Riley Lambert

Riley Lambert


JavaScript — Map vs. ForEach

JavaScript can be confusing sometimes. You may have come across the two popular methods and Array.Prototype.forEach() in your codebase. If you are unsure about their differences, keep reading. This also happens to be a popular frontend developer interview question.


Anytime you want to iterate through the items in an array, the first thing that comes to our mind in any programming language is the for loop. forEach() in JavaScript is an interesting alternative to the regular for loops.

The forEach() iterates through the elements in the array. It calls a provided callback function once for each element in the array in ascending order.

The callback function accepts three arguments:

  • value of the element
  • index of the element
  • array object

Let’s take a look at an example to see how forEach() works.

let temp = [1, 4, 9];
temp.forEach((item, index) => {
 return temp[index] = item * 3;

// temp is now [3, 12, 27]

The map() method creates a new array with the results of calling a provided function on every element in the calling array. map() calls a provided callback function once for each element in an array, in order, and constructs a new array from the results.

The callback accepts three arguments:

  • value of the element
  • index of the element
  • array object

You may have used the map() function before. It qualifies as a higher-order function, because it takes in a callback function as an input argument.

let numbers = [1, 4, 9];
let triples = => {
return item * 3;

// numbers is still [1, 4, 9]
// triples is [3, 12, 27]

In the example above, we have an array of numbers and creating a new array using the map(). The map() takes a function as an argument. The argument item within the function will automatically be assigned from each element of the array as map() loops through the original array.

What is the difference?

If you notice closely, although they look very similar there is a fundamental difference between forEach() and map() functions.

forEach() changes the original array, whereas map() returns a new array, without mutating the original array.

So which one should you pick? It depends on what you are trying to do with the array.

Note: I always prefer to use map() over forEach().

If you are looking to make changes to the array, map() is preferable. map() ensures that it doesn’t change/mutate the original array, and returns a new array instead.

forEach() is used when you want to iterate through the array and allows a callback function that mutates the original array unlike map(). If you are not looking to transform the array items, but just need to iterate through it and print them or do other actions with them, then forEach() could can be used.

let fruits = [‘apple’, ‘banana’, ‘strawberry’, ‘orange’];
fruits.forEach((fruit) => {
// apple
// banana
// strawberry
// orange
// undefined

In the example above, we are just printing the items in the array and not looking to change anything in the array. For simple actions like this,  forEach() can be used. Notice in the example that the forEach() returns an undefined. It just calls the callback function on each element in the array, but does not return anything.

forEach() doesn’t return anything from the callback, while map() returns a new array from the callback function.

Which one is faster?

So which one is faster? There seems to be a very small difference between forEach() and map() with respect to speed. map() is faster, but these are so miniscule that it shouldn’t affect your application’s performance significantly. You can almost always use map() and other array methods like filter() and reduce() instead of using  forEach().

Why is map() better?


The original array that the map() function iterates through is immutable. This means it cannot be changed, and the map() has to return a new array with the updated items. This is a big benefit since your original array is guaranteed to remain the same and not change after the iteration. Incase your code needs the original array elsewhere, map() will be the best option.

Combine map() with other Array operations

When we use map(), it is really easy to combine it with other iterative Array operations like filter() and reduce().

Let’s look at a simple example to understand this better.

 .reduce((sum, currentVal) => sum + currentVal)

In the code snippet above, we have chained, map(), filter() and reduce(). This is another perk of using map() over forEach(). In this example, we are iterating through the items array.

The map() takes a callback function toTripples() that returns a new array multiplying each value by 3. The new array returned is then filtered to return only odd numbers by the isOdd() callback. The resulting array is then sent to the reduce method, to return a sum of the numbers.

If the input array was [1, 2, 3] the result after map would be [3, 6, 9]. The filter() gets the odd numbers resulting in [3, 9]. The reduce() adds the items and returns 12. You get the idea now, don’t you?

Final Thoughts

You can use both map() and forEach() interchangeably. The biggest difference is that forEach() allows the mutation of the original array, while map() returns a new array of the same size. map() is also faster. But it is entirely up to you to decide which one works better for you. It also depends on your use-case and codebase.

Thanks for reading

If you liked this post, please do share/like it with all of your programming buddies!

Follow us on Facebook | Twitter

Further reading

JavaScript Programming Tutorial - Full JavaScript Course for Beginners

New ES2019 Features Every JavaScript Developer Should Know

Best JavaScript Frameworks, Libraries and Tools to Use in 2019

JavaScript Basics Before You Learn React

Build a CMS with Laravel and Vue


What is GEEK

Buddha Community

JavaScript — Map vs. ForEach
Hermann  Frami

Hermann Frami


A Simple Wrapper Around Amplify AppSync Simulator

This serverless plugin is a wrapper for amplify-appsync-simulator made for testing AppSync APIs built with serverless-appsync-plugin.


npm install serverless-appsync-simulator
# or
yarn add serverless-appsync-simulator


This plugin relies on your serverless yml file and on the serverless-offline plugin.

