Tkinter Python Tutorial | Python GUI Programming Using Tkinter Tutorial | Python Training

This video on Tkinter tutorial covers all the basic aspects of creating and making use of your own simple Graphical User Interface (GUI) using Python. It establishes all of the concepts needed to get started with building your own user interfaces while coding in Python.

This video on Tkinter tutorial covers all the basic aspects of creating and making use of your own simple Graphical User Interface (GUI) using Python. It establishes all of the concepts needed to get started with building your own user interfaces while coding in Python.

Learn More

☞ Complete Python Bootcamp: Go from zero to hero in Python 3

☞ Complete Python Masterclass

☞ Learn Python by Building a Blockchain & Cryptocurrency

☞ Python and Django Full Stack Web Developer Bootcamp

☞ The Python Bible™ | Everything You Need to Program in Python

☞ Learning Python for Data Analysis and Visualization

☞ Python for Financial Analysis and Algorithmic Trading

☞ The Modern Python 3 Bootcamp

Original video source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VMP1oQOxfM0

What's Python IDLE? How to use Python IDLE to interact with Python?

What's Python IDLE? How to use Python IDLE to interact with Python?

In this tutorial, you’ll learn all the basics of using **IDLE** to write Python programs. You'll know what Python IDLE is and how you can use it to interact with Python directly. You’ve also learned how to work with Python files and customize Python IDLE to your liking.

In this tutorial, you'll learn how to use the development environment included with your Python installation. Python IDLE is a small program that packs a big punch! You'll learn how to use Python IDLE to interact with Python directly, work with Python files, and improve your development workflow.

If you’ve recently downloaded Python onto your computer, then you may have noticed a new program on your machine called IDLE. You might be wondering, “What is this program doing on my computer? I didn’t download that!” While you may not have downloaded this program on your own, IDLE comes bundled with every Python installation. It’s there to help you get started with the language right out of the box. In this tutorial, you’ll learn how to work in Python IDLE and a few cool tricks you can use on your Python journey!

In this tutorial, you’ll learn:

  • What Python IDLE is
  • How to interact with Python directly using IDLE
  • How to edit, execute, and debug Python files with IDLE
  • How to customize Python IDLE to your liking

Table of Contents

What Is Python IDLE?

Every Python installation comes with an Integrated Development and Learning Environment, which you’ll see shortened to IDLE or even IDE. These are a class of applications that help you write code more efficiently. While there are many IDEs for you to choose from, Python IDLE is very bare-bones, which makes it the perfect tool for a beginning programmer.

Python IDLE comes included in Python installations on Windows and Mac. If you’re a Linux user, then you should be able to find and download Python IDLE using your package manager. Once you’ve installed it, you can then use Python IDLE as an interactive interpreter or as a file editor.

An Interactive Interpreter

The best place to experiment with Python code is in the interactive interpreter, otherwise known as a shell. The shell is a basic Read-Eval-Print Loop (REPL). It reads a Python statement, evaluates the result of that statement, and then prints the result on the screen. Then, it loops back to read the next statement.

The Python shell is an excellent place to experiment with small code snippets. You can access it through the terminal or command line app on your machine. You can simplify your workflow with Python IDLE, which will immediately start a Python shell when you open it.

A File Editor

Every programmer needs to be able to edit and save text files. Python programs are files with the .py extension that contain lines of Python code. Python IDLE gives you the ability to create and edit these files with ease.

Python IDLE also provides several useful features that you’ll see in professional IDEs, like basic syntax highlighting, code completion, and auto-indentation. Professional IDEs are more robust pieces of software and they have a steep learning curve. If you’re just beginning your Python programming journey, then Python IDLE is a great alternative!

How to Use the Python IDLE Shell

The shell is the default mode of operation for Python IDLE. When you click on the icon to open the program, the shell is the first thing that you see:

This is a blank Python interpreter window. You can use it to start interacting with Python immediately. You can test it out with a short line of code:

Here, you used print() to output the string "Hello, from IDLE!" to your screen. This is the most basic way to interact with Python IDLE. You type in commands one at a time and Python responds with the result of each command.

Next, take a look at the menu bar. You’ll see a few options for using the shell:

You can restart the shell from this menu. If you select that option, then you’ll clear the state of the shell. It will act as though you’ve started a fresh instance of Python IDLE. The shell will forget about everything from its previous state:

In the image above, you first declare a variable, x = 5. When you call print(x), the shell shows the correct output, which is the number 5. However, when you restart the shell and try to call print(x) again, you can see that the shell prints a traceback. This is an error message that says the variable x is not defined. The shell has forgotten about everything that came before it was restarted.

