Hermann  Frami

Hermann Frami


MFA Serverless Plugin


MFA Serverless plugin

Set following environments variables

Serial Nuber or arn of MFA


MFA Key, it can be access only when setting up MFA first time


install plugin

npm install --save mfa-serverless-plugin

add plugin to your serverless.yml

  - mfa-serverless-plugin

Author: Alikian
Source Code: https://github.com/alikian/mfa-serverless-plugin 
License: MIT license

#serverless #plugin 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

MFA Serverless Plugin
Hermann  Frami

Hermann Frami


Serverless Plugin for Microservice Code Management and Deployment

Serverless M

Serverless M (or Serverless Modular) is a plugin for the serverless framework. This plugins helps you in managing multiple serverless projects with a single serverless.yml file. This plugin gives you a super charged CLI options that you can use to create new features, build them in a single file and deploy them all in parallel


Currently this plugin is tested for the below stack only

  • AWS
  • NodeJS λ
  • Rest API (You can use other events as well)


Make sure you have the serverless CLI installed

# Install serverless globally
$ npm install serverless -g

Getting Started

To start the serverless modular project locally you can either start with es5 or es6 templates or add it as a plugin

ES6 Template install

# Step 1. Download the template
$ sls create --template-url https://github.com/aa2kb/serverless-modular/tree/master/template/modular-es6 --path myModularService

# Step 2. Change directory
$ cd myModularService

# Step 3. Create a package.json file
$ npm init

# Step 3. Install dependencies
$ npm i serverless-modular serverless-webpack webpack --save-dev

ES5 Template install

# Step 1. Download the template
$ sls create --template-url https://github.com/aa2kb/serverless-modular/tree/master/template/modular-es5 --path myModularService

# Step 2. Change directory
$ cd myModularService

# Step 3. Create a package.json file
$ npm init

# Step 3. Install dependencies
$ npm i serverless-modular --save-dev

If you dont want to use the templates above you can just add in your existing project

Adding it as plugin

  - serverless-modular

Now you are all done to start building your serverless modular functions

API Reference

The serverless CLI can be accessed by

# Serverless Modular CLI
$ serverless modular

# shorthand
$ sls m

Serverless Modular CLI is based on 4 main commands

  • sls m init
  • sls m feature
  • sls m function
  • sls m build
  • sls m deploy

init command

sls m init

The serverless init command helps in creating a basic .gitignore that is useful for serverless modular.

The basic .gitignore for serverless modular looks like this


#sm main functions

#serverless file generated by build

#main serverless directories generated for sls deploy

#feature serverless directories generated sls deploy

#serverless logs file generated for main sls deploy

#serverless logs file generated for feature sls deploy

#Webpack config copied in each feature

feature command

The feature command helps in building new features for your project

options (feature Command)

This command comes with three options

--name: Specify the name you want for your feature

--remove: set value to true if you want to remove the feature

--basePath: Specify the basepath you want for your feature, this base path should be unique for all features. helps in running offline with offline plugin and for API Gateway

optionsshortcutrequiredvaluesdefault value
--remove-rtrue, falsefalse
--basePath-pstringsame as name

Examples (feature Command)

Creating a basic feature

# Creating a jedi feature
$ sls m feature -n jedi

Creating a feature with different base path

# A feature with different base path
$ sls m feature -n jedi -p tatooine

Deleting a feature

# Anakin is going to delete the jedi feature
$ sls m feature -n jedi -r true

function command

The function command helps in adding new function to a feature

options (function Command)

This command comes with four options

--name: Specify the name you want for your function

--feature: Specify the name of the existing feature

--path: Specify the path for HTTP endpoint helps in running offline with offline plugin and for API Gateway

--method: Specify the path for HTTP method helps in running offline with offline plugin and for API Gateway

optionsshortcutrequiredvaluesdefault value
--path-pstringsame as name

Examples (function Command)