  - serverless-dynamodb-local # only if you need dynamodb resolvers and you don't have an external dynamodb
  - serverless-appsync-simulator
  - serverless-offline

Note: Order is important serverless-appsync-simulator must go before serverless-offline

To start the simulator, run the following command:

sls offline start

You should see in the logs something like:

Serverless: AppSync endpoint: http://localhost:20002/graphql
Serverless: GraphiQl: http://localhost:20002


Put options under custom.appsync-simulator in your serverless.yml file

| option | default | description | | ------------------------ | -------------------------- | ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- | --------- | | apiKey | 0123456789 | When using API_KEY as authentication type, the key to authenticate to the endpoint. | | port | 20002 | AppSync operations port; if using multiple APIs, the value of this option will be used as a starting point, and each other API will have a port of lastPort + 10 (e.g. 20002, 20012, 20022, etc.) | | wsPort | 20003 | AppSync subscriptions port; if using multiple APIs, the value of this option will be used as a starting point, and each other API will have a port of lastPort + 10 (e.g. 20003, 20013, 20023, etc.) | | location | . (base directory) | Location of the lambda functions handlers. | | refMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the Ref function | | getAttMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the GetAtt function | | importValueMap | {} | A mapping of resource resolutions for the ImportValue function | | functions | {} | A mapping of external functions for providing invoke url for external fucntions | | dynamoDb.endpoint | http://localhost:8000 | Dynamodb endpoint. Specify it if you're not using serverless-dynamodb-local. Otherwise, port is taken from dynamodb-local conf | | dynamoDb.region | localhost | Dynamodb region. Specify it if you're connecting to a remote Dynamodb intance. | | dynamoDb.accessKeyId | DEFAULT_ACCESS_KEY | AWS Access Key ID to access DynamoDB | | dynamoDb.secretAccessKey | DEFAULT_SECRET | AWS Secret Key to access DynamoDB | | dynamoDb.sessionToken | DEFAULT_ACCESS_TOKEEN | AWS Session Token to access DynamoDB, only if you have temporary security credentials configured on AWS | | dynamoDb.* | | You can add every configuration accepted by DynamoDB SDK | | rds.dbName | | Name of the database | | rds.dbHost | | Database host | | rds.dbDialect | | Database dialect. Possible values (mysql | postgres) | | rds.dbUsername | | Database username | | rds.dbPassword | | Database password | | rds.dbPort | | Database port | | watch | - *.graphql
- *.vtl | Array of glob patterns to watch for hot-reloading. |


    location: '.webpack/service' # use webpack build directory
      endpoint: 'http://my-custom-dynamo:8000'


By default, the simulator will hot-relad when changes to *.graphql or *.vtl files are detected. Changes to *.yml files are not supported (yet? - this is a Serverless Framework limitation). You will need to restart the simulator each time you change yml files.

Hot-reloading relies on watchman. Make sure it is installed on your system.

You can change the files being watched with the watch option, which is then passed to watchman as the match expression.


      - ["match", "handlers/**/*.vtl", "wholename"] # => array is interpreted as the literal match expression
      - "*.graphql"                                 # => string like this is equivalent to `["match", "*.graphql"]`

Or you can opt-out by leaving an empty array or set the option to false

Note: Functions should not require hot-reloading, unless you are using a transpiler or a bundler (such as webpack, babel or typescript), un which case you should delegate hot-reloading to that instead.

Resource CloudFormation functions resolution

This plugin supports some resources resolution from the Ref, Fn::GetAtt and Fn::ImportValue functions in your yaml file. It also supports some other Cfn functions such as Fn::Join, Fb::Sub, etc.

Note: Under the hood, this features relies on the cfn-resolver-lib package. For more info on supported cfn functions, refer to the documentation

Basic usage

You can reference resources in your functions' environment variables (that will be accessible from your lambda functions) or datasource definitions. The plugin will automatically resolve them for you.

      Ref: MyBucket # resolves to `my-bucket-name`

      Type: AWS::DynamoDB::Table
        TableName: myTable
      Type: AWS::S3::Bucket
        BucketName: my-bucket-name

# in your appsync config
    name: dynamosource
        Ref: MyDbTable # resolves to `myTable`

Override (or mock) values

Sometimes, some references cannot be resolved, as they come from an Output from Cloudformation; or you might want to use mocked values in your local environment.