You can also interrupt the execution of the shell from this menu. This will stop any program or statement that’s running in the shell at the time of interruption. Take a look at what happens when you send a keyboard interrupt to the shell:

A KeyboardInterrupt error message is displayed in red text at the bottom of your window. The program received the interrupt and has stopped executing.

How to Work With Python Files

Python IDLE offers a full-fledged file editor, which gives you the ability to write and execute Python programs from within this program. The built-in file editor also includes several features, like code completion and automatic indentation, that will speed up your coding workflow. First, let’s take a look at how to write and execute programs in Python IDLE.

Opening a File

To start a new Python file, select File → New File from the menu bar. This will open a blank file in the editor, like this:

From this window, you can write a brand new Python file. You can also open an existing Python file by selecting File → Open… in the menu bar. This will bring up your operating system’s file browser. Then, you can find the Python file you want to open.

If you’re interested in reading the source code for a Python module, then you can select File → Path Browser. This will let you view the modules that Python IDLE can see. When you double click on one, the file editor will open up and you’ll be able to read it.

The content of this window will be the same as the paths that are returned when you call sys.path. If you know the name of a specific module you want to view, then you can select File → Module Browser and type in the name of the module in the box that appears.

Editing a File

Once you’ve opened a file in Python IDLE, you can then make changes to it. When you’re ready to edit a file, you’ll see something like this:

The contents of your file are displayed in the open window. The bar along the top of the window contains three pieces of important information:

  1. The name of the file that you’re editing
  2. The full path to the folder where you can find this file on your computer
  3. The version of Python that IDLE is using

In the image above, you’re editing the file myFile.py, which is located in the Documents folder. The Python version is 3.7.1, which you can see in parentheses.

There are also two numbers in the bottom right corner of the window:

  1. Ln: shows the line number that your cursor is on.
  2. Col: shows the column number that your cursor is on.

It’s useful to see these numbers so that you can find errors more quickly. They also help you make sure that you’re staying within a certain line width.

There are a few visual cues in this window that will help you remember to save your work. If you look closely, then you’ll see that Python IDLE uses asterisks to let you know that your file has unsaved changes:

The file name shown in the top of the IDLE window is surrounded by asterisks. This means that there are unsaved changes in your editor. You can save these changes with your system’s standard keyboard shortcut, or you can select File → Save from the menu bar. Make sure that you save your file with the .py extension so that syntax highlighting will be enabled.

Executing a File

When you want to execute a file that you’ve created in IDLE, you should first make sure that it’s saved. Remember, you can see if your file is properly saved by looking for asterisks around the filename at the top of the file editor window. Don’t worry if you forget, though! Python IDLE will remind you to save whenever you attempt to execute an unsaved file.

To execute a file in IDLE, simply press the F5 key on your keyboard. You can also select Run → Run Module from the menu bar. Either option will restart the Python interpreter and then run the code that you’ve written with a fresh interpreter. The process is the same as when you run python3 -i [filename] in your terminal.

When your code is done executing, the interpreter will know everything about your code, including any global variables, functions, and classes. This makes Python IDLE a great place to inspect your data if something goes wrong. If you ever need to interrupt the execution of your program, then you can press Ctrl+C in the interpreter that’s running your code.

How to Improve Your Workflow

Now that you’ve seen how to write, edit, and execute files in Python IDLE, it’s time to speed up your workflow! The Python IDLE editor offers a few features that you’ll see in most professional IDEs to help you code faster. These features include automatic indentation, code completion and call tips, and code context.

Automatic Indentation

IDLE will automatically indent your code when it needs to start a new block. This usually happens after you type a colon (:). When you hit the enter key after the colon, your cursor will automatically move over a certain number of spaces and begin a new code block.

You can configure how many spaces the cursor will move in the settings, but the default is the standard four spaces. The developers of Python agreed on a standard style for well-written Python code, and this includes rules on indentation, whitespace, and more. This standard style was formalized and is now known as PEP 8. To learn more about it, check out How to Write Beautiful Python Code With PEP 8.

Code Completion and Call Tips

When you’re writing code for a large project or a complicated problem, you can spend a lot of time just typing out all of the code you need. Code completion helps you save typing time by trying to finish your code for you. Python IDLE has basic code completion functionality. It can only autocomplete the names of functions and classes. To use autocompletion in the editor, just press the tab key after a sequence of text.