Creating a basic function

# Creating a cloak function for jedi feature
$ sls m function -n cloak -f jedi

Creating a basic function with different path and method

# Creating a cloak function for jedi feature with custom path and HTTP method
$ sls m function -n cloak -f jedi -p powers -m POST

build command

The build command helps in building the project for local or global scope

options (build Command)

This command comes with four options

--scope: Specify the scope of the build, use this with "--feature" tag

--feature: Specify the name of the existing feature you want to build

optionsshortcutrequiredvaluesdefault value

Saving build Config in serverless.yml

You can also save config in serverless.yml file

      scope: local

Examples (build Command)

all feature build (local scope)

# Building all local features
$ sls m build

Single feature build (local scope)

# Building a single feature
$ sls m build -f jedi -s local

All features build global scope

# Building all features with global scope
$ sls m build -s global

deploy command

The deploy command helps in deploying serverless projects to AWS (it uses sls deploy command)

options (deploy Command)

This command comes with four options

--sm-parallel: Specify if you want to deploy parallel (will only run in parallel when doing multiple deployments)

--sm-scope: Specify if you want to deploy local features or global

--sm-features: Specify the local features you want to deploy (comma separated if multiple)

optionsshortcutrequiredvaluesdefault value
--sm-paralleltrue, falsetrue
--sm-scopelocal, globallocal

Saving deploy Config in serverless.yml

You can also save config in serverless.yml file

      scope: local
      parallel: true
      ignoreBuild: true

Examples (deploy Command)

Deploy all features locally

# deploy all local features
$ sls m deploy

Deploy all features globally

# deploy all global features
$ sls m deploy --sm-scope global

Deploy single feature

# deploy all global features
$ sls m deploy --sm-features jedi

Deploy Multiple features

# deploy all global features
$ sls m deploy --sm-features jedi,sith,dark_side

Deploy Multiple features in sequence

# deploy all global features
$ sls m deploy  --sm-features jedi,sith,dark_side --sm-parallel false

Author: aa2kb
Source Code: https://github.com/aa2kb/serverless-modular 
License: MIT license

#serverless #aws #node #lambda 

Hermann  Frami

Hermann Frami


Serverless Plugin Datadog

Datadog recommends the Serverless Framework Plugin for developers using the Serverless Framework to deploy their serverless applications. The plugin automatically enables instrumentation for applications to collect metrics, traces, and logs by:

  • Installing the Datadog Lambda library to your Lambda functions as a Lambda layer.
  • Installing the Datadog Lambda Extension to your Lambda functions as a Lambda layer (addExtension) or subscribing the Datadog Forwarder to your Lambda functions' log groups (forwarderArn).
  • Making the required configuration changes, such as adding environment variables or additional tracing layers, to your Lambda functions.

Getting started

To quickly get started, follow the installation instructions for Python, Node.js, Ruby, Java, Go, or .NET and view your function's enhanced metrics, traces, and logs in Datadog.

After installation is complete, configure the advanced options to suit your monitoring needs.


Each version of the plugin is published with a specific set of versions of the Datadog Lambda layers. To pick up new features and bug fixes provided by the latest versions of Datadog Lambda layers, upgrade the serverless framework plugin. Test the new version before applying it on your production applications.

Configuration parameters

To further configure your plugin, use the following custom parameters in your serverless.yml:

siteSet which Datadog site to send data to, such as datadoghq.com (default), datadoghq.eu, us3.datadoghq.com, us5.datadoghq.com, or ddog-gov.com. This parameter is required when collecting telemtry using the Datadog Lambda Extension.
apiKey[Datadog API key][7]. This parameter is required when collecting telemetry using the Datadog Lambda Extension. Alternatively, you can also set the DATADOG_API_KEY environment variable in your deployment environment.
appKeyDatadog app key. Only needed when the monitors field is defined. Alternatively, you can also set the DATADOG_APP_KEY environment variable in your deployment environment.
apiKeySecretArnAn alternative to using the apiKey field. The ARN of the secret that is storing the Datadog API key in AWS Secrets Manager. Remember to add the secretsmanager:GetSecretValue permission to the Lambda execution role.
apiKMSKeyAn alternative to using the apiKey field. Datadog API key encrypted using KMS. Remember to add the kms:Decrypt permission to the Lambda execution role.
envWhen set along with addExtension, a DD_ENV environment variable is added to all Lambda functions with the provided value. Otherwise, an env tag is added to all Lambda functions with the provided value. Defaults to the stage value of the serverless deployment.
serviceWhen set along with addExtension, a DD_SERVICE environment variable is added to all Lambda functions with the provided value. Otherwise, a service tag is added to all Lambda functions with the provided value. Defaults to the service value of the serverless project.
versionWhen set along with addExtension, a DD_VERSION environment variable is added to all Lambda functions with the provided value. When set along with forwarderArn, a version tag is added to all Lambda functions with the provided value.
tagsA comma separated list of key:value pairs as a single string. When set along with extensionLayerVersion, a DD_TAGS environment variable is added to all Lambda functions with the provided value. When set along with forwarderArn, the plugin parses the string and sets each key:value pair as a tag on all Lambda functions.
enableXrayTracingSet true to enable X-Ray tracing on the Lambda functions and API Gateway integrations. Defaults to false.
enableDDTracingEnable Datadog tracing on the Lambda function. Defaults to true.
enableDDLogsEnable Datadog log collection using the Lambda Extension. Defaults to true. Note: This setting has no effect on logs sent by the Datadog Forwarder.
monitorsWhen defined, the Datadog plugin configures monitors for the deployed function. Requires setting DATADOG_API_KEY and DATADOG_APP_KEY in your environment. To learn how to define monitors, see To Enable and Configure a Recommended Serverless Monitor.
captureLambdaPayload[Captures incoming and outgoing AWS Lambda payloads][17] in the Datadog APM spans for Lambda invocations. Defaults to false.
enableSourceCodeIntegrationEnable [Datadog source code integration][18] for the function. Defaults to true.
subscribeToApiGatewayLogsEnable automatic subscription of the Datadog Forwarder to API Gateway log groups. Requires setting forwarderArn. Defaults to true.
subscribeToHttpApiLogsEnable automatic subscription of the Datadog Forwarder to HTTP API log groups. Requires setting forwarderArn. Defaults to true.
subscribeToWebsocketLogsEnable automatic subscription of the Datadog Forwarder to WebSocket log groups. Requires setting forwarderArn. Defaults to true.
forwarderArnThe ARN of the Datadog Forwarder to be subscribed to the Lambda or API Gateway log groups.
addLayersWhether to install the Datadog Lambda library as a layer. Defaults to true. Set to false when you plan to package the Datadog Lambda library to your function's deployment package on your own so that you can install a specific version of the Datadog Lambda library ([Python][8] or [Node.js][9]).
addExtensionWhether to install the Datadog Lambda Extension as a layer. Defaults to true. When enabled, it's required to set the apiKey and site.
excludeWhen set, this plugin ignores all specified functions. Use this parameter if you have any functions that should not include Datadog functionality. Defaults to [].
enabledWhen set to false, the Datadog plugin stays inactive. Defaults to true. You can control this option using an environment variable. For example, use enabled: ${strToBool(${env:DD_PLUGIN_ENABLED, true})} to activate/deactivate the plugin during deployment. Alternatively, you can also use the value passed in through --stage to control this option—see example.
customHandlerWhen set, the specified handler is set as the handler for all the functions.
failOnErrorWhen set, this plugin throws an error if any custom Datadog monitors fail to create or update. This occurs after deploy, but will cause the result of serverless deploy to return a nonzero exit code (to fail user CI). Defaults to false.
integrationTestingSet true when running integration tests. This bypasses the validation of the Forwarder ARN and the addition of Datadog Monitor output links. Defaults to false.
logLevelThe log level, set to DEBUG for extended logging.

