to have access to your phone’s digital camera to scan a QR code.
• Now set your smart phone camera’s focus to your QR code and scan it.
• Upon a success scanning a QR code, your cash card will all set ready to spend money.

How to Activate Cash App Card on Phone and Computer?

Undoubtedly, the consistent and rapid development in the banking device has resulted in the major relief to the people who ship and get hold of cash online. However, notwithstanding having superior net era and smart phones, some range of demanding situations nevertheless exist with inside the fee device. To triumph over a vast variety of troubles along with fee failure, slow, and slow cash transfer problem, Cash App by Square may be the first-rate answer. More specifically, a Cash App card can genuinely do wonders on the subject of making fee after shopping. Before the whole thing else, be informed that the cash card is difficulty to the activation system. In order to attract the most advantages, you should learn how to activate Cash App card?

As you’re studying this assisting post, possibilities are excessive which you do not have an concept about how you can activate your Cash App card on Cash App payment app. If so, appearance no further. To help you recognize the step by step system to activate a cash card, I am going to reply a number of the important questions.

In case if any of you isn’t a super fan of reading, they can touch and talk to the Cash App consultant directly. Alternatively, scroll down and keep to study this helping post. To be extra clearer, with the aid of using studying this post, you may learn the 2 simple ways to activate a Cash App Debit Card. So, let’s recover from to the first approach to activate a cash card by scanning a QR code.

#activate cash app card via phone #cash app activate card #activate cash app card #activate cash app card phone number #activate cash app card by phone #how to activate your cash app card

Activate cash app card via phone number - 4 Easy steps

How to activate a Cash App card?

Cash App gives users a customized debit that can be used like any other debit card. It is free to order a Cash App card; all the users having a Cash App account can order this card without paying any charges.
However, there is a requirement that all the users must complete, that is to activate the Cash App card. Essentially, it is a mandatory requirement for using the cash card. However, if you also want to learn about alternative debit cards, there can be no better option than the cash card. Moreover, if you have recently got your Cash App card, you must move forward for Cash App card activation. However, if you have yet ordered a Cash App debit card, you must do it now. Here in this post, you can learn the step-by-step process to get a new cash card and activate it.

How can I get a new Cash App debit card?

  • You can get a Cash App card quickly and easily as the card is free to order. So, if you’re wondering how to get a Cash App card, then wonder no longer; all you need to do is:
  • Open Cash App on your mobile phone
  • Click on the “Cash Card” tab.
  • Click “Get Cash Card”
  • Click “Continue”
  • Enter the mailing address for the cash card; your card should arrive within no more than ten business days.

Once you get your Cash card, you’ll need to activate it to use it anywhere Visa is accepted, in stores and online. Moreover, you can customize this cash card, select its color and create a unique hashtag. But to access such features, you must know how to Cash App Direct Deposit by card. There are two different methods that you can follow to activate a Cash App card.
*** Activate Cash App card with a QR code**
*** How to withdraw money with a Cash App card**

How to activate a Cash App card with a QR code?

This is considered the most convenient way to activate your Cash App card with a QR code. Because all you have to do is to scan the QR code. This is for the Quick response; use the mobile camera and complete the scanning procedure. After this, you will be notified by the Cash App that your card has been activated:

  • Open Cash App on your mobile phone
  • Click on the Cash card icon
  • Click “Activate Cash Card”
  • Click “Ok” when Cash App requests permission to use your camera
  • Scan the QR code located on your Cash card to activate it.

How to activate a Cash App card without a QR code?

If your Cash card doesn’t have a QR code, don’t worry - you can still activate the Cash App card. What you’ll have to do is activate your Cash App card using the CVV code instead. To do that, you’ll need to:
Open Cash App
Click on the Cash card icon.
Click “Activate Cash Card”
For card activation without QR code, “Use CVV Instead.”
After this, on the next page, enter your CVV code and your cash card expiration date.

Conclusion:

To conclude, this is what you need to know about the Cash App card activation. We hope now you have learned how to activate a Cash App card. Although simple, however, sometimes there are some common activated Cash App card errors. Therefore, you should take all the steps carefully for activating your Cash App card. Further, for more information regarding this, you can directly reach out to our team.

#activate cash app card via phone #my cash app card won't activate #cash app transfer failed #where is the qr code on cash app card #activate cash app card #how to scan cash app card to activate?

How To Activate Cash App Card - Online Activation

Cash App is a digital payment that permits users to send, receive or request cash online. Of course, you may first ought to install the Cash app on your mobile device, using Google Play or maybe the iTunes Store. Considering that the Cash App needs the use of a bank account, you may need to be over 18 years old to register. Cash App offers customers a free debit card, which matches like some other VISA card. If you’ve got a Cash App card, you don’t want to apply the mobile application, again and again, now swipe your card at pay at retail shops everywhere in the USA.

When you receive your cash app debit card, it’d be a defaulted card and you’ll now no longer be capable of using it immediately. As a result, you need to comply with a few steps to How To Activate Cash App Card. However, to make use of this card, it’s far obligatory to complete the Cash App card activation method. The card activation technique isn’t always very complicated. It may be executed with the assist of some easy steps. There are too many simple methods to activate a Cash App card—the cardboard activation with QR code and without it. Users also can do it via means of calling the Cash App phone number.

In case you are still facing cash app card activation issues, then you definitely have to touch the Cash App customer support. To activate Cash App card, you want to take those steps:

  • Open the Cash App on your device.
  • Click at the Cash card icon.
  • Then pick out the choice of activating a Cash App card.
  • Use your mobile camera for scanning the QR code.
  • Once you do it efficiently your cash card is prepared to apply

Also Read: Cash App Login || Cash App Customer Service || Cash App Direct Deposit

What are the limitations of a Cash Card?

The cash app has withdrawal limits much like all different ATM cards. Customers have the freedom to withdraw up to $250 in step with transaction and $1250 withinside the time-frame of 30 days. Besides this, you are not allowed to withdraw over $1,000 in 24 hours and $1,000 in a week. Cash App Direct Deposit, if you get in trouble at the same time as using a Cash card and want help associated with the same, you could always communicate to the executives who’re usually there to guide you. Feel free to touch the team whenever via the Cash App Phone Number that is always practical to guide you about How to activate cash app card. Whenever you’re in hassle, you could always method them to fix all of your problems withinside the nick of time.inheritor username.

Cash App introduced a new Cash App card for its users and if you want to activate it, a person desires to follow some steps on their devices both Mac or android. The great perk of activating a Cash app card is you don’t need to preserve cash with you. All features are just like popular bank accounts, such as debit cards, access to transactions, and many different features. The most crucial part about a Cash App is that you want to pay high-priced fees as service charges; the expenses charged through them are so low and inexpensive. Activate Cash App card and you could withdraw your desired amount directly out of your Cash App account through going to a standard ATM.

If you’re new to Cash App and want guidance on how to use it, you could usually talk to the team members through contacting them on the Cash App Toll Free Number that is active round the clock. Connect with the team every time to talk about your issue and clear up all queries in no time. The team tells each and each answer in detail in order that the user does now no longer face any error at the same time as executing them. Talk to the team and let them recognize your errors.

#how to activate cash app card #activate cash app card #cash app card activation #activate replacement cash app card #cash app activation number #cash card activation help