Python IDLE will also provide call tips. A call tip is like a hint for a certain part of your code to help you remember what that element needs. After you type the left parenthesis to begin a function call, a call tip will appear if you don’t type anything for a few seconds. For example, if you can’t quite remember how to append to a list, then you can pause after the opening parenthesis to bring up the call tip:

The call tip will display as a popup note, reminding you how to append to a list. Call tips like these provide useful information as you’re writing code.

Code Context

The code context functionality is a neat feature of the Python IDLE file editor. It will show you the scope of a function, class, loop, or other construct. This is particularly useful when you’re scrolling through a lengthy file and need to keep track of where you are while reviewing code in the editor.

To turn it on, select Options → Code Context in the menu bar. You’ll see a gray bar appear at the top of the editor window:

As you scroll down through your code, the context that contains each line of code will stay inside of this gray bar. This means that the print() functions you see in the image above are a part of a main function. When you reach a line that’s outside the scope of this function, the bar will disappear.

How to Debug in IDLE

A bug is an unexpected problem in your program. They can appear in many forms, and some are more difficult to fix than others. Some bugs are tricky enough that you won’t be able to catch them by just reading through your program. Luckily, Python IDLE provides some basic tools that will help you debug your programs with ease!

Interpreter DEBUG Mode

If you want to run your code with the built-in debugger, then you’ll need to turn this feature on. To do so, select Debug → Debugger from the Python IDLE menu bar. In the interpreter, you should see [DEBUG ON] appear just before the prompt (>>>), which means the interpreter is ready and waiting.

When you execute your Python file, the debugger window will appear:

In this window, you can inspect the values of your local and global variables as your code executes. This gives you insight into how your data is being manipulated as your code runs.

You can also click the following buttons to move through your code:

  • Go: Press this to advance execution to the next breakpoint. You’ll learn about these in the next section.
  • Step: Press this to execute the current line and go to the next one.
  • Over: If the current line of code contains a function call, then press this to step over that function. In other words, execute that function and go to the next line, but don’t pause while executing the function (unless there is a breakpoint).
  • Out: If the current line of code is in a function, then press this to step out of this function. In other words, continue the execution of this function until you return from it.

Be careful, because there is no reverse button! You can only step forward in time through your program’s execution.

You’ll also see four checkboxes in the debug window:

  1. Globals: your program’s global information
  2. Locals: your program’s local information during execution
  3. Stack: the functions that run during execution
  4. Source: your file in the IDLE editor

When you select one of these, you’ll see the relevant information in your debug window.

Breakpoints

A breakpoint is a line of code that you’ve identified as a place where the interpreter should pause while running your code. They will only work when DEBUG mode is turned on, so make sure that you’ve done that first.

To set a breakpoint, right-click on the line of code that you wish to pause. This will highlight the line of code in yellow as a visual indication of a set breakpoint. You can set as many breakpoints in your code as you like. To undo a breakpoint, right-click the same line again and select Clear Breakpoint.

Once you’ve set your breakpoints and turned on DEBUG mode, you can run your code as you would normally. The debugger window will pop up, and you can start stepping through your code manually.

Errors and Exceptions

When you see an error reported to you in the interpreter, Python IDLE lets you jump right to the offending file or line from the menu bar. All you have to do is highlight the reported line number or file name with your cursor and select Debug → Go to file/line from the menu bar. This is will open up the offending file and take you to the line that contains the error. This feature works regardless of whether or not DEBUG mode is turned on.

Python IDLE also provides a tool called a stack viewer. You can access it under the Debug option in the menu bar. This tool will show you the traceback of an error as it appears on the stack of the last error or exception that Python IDLE encountered while running your code. When an unexpected or interesting error occurs, you might find it helpful to take a look at the stack. Otherwise, this feature can be difficult to parse and likely won’t be useful to you unless you’re writing very complicated code.

How to Customize Python IDLE

There are many ways that you can give Python IDLE a visual style that suits you. The default look and feel is based on the colors in the Python logo. If you don’t like how anything looks, then you can almost always change it.

To access the customization window, select Options → Configure IDLE from the menu bar. To preview the result of a change you want to make, press Apply. When you’re done customizing Python IDLE, press OK to save all of your changes. If you don’t want to save your changes, then simply press Cancel.

There are 5 areas of Python IDLE that you can customize:

  1. Fonts/Tabs
  2. Highlights
  3. Keys
  4. General
  5. Extensions

Let’s take a look at each of them now.

Fonts/Tabs

The first tab allows you to change things like font color, font size, and font style. You can change the font to almost any style you like, depending on what’s available for your operating system. The font settings window looks like this:

You can use the scrolling window to select which font you prefer. (I recommend you select a fixed-width font like Courier New.) Pick a font size that’s large enough for you to see well. You can also click the checkbox next to Bold to toggle whether or not all text appears in bold.