In those cases, you can define (or override) those values using the refMap, getAttMap and importValueMap options.

  • refMap takes a mapping of resource name to value pairs
  • getAttMap takes a mapping of resource name to attribute/values pairs
  • importValueMap takes a mapping of import name to values pairs


      # Override `MyDbTable` resolution from the previous example.
      MyDbTable: 'mock-myTable'
      # define ElasticSearchInstance DomainName
        DomainEndpoint: 'localhost:9200'
      other-service-api-url: ''

# in your appsync config
    name: elasticsource
      # endpoint resolves as 'http://localhost:9200'
          - ''
          - - https://
            - Fn::GetAtt:
                - ElasticSearchInstance
                - DomainEndpoint

Key-value mock notation

In some special cases you will need to use key-value mock nottation. Good example can be case when you need to include serverless stage value (${self:provider.stage}) in the import name.

This notation can be used with all mocks - refMap, getAttMap and importValueMap

      Fn::ImportValue: other-service-api-${self:provider.stage}-url

      - key: other-service-api-${self:provider.stage}-url
        value: ''


This plugin only tries to resolve the following parts of the yml tree:

  • provider.environment
  • functions[*].environment
  • custom.appSync

If you have the need of resolving others, feel free to open an issue and explain your use case.

For now, the supported resources to be automatically resovled by Ref: are:

  • DynamoDb tables
  • S3 Buckets

Feel free to open a PR or an issue to extend them as well.

External functions

When a function is not defined withing the current serverless file you can still call it by providing an invoke url which should point to a REST method. Make sure you specify "get" or "post" for the method. Default is "get", but you probably want "post".

        url: http://localhost:3016/2015-03-31/functions/addUser/invocations
        method: post
        method: post

Supported Resolver types

This plugin supports resolvers implemented by amplify-appsync-simulator, as well as custom resolvers.

From Aws Amplify:

  • NONE

Implemented by this plugin

  • HTTP

Relational Database

Sample VTL for a create mutation

#set( $cols = [] )
#set( $vals = [] )
#foreach( $entry in $ctx.args.input.keySet() )
  #set( $regex = "([a-z])([A-Z]+)")
  #set( $replacement = "$1_$2")
  #set( $toSnake = $entry.replaceAll($regex, $replacement).toLowerCase() )
  #set( $discard = $cols.add("$toSnake") )
  #if( $util.isBoolean($ctx.args.input[$entry]) )
      #if( $ctx.args.input[$entry] )
        #set( $discard = $vals.add("1") )
        #set( $discard = $vals.add("0") )
      #set( $discard = $vals.add("'$ctx.args.input[$entry]'") )
#set( $valStr = $vals.toString().replace("[","(").replace("]",")") )
#set( $colStr = $cols.toString().replace("[","(").replace("]",")") )
#if ( $valStr.substring(0, 1) != '(' )
  #set( $valStr = "($valStr)" )
#if ( $colStr.substring(0, 1) != '(' )
  #set( $colStr = "($colStr)" )
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["INSERT INTO <name-of-table> $colStr VALUES $valStr", "SELECT * FROM    <name-of-table> ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 1"]

Sample VTL for an update mutation

#set( $update = "" )
#set( $equals = "=" )
#foreach( $entry in $ctx.args.input.keySet() )
  #set( $cur = $ctx.args.input[$entry] )
  #set( $regex = "([a-z])([A-Z]+)")
  #set( $replacement = "$1_$2")
  #set( $toSnake = $entry.replaceAll($regex, $replacement).toLowerCase() )
  #if( $util.isBoolean($cur) )
      #if( $cur )
        #set ( $cur = "1" )
        #set ( $cur = "0" )
  #if ( $util.isNullOrEmpty($update) )
      #set($update = "$toSnake$equals'$cur'" )
      #set($update = "$update,$toSnake$equals'$cur'" )
  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["UPDATE <name-of-table> SET $update WHERE id=$", "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=$"]

Sample resolver for delete mutation

  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   ["UPDATE <name-of-table> set deleted_at=NOW() WHERE id=$", "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=$"]