To use any of these parameters, add a custom > datadog section to your serverless.yml similar to this example:

    apiKeySecretArn: "{Datadog_API_Key_Secret_ARN}"
    enableXrayTracing: false
    enableDDTracing: true
    enableDDLogs: true
    subscribeToAccessLogs: true
    forwarderArn: arn:aws:lambda:us-east-1:000000000000:function:datadog-forwarder
      - dd-excluded-function


If you are using a bundler, such as webpack, see Serverless Tracing and Webpack.


You may encounter the error of missing type definitions. To resolve the error, add datadog-lambda-js and dd-trace to the devDependencies list of your project's package.json.

If you are using serverless-typescript, make sure that serverless-datadog is above the serverless-typescript entry in your serverless.yml. The plugin will automatically detect .ts files.

  - serverless-plugin-datadog
  - serverless-typescript

Disable Plugin for Particular Environment

If you'd like to turn off the plugin based on the environment (passed via --stage), you can use something similar to the example below.

  stage: ${self:opt.stage, 'dev'}

  staged: ${self:custom.stageVars.${self:provider.stage}, {}}

      dd_enabled: false

    enabled: ${self:custom.staged.dd_enabled, true}

Serverless Monitors

There are seven recommended monitors with default values pre-configured.

MonitorMetricsThresholdServerless Monitor ID
High Error Rateaws.lambda.errors/aws.lambda.invocations>= 10%high_error_rate
Timeoutaws.lambda.duration.max/aws.lambda.timeout>= 1timeout
Out of Memoryaws.lambda.enhanced.out_of_memory> 0out_of_memory
High Iterator Ageaws.lambda.iterator_age.maximum>= 24 hrshigh_iterator_age
High Cold Start Rateaws.lambda.enhanced.invocations(cold_start:true)/
>= 20%high_cold_start_rate
High Throttlesaws.lambda.throttles/aws.lambda.invocations>= 20%high_throttles
Increased Costaws.lambda.enhanced.estimated_cost↑20%increased_cost

To Enable and Configure a Recommended Serverless Monitor

To create a recommended monitor, you must use its respective serverless monitor ID. Note that you must also set the DATADOG_API_KEY and DATADOG_APP_KEY in your environment.

If you’d like to further configure the parameters for a recommended monitor, you can directly define the parameter values below the serverless monitor ID. Parameters not specified under a recommended monitor will use the default recommended value. The query parameter for recommended monitors cannot be directly modified and will default to using the query valued as defined above; however, you may change the threshold value in query by re-defining it within the options parameter. To delete a monitor, remove the monitor from the serverless.yml template. For further documentation on how to define monitor parameters, see the Datadog Monitors API.

Monitor creation occurs after the function is deployed. In the event that a monitor is unsuccessfully created, the function will still be successfully deployed.

To create a recommended monitor with the default values

Define the appropriate serverless monitor ID without specifying any parameter values

    addLayers: true
      - high_error_rate:

To configure a recommended monitor

    addLayers: true
      - high_error_rate:
          name: "High Error Rate with Modified Warning Threshold"
          message: "More than 10% of the function’s invocations were errors in the selected time range. Notify @data.dog@datadoghq.com @slack-serverless-monitors"
          tags: ["modified_error_rate", "serverless", "error_rate"]
          require_full_window: true
          priority: 2
            include_tags: true
            notify_audit: true
              ok: 0.025
              warning: 0.05

To delete a monitor

Removing the serverless monitor ID and its parameters will delete the monitor.

To Enable and Configure a Custom Monitor

To define a custom monitor, you must define a unique serverless monitor ID string in addition to passing in the API key and Application key, DATADOG_API_KEY and DATADOG_APP_KEY, in your environment. The query parameter is required but every other parameter is optional. Define a unique serverless monitor ID string and specify the necessary parameters below. For further documentation on monitor parameters, see the Datadog Monitors API.

    addLayers: true
      - custom_monitor_id:
          name: "Custom Monitor"
          query: "max(next_1w):forecast(avg:system.load.1{*}, 'linear', 1, interval='60m', history='1w', model='default') >= 3"
          message: "Custom message for custom monitor. Notify @data.dog@datadoghq.com @slack-serverless-monitors"
          tags: ["custom_monitor", "serverless"]
          priority: 3
            enable_logs_sample: true
            require_full_window: true
            include_tags: false
            notify_audit: true
            notify_no_data: false
              ok: 1
              warning: 2

Breaking Changes


  • When used in conjunction with the Datadog Extension, this plugin sets service and env tags through environment variables instead of Lambda resource tags.
  • The enableTags parameter was replaced by the new service, env parameters.