This window will also let you change how many spaces are used for each indentation level. By default, this will be set to the PEP 8 standard of four spaces. You can change this to make the width of your code more or less spread out to your liking.

Highlights

The second customization tab will let you change highlights. Syntax highlighting is an important feature of any IDE that highlights the syntax of the language that you’re working in. This helps you visually distinguish between the different Python constructs and the data used in your code.

Python IDLE allows you to fully customize the appearance of your Python code. It comes pre-installed with three different highlight themes:

  1. IDLE Day
  2. IDLE Night
  3. IDLE New

You can select from these pre-installed themes or create your own custom theme right in this window:

Unfortunately, IDLE does not allow you to install custom themes from a file. You have to create customs theme from this window. To do so, you can simply start changing the colors for different items. Select an item, and then press Choose color for. You’ll be brought to a color picker, where you can select the exact color that you want to use.

You’ll then be prompted to save this theme as a new custom theme, and you can enter a name of your choosing. You can then continue changing the colors of different items if you’d like. Remember to press Apply to see your changes in action!

Keys

The third customization tab lets you map different key presses to actions, also known as keyboard shortcuts. These are a vital component of your productivity whenever you use an IDE. You can either come up with your own keyboard shortcuts, or you can use the ones that come with IDLE. The pre-installed shortcuts are a good place to start:

The keyboard shortcuts are listed in alphabetical order by action. They’re listed in the format Action - Shortcut, where Action is what will happen when you press the key combination in Shortcut. If you want to use a built-in key set, then select a mapping that matches your operating system. Pay close attention to the different keys and make sure your keyboard has them!

Creating Your Own Shortcuts

The customization of the keyboard shortcuts is very similar to the customization of syntax highlighting colors. Unfortunately, IDLE does not allow you to install custom keyboard shortcuts from a file. You must create a custom set of shortcuts from the Keys tab.

Select one pair from the list and press Get New Keys for Selection. A new window will pop up:

Here, you can use the checkboxes and scrolling menu to select the combination of keys that you want to use for this shortcut. You can select Advanced Key Binding Entry >> to manually type in a command. Note that this cannot pick up the keys you press. You have to literally type in the command as you see it displayed to you in the list of shortcuts.

General

The fourth tab of the customization window is a place for small, general changes. The general settings tab looks like this:

Here, you can customize things like the window size and whether the shell or the file editor opens first when you start Python IDLE. Most of the things in this window are not that exciting to change, so you probably won’t need to fiddle with them much.

Extensions

The fifth tab of the customization window lets you add extensions to Python IDLE. Extensions allow you to add new, awesome features to the editor and the interpreter window. You can download them from the internet and install them to right into Python IDLE.

To view what extensions are installed, select Options → Configure IDLE -> Extensions. There are many extensions available on the internet for you to read more about. Find the ones you like and add them to Python IDLE!

Conclusion

In this tutorial, you’ve learned all the basics of using IDLE to write Python programs. You know what Python IDLE is and how you can use it to interact with Python directly. You’ve also learned how to work with Python files and customize Python IDLE to your liking.

You’ve learned how to:

  • Work with the Python IDLE shell
  • Use Python IDLE as a file editor
  • Improve your workflow with features to help you code faster
  • Debug your code and view errors and exceptions
  • Customize Python IDLE to your liking

Now you’re armed with a new tool that will let you productively write Pythonic code and save you countless hours down the road. Happy programming!

Importance of Python Programming skills

Importance of Python Programming skills

Python is one among the most easiest and user friendly programming languages when it comes to the field of software engineering. The codes and syntaxes of python is so simple and easy to use that it can be deployed in any problem solving...

Python is one among the most easiest and user friendly programming languages when it comes to the field of software engineering. The codes and syntaxes of python is so simple and easy to use that it can be deployed in any problem solving challenges. The codes of Python can easily be deployed in Data Science and Machine Learning. Due to this ease of deployment and easier syntaxes, this platform has a lot of real world problem solving applications. According to the sources the companies are eagerly hunting for the professionals with python skills along with SQL. An average python developer in the united states makes around 1 lakh U.S Dollars per annum. In some of the top IT hubs in our country like Bangalore, the demand for professionals in the domains of Data Science and Python Programming has surpassed over the past few years. As a result of which a lot of various python certification courses are available right now.