Sample mutation response VTL with support for handling AWSDateTime

#set ( $index = -1)
#set ( $result = $util.parseJson($ctx.result) )
#set ( $meta = $result.sqlStatementResults[1].columnMetadata)
#foreach ($column in $meta)
    #set ($index = $index + 1)
    #if ( $column["typeName"] == "timestamptz" )
        #set ($time = $result["sqlStatementResults"][1]["records"][0][$index]["stringValue"] )
        #set ( $nowEpochMillis = $util.time.parseFormattedToEpochMilliSeconds("$time.substring(0,19)+0000", "yyyy-MM-dd HH:mm:ssZ") )
        #set ( $isoDateTime = $util.time.epochMilliSecondsToISO8601($nowEpochMillis) )
        $util.qr( $result["sqlStatementResults"][1]["records"][0][$index].put("stringValue", "$isoDateTime") )
#set ( $res = $util.parseJson($util.rds.toJsonString($util.toJson($result)))[1][0] )
#set ( $response = {} )
#foreach($mapKey in $res.keySet())
    #set ( $s = $mapKey.split("_") )
    #set ( $camelCase="" )
    #set ( $isFirst=true )
    #foreach($entry in $s)
        #if ( $isFirst )
          #set ( $first = $entry.substring(0,1) )
          #set ( $first = $entry.substring(0,1).toUpperCase() )
        #set ( $isFirst=false )
        #set ( $stringLength = $entry.length() )
        #set ( $remaining = $entry.substring(1, $stringLength) )
        #set ( $camelCase = "$camelCase$first$remaining" )
    $util.qr( $response.put("$camelCase", $res[$mapKey]) )

Using Variable Map

Variable map support is limited and does not differentiate numbers and strings data types, please inject them directly if needed.

Will be escaped properly: null, true, and false values.

  "version": "2018-05-29",
  "statements":   [
    "UPDATE <name-of-table> set deleted_at=NOW() WHERE id=:ID",
    "SELECT * FROM <name-of-table> WHERE id=:ID and unix_timestamp > $ctx.args.newerThan"
  variableMap: {
    ":ID": $,
##    ":TIMESTAMP": $ctx.args.newerThan -- This will be handled as a string!!!


Author: Serverless-appsync
Source Code: 
License: MIT License

#serverless #sync #graphql 

Coy  Roberts

Coy Roberts


Javascript Array forEach() Method Example

Javascript array foreach is an inbuilt function that can be used to execute a function on each item in the array. The forEach() method is called on the array Object and is passed the function that is called on each item in the array.  The  callback function can also take the second parameter of the index in case you need to reference the index of the current element in the array.

Understanding Javascript Array forEach

In a nutshell, Javascript forEach() method executes a provided function once for each array element. Javascript forEach only be used on the Arrays, Maps, and  Sets. This article briefly describes how to use the forEach() method to iterate the items of the array in JavaScript.

What’s the usual thing you do with an  array? Add or remove items from an array. Iterate through its items! This is where the forEach() array method shines.

Before we dive into seeing how forEach() works, we need to take a look at how looping works. Looping is a fundamental computer science concept. If you want to be a sound programmer, mastering loops are amidst the first steps you need to take.

Here’s an example of a for loop in Javascript.

let languages = ['Python', 'Javascript', 'PHP', 'Golang'];

for (i = 0; i < languages.length; i++) {

#javascript #javascript array foreach #javascript foreach

Samanta  Moore

Samanta Moore


Java Vs. JavaScript: Know the Difference

What a mess it could be to share the same name — especially if you are a programming language. Even if you are already over 20 years old, IT newbies periodically confuse you with your namesake. This happens all the time with Java and JavaScript, although they are not related at all! As someone on the internet said. They correlate in much the same way as a car and a carpet.

Why do these two languages have such similar names? How do they differ from each other, and what else do they have in common? This article will provide the answers to these questions.

In the Beginning, It Was Java

The Same Year, A Little Bit Later: Meet JavaScript!

Technical Differences Between Java and JavaScript

What Can You Build in Java and JavaScript?

#java #javascript #javascript-development #java-development #learn-to-code-java #learn-javascript #programming #java-vs-javascript

Coy  Roberts

Coy Roberts


Array Foreach, Map, Filter, Reduce, Concat Methods in Javascript

In this tutorial, we will see Javascript Array Foreach, Map, Filter, Reduce, Concat Methods. I dedicate this article only for these methods because, in Pure Functional Programming, this kind of method is required to perform some operations on an Array.

If you do not know What Pure Functions is, then check out my Pure Functions in Javascript article on this website.


All the programming languages have this kind of Data Structure to hold and manipulate the data and Javascript is not different.

We all know Arrayscollection of variables, and we all have used to perform some operations like Creating an array, Removing an Item from an Array, Sorting the data of an Array and other manipulations.

In Functional Programming, we are using functions like foreach, map, filter, reduce, concatAll and other Higher Order Functions. So today I am describing these functions in deep and show you how you can use it in various scenarios.

#javascript #programming #foreach #map #filter #reduce

Mahipal Nehra

Mahipal Nehra


Java vs. JavaScript: Know The Difference

Java vs. JavaScript

#java #javascript #Java vs. JavaScript #Java vs JavaScript #programming