Array in Python: An array is defined as a data structure that can hold a fixed number of elements that are of the same python data type. The following are some of the basic functions of array in python:

  1. To find the transverse
  2. For insertion of the elements
  3. For deletion of the elements
  4. For searching the elements

Along with this one can easily crack any python interview by means of python interview questions

Python Tutorial - Python GUI Programming - Python GUI Examples (Tkinter Tutorial)

Python Tutorial - Python GUI Programming - Python GUI Examples (Tkinter Tutorial)

In this tutorial, we will learn how to develop graphical user interfaces by writing some Python GUI examples using the Tkinter package.

In this tutorial, we will learn how to develop graphical user interfaces by writing some Python GUI examples using the Tkinter package.

Tkinter package is shipped with Python as a standard package, so we don’t need to install anything to use it.

Tkinter is a very powerful package. If you already have installed Python, you may use IDLE which is the integrated IDE that is shipped with Python, this IDE is written using Tkinter. Sounds Cool!!

We will use Python 3.6, so if you are using Python 2.x, it’s strongly recommended to switch to Python 3.x unless you know the language changes so you can adjust the code to run without errors.

I assume that you have a little background in the Python basics to help you understand what we are doing.

We will start by creating a window to which we will learn how to add widgets such as buttons, combo boxes, etc. Then we will play with their properties, so let’s get started.

Create Your First GUI Application

First, we will import THE Tkinter package and create a window and set its title:

from tkinter import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.mainloop()

The result will look like this:

Awesome! Our application works.

The last line calls the mainloop function. This function calls the endless loop of the window, so the window will wait for any user interaction till we close it.

If you forget to call the mainloop function, nothing will appear to the user.

Create a Label Widget

To add a label to our previous example, we will create a label using the label class like this:

lbl = Label(window, text="Hello")

Then we will set its position on the form using the grid function and give it the location like this:

lbl.grid(column=0, row=0)

So the complete code will be like this:

from tkinter import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

lbl = Label(window, text="Hello")

lbl.grid(column=0, row=0)

window.mainloop()

And this is the result:

Without calling the grid function for the label, it won’t show up.

Set Label Font Size

You can set the label font so you can make it bigger and maybe bold. You can also change the font style.

To do so, you can pass the font parameter like this:

lbl = Label(window, text="Hello", font=("Arial Bold", 50))

Note that the font parameter can be passed to any widget to change its font, thus it applies to more than just labels.

Great, but the window is so small, what about setting the window size?

Setting Window Size

We can set the default window size using the geometry function like this:

window.geometry('350x200')

The above line sets the window width to 350 pixels and the height to 200 pixels.

Let’s try adding more GUI widgets like buttons and see how to handle button click events.

Adding a Button Widget

Let’s start by adding the button to the window. The button is created and added to the window in the same way as the label:

btn = Button(window, text="Click Me")

btn.grid(column=1, row=0)

So our window will be like this:

from tkinter import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

lbl = Label(window, text="Hello")

lbl.grid(column=0, row=0)

btn = Button(window, text="Click Me")

btn.grid(column=1, row=0)

window.mainloop()

The result looks like this:

Note that we place the button on the second column of the window, which is 1. If you forget and place the button on the same column which is 0, it will show the button only, since the button will be on the top of the label.

Change Button Foreground and Background Colors

You can change the foreground of a button or any other widget using the fg property.

Also, you can change the background color of any widget using the bg property.

btn = Button(window, text="Click Me", bg="orange", fg="red")

Now, if you tried to click on the button, nothing happens because the click event of the button isn’t written yet.

Handle Button Click Event

First, we will write the function that we need to execute when the button is clicked:

def clicked():

    lbl.configure(text="Button was clicked !!")

Then we will wire it with the button by specifying the function like this:

btn = Button(window, text= "Click Me", command=clicked)

Note that, we typed clicked only not clicked() with parentheses.

Now the full code will be like this:

from tkinter import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

lbl = Label(window, text="Hello")

lbl.grid(column=0, row=0)

def clicked():

    lbl.configure(text="Button was clicked !!")

btn = Button(window, text="Click Me", command=clicked)

btn.grid(column=1, row=0)

window.mainloop()

And when we click the button, the result, as expected, looks like this:

Cool!

Get Input Using Entry Class (Tkinter Textbox)

In the previous Python GUI examples, we saw how to add simple widgets, now let’s try getting the user input using the Tkinter Entry class (Tkinter textbox).

You can create a textbox using Tkinter Entry class like this:

txt = Entry(window,width=10)

Then you can add it to the window using a grid function as usual

So our window will be like this:

from tkinter import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

lbl = Label(window, text="Hello")

lbl.grid(column=0, row=0)

txt = Entry(window,width=10)

txt.grid(column=1, row=0)

def clicked():

    lbl.configure(text="Button was clicked !!")

btn = Button(window, text="Click Me", command=clicked)

btn.grid(column=2, row=0)

window.mainloop()

And the result will be like this:

Now, if you click the button, it will show the same old message, but what about showing the entered text on the Entry widget?

First, you can get entry text using the get function. So we can write this code to our clicked function like this:

def clicked():

    res = "Welcome to " + txt.get()

    lbl.configure(text= res)

If you click the button and there is text in the entry widget, it will show “Welcome to” concatenated with the entered text.

And this is the complete code:

from tkinter import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

lbl = Label(window, text="Hello")

lbl.grid(column=0, row=0)

txt = Entry(window,width=10)

txt.grid(column=1, row=0)

def clicked():

    res = "Welcome to " + txt.get()

    lbl.configure(text= res)

btn = Button(window, text="Click Me", command=clicked)

btn.grid(column=2, row=0)

window.mainloop()

Run the above code and check the result:

Awesome!

Every time we run the code, we need to click on the entry widget to set focus to write the text, but what about setting the focus automatically?

Set the Focus of the Entry Widget

That’s super easy, all we need to do is to call the focus function like this:

txt.focus()

And when you run your code, you will notice that the entry widget has the focus so you can write your text right away.

Disable the Entry Widget

To disable the entry widget, you can set the state property to disabled:

txt = Entry(window,width=10, state='disabled')

Now, you won’t be able to enter any text.

Add a Combobox Widget

To add a combobox widget, you can use the Combobox class from ttk library like this:

from tkinter.ttk import *

combo = Combobox(window)

Then you can add your values to the combobox.

from tkinter import *

from tkinter.ttk import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

combo = Combobox(window)

combo['values']= (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, "Text")

combo.current(1) #set the selected item

combo.grid(column=0, row=0)

window.mainloop()

As you can see, we add the combobox items using the values tuple.

To set the selected item, you can pass the index of the desired item to the current function.

To get the select item, you can use the get function like this:

combo.get()

Add a Checkbutton Widget (Tkinter Checkbox)

To create a checkbutton widget, you can use the Checkbutton class like this:

chk = Checkbutton(window, text='Choose')

Also, you can set the checked state by passing the check value to the Checkbutton like this:

from tkinter import *

from tkinter.ttk import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

chk_state = BooleanVar()

chk_state.set(True) #set check state

chk = Checkbutton(window, text='Choose', var=chk_state)

chk.grid(column=0, row=0)

window.mainloop()

Check the result:

Set the Check State of a Checkbutton

Here we create a variable of type BooleanVar which is not a standard Python variable, it’s a Tkinter variable, and then we pass it to the Checkbutton class to set the check state as the highlighted line in the above example.

You can set the Boolean value to false to make it unchecked.

Also, you can use IntVar instead of BooleanVar and set the value to 0 or 1.

chk_state = IntVar()

chk_state.set(0) #uncheck

chk_state.set(1) #check

These examples give the same result as the BooleanVar.

Add Radio Button Widgets

To add radio buttons, you can use the RadioButton class like this:

rad1 = Radiobutton(window,text='First', value=1)

Note that you should set the value for every radio button with a different value, otherwise, they won’t work.

from tkinter import *

from tkinter.ttk import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

rad1 = Radiobutton(window,text='First', value=1)

rad2 = Radiobutton(window,text='Second', value=2)

rad3 = Radiobutton(window,text='Third', value=3)

rad1.grid(column=0, row=0)

rad2.grid(column=1, row=0)

rad3.grid(column=2, row=0)

window.mainloop()

The result of the above code looks like this:

Also, you can set the command of any of these radio buttons to a specific function, so if the user clicks on any one of them, it runs the function code.

This is an example:

rad1 = Radiobutton(window,text='First', value=1, command=clicked)

def clicked():

# Do what you need

Pretty simple!

Get Radio Button Values (Selected Radio Button)

To get the currently selected radio button or the radio button’s value, you can pass the variable parameter to the radio buttons and later you can get its value.

from tkinter import *

from tkinter.ttk import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

selected = IntVar()

rad1 = Radiobutton(window,text='First', value=1, variable=selected)

rad2 = Radiobutton(window,text='Second', value=2, variable=selected)

rad3 = Radiobutton(window,text='Third', value=3, variable=selected)

def clicked():

   print(selected.get())

btn = Button(window, text="Click Me", command=clicked)

rad1.grid(column=0, row=0)

rad2.grid(column=1, row=0)

rad3.grid(column=2, row=0)

btn.grid(column=3, row=0)

window.mainloop()

Every time you select a radio button, the value of the variable will be changed to the value of the selected radio button.

Add a ScrolledText Widget (Tkinter textarea)

To add a ScrolledText widget, you can use the ScrolledText class like this:

from tkinter import scrolledtext

txt = scrolledtext.ScrolledText(window,width=40,height=10)

Here we specify the width and the height of the ScrolledText widget, otherwise, it will fill the entire window.

from tkinter import *

from tkinter import scrolledtext

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

txt = scrolledtext.ScrolledText(window,width=40,height=10)

txt.grid(column=0,row=0)

window.mainloop()

The result as you can see:

Set Scrolledtext Content

To set scrolledtext content, you can use the insert method like this:

txt.insert(INSERT,'You text goes here')

Delete/Clear Scrolledtext Content

To clear the contents of a scrolledtext widget, you can use the delete method like this:

txt.delete(1.0,END)

Great!

Create a Message Box

To show a message box using Tkinter, you can use the messagebox library like this:

from tkinter import messagebox

messagebox.showinfo('Message title','Message content')

Pretty easy!

Let’s show a message box when the user clicks a button.

from tkinter import *

from tkinter import messagebox

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

def clicked():

    messagebox.showinfo('Message title', 'Message content')

btn = Button(window,text='Click here', command=clicked)

btn.grid(column=0,row=0)

window.mainloop()

When you click the button, an informative message box will appear.

Show Warning and Error Messages

You can show a warning message or error message the same way. The only thing that needs to be changed is the message function

messagebox.showwarning('Message title', 'Message content')  #shows warning message

messagebox.showerror('Message title', 'Message content')    #shows error message

Show Ask Question Dialogs

To show a yes/no message box to the user, you can use one of the following messagebox functions:

from tkinter import messagebox

res = messagebox.askquestion('Message title','Message content')

res = messagebox.askyesno('Message title','Message content')

res = messagebox.askyesnocancel('Message title','Message content')

res = messagebox.askokcancel('Message title','Message content')

res = messagebox.askretrycancel('Message title','Message content')

You can choose the appropriate message style according to your needs. Just replace the showinfo function line from the previous line and run it.

Also, you can check what button was clicked using the result variable.

If you click OK or yes or retry, it will return True as the value, but if you choose no or cancel, it will return False.

The only function that returns one of three values is the askyesnocancel function; it returns True or False or None.

Add a SpinBox (Numbers Widget)

To create a Spinbox widget, you can use the Spinbox class like this:

spin = Spinbox(window, from_=0, to=100)

Here we create a Spinbox widget and we pass the from_ and to parameters to specify the numbers range for the Spinbox.

Also, you can specify the width of the widget using the width parameter:

spin = Spinbox(window, from_=0, to=100, width=5)

Check the complete example:

from tkinter import *

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

spin = Spinbox(window, from_=0, to=100, width=5)

spin.grid(column=0,row=0)

window.mainloop()

You can specify the numbers for the Spinbox instead of using the whole range like this:

spin = Spinbox(window, values=(3, 8, 11), width=5)

Here the Spinbox widget only shows these 3 numbers: 3, 8, and 11.

Set a Default Value for Spinbox

To set the Spinbox default value, you can pass the value to the textvariable parameter like this:

var =IntVar()

var.set(36)

spin = Spinbox(window, from_=0, to=100, width=5, textvariable=var)

Now, if you run the program, it will show 36 as a default value for the Spinbox.

Add a Progressbar Widget

To create a progress bar, you can use the progressbar class like this:

from tkinter.ttk import Progressbar

bar = Progressbar(window, length=200)

You can set the progress bar value like this:

bar['value'] = 70

You can set this value based on any process you want like downloading a file or completing a task.

Change Progressbar Color

Changing the Progressbar color is a bit tricky.

First, we will create a style and set the background color and finally set the created style to the Progressbar.

Check the following example:

from tkinter import *

from tkinter.ttk import Progressbar

from tkinter import ttk

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

window.geometry('350x200')

style = ttk.Style()

style.theme_use('default')

style.configure("black.Horizontal.TProgressbar", background='black')

bar = Progressbar(window, length=200, style='black.Horizontal.TProgressbar')

bar['value'] = 70

bar.grid(column=0, row=0)

window.mainloop()

And the result will look like this:

Add a File Dialog (File and Directory Chooser)

To create a file dialog (file chooser), you can use the filedialog class like this:

from tkinter import filedialog

file = filedialog.askopenfilename()

After you choose a file and click open, the file variable will hold that file path.

Also, you can ask for multiple files like this:

files = filedialog.askopenfilenames()

Specify File Types (Filter File Extensions)

You can specify the file types for a file dialog using the filetypes parameter, just specify the extensions in tuples.

file = filedialog.askopenfilename(filetypes = (("Text files","*.txt"),("all files","*.*")))

You can ask for a directory using the askdirectory method:

dir = filedialog.askdirectory()

You can specify the initial directory for the file dialog by specifying the initialdir like this:

from os import path

file = filedialog.askopenfilename(initialdir= path.dirname(__file__))

Easy!

Add a Menu Bar

To add a menu bar, you can use the menu class like this:

from tkinter import Menu

menu = Menu(window)

menu.add_command(label='File')

window.config(menu=menu)

First, we create a menu, then we add our first label, and, finally, we assign the menu to our window.

You can add menu items under any menu by using the add_cascade() function like this:

menu.add_cascade(label='File', menu=new_item)

So our code will be like this:

from tkinter import *

from tkinter import Menu

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

menu = Menu(window)

new_item = Menu(menu)

new_item.add_command(label='New')

menu.add_cascade(label='File', menu=new_item)

window.config(menu=menu)

window.mainloop()

This way, you can add as many menu items as you want.

from tkinter import *

from tkinter import Menu

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

menu = Menu(window)

new_item = Menu(menu)

new_item.add_command(label='New')

new_item.add_separator()

new_item.add_command(label='Edit')

menu.add_cascade(label='File', menu=new_item)

window.config(menu=menu)

window.mainloop()

Here we add another menu item called Edit with a menu separator.

You may notice a dashed line at the beginning, well, if you click that line, it will show the menu items in a small separate window.

You can disable this feature by disabling the tearoff feature like this:

new_item = Menu(menu, tearoff=0)

Just replace the new_item in the above example with this one and it won’t show the dashed line anymore.

I don’t need to remind you that you can type any code that works when the user clicks on any menu item by specifying the command property.

new_item.add_command(label='New', command=clicked)

Add a Notebook Widget (Tab Control)

To create a tab control, there are a few steps.

  • First, we create a tab control using the Notebook class.
  • Create a tab using the Frame class.
  • Add that tab to the tab control.
  • Pack the tab control so it becomes visible in the window.
from tkinter import *

from tkinter import ttk

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

tab_control = ttk.Notebook(window)

tab1 = ttk.Frame(tab_control)

tab_control.add(tab1, text='First')

tab_control.pack(expand=1, fill='both')

window.mainloop()

In this way, you can add as many tabs as you want.

Add Widgets to Notebooks

After creating tabs, you can put widgets inside these tabs by assigning the parent property to the desired tab.

from tkinter import *

from tkinter import ttk

window = Tk()

window.title("Welcome to LikeGeeks app")

tab_control = ttk.Notebook(window)

tab1 = ttk.Frame(tab_control)

tab2 = ttk.Frame(tab_control)

tab_control.add(tab1, text='First')

tab_control.add(tab2, text='Second')

lbl1 = Label(tab1, text= 'label1')

lbl1.grid(column=0, row=0)

lbl2 = Label(tab2, text= 'label2')

lbl2.grid(column=0, row=0)

tab_control.pack(expand=1, fill='both')

window.mainloop()

Add Spacing for Widgets (Padding)

You can add padding for your controls to make it look well organized using the padx and pady properties.

Just pass padx and pady to any widget and give them a value.

lbl1 = Label(tab1, text= 'label1', padx=5, pady=5)

It’s that simple!

In this tutorial, we saw many Python GUI examples using the Tkinter library and we saw how easy it’s to develop graphical interfaces using it.

This tutorial covered the main aspects of Python GUI development, but not all of them. There is no tutorial or a book that can cover everything.

I hope you found these examples useful. Keep coming back.

Thanks for reading

If you liked this post, share it with all of your programming buddies!

Follow us on Facebook | Twitter

Further reading about Python

Complete Python Bootcamp: Go from zero to hero in Python 3

Machine Learning A-Z™: Hands-On Python & R In Data Science

Python and Django Full Stack Web Developer Bootcamp

Complete Python Masterclass

Python Tutorial - Python GUI Programming - Python GUI Examples (Tkinter Tutorial)

Python Programming Tutorial | Full Python Course for Beginners 2019 👍

Computer Vision Using OpenCV

OpenCV Python Tutorial - Computer Vision With OpenCV In Python

Python Tutorial: Image processing with Python (Using OpenCV)

A guide to Face Detection in Python

*Originally published at *https://likegeeks.com/