  • The Datadog Lambda Extension is now the default mechanism for transmitting telemetry to Datadog.

Opening Issues

If you encounter a bug with this package, let us know by filing an issue! Before opening a new issue, please search the existing issues to avoid duplicates.

When opening an issue, include your Serverless Framework version, Python/Node.js version, and stack trace if available. Also, please include the steps to reproduce when appropriate.

You can also open an issue for a feature request.


If you find an issue with this package and have a fix, open a pull request following the procedures.


For product feedback and questions, join the #serverless channel in the Datadog community on Slack.

Author: DataDog
Source Code: https://github.com/DataDog/serverless-plugin-datadog 
License: View license

#serverless #datadog #plugin 

How To Customize WordPress Plugins? (4 Easy Ways To Do)

This is image title
WordPress needs no introduction. It has been in the world for quite a long time. And up till now, it has given a tough fight to leading web development technology. The main reason behind its remarkable success is, it is highly customizable and also SEO-friendly. Other benefits include open-source technology, security, user-friendliness, and the thousands of free plugins it offers.

Talking of WordPress plugins, are a piece of software that enables you to add more features to the website. They are easy to integrate into your website and don’t hamper the performance of the site. WordPress, as a leading technology, has to offer many out-of-the-box plugins.

However, not always the WordPress would be able to meet your all needs. Hence you have to customize the WordPress plugin to provide you the functionality you wished. WordPress Plugins are easy to install and customize. You don’t have to build the solution from scratch and that’s one of the reasons why small and medium-sized businesses love it. It doesn’t need a hefty investment or the hiring of an in-house development team. You can use the core functionality of the plugin and expand it as your like.

In this blog, we would be talking in-depth about plugins and how to customize WordPress plugins to improve the functionality of your web applications.

What Is The Working Of The WordPress Plugins?

Developing your own plugin requires you to have some knowledge of the way they work. It ensures the better functioning of the customized plugins and avoids any mistakes that can hamper the experience on your site.

1. Hooks

Plugins operate primarily using hooks. As a hook attaches you to something, the same way a feature or functionality is hooked to your website. The piece of code interacts with the other components present on the website. There are two types of hooks: a. Action and b. Filter.

A. Action

If you want something to happen at a particular time, you need to use a WordPress “action” hook. With actions, you can add, change and improve the functionality of your plugin. It allows you to attach a new action that can be triggered by your users on the website.

There are several predefined actions available on WordPress, custom WordPress plugin development also allows you to develop your own action. This way you can make your plugin function as your want. It also allows you to set values for which the hook function. The add_ action function will then connect that function to a specific action.

B. Filters

They are the type of hooks that are accepted to a single variable or a series of variables. It sends them back after they have modified it. It allows you to change the content displayed to the user.

You can add the filter on your website with the apply_filter function, then you can define the filter under the function. To add a filter hook on the website, you have to add the $tag (the filter name) and $value (the filtered value or variable), this allows the hook to work. Also, you can add extra function values under $var.

Once you have made your filter, you can execute it with the add_filter function. This will activate your filter and would work when a specific function is triggered. You can also manipulate the variable and return it.

2. Shortcodes

Shortcodes are a good way to create and display the custom functionality of your website to visitors. They are client-side bits of code. They can be placed in the posts and pages like in the menu and widgets, etc.

There are many plugins that use shortcodes. By creating your very own shortcode, you too can customize the WordPress plugin. You can create your own shortcode with the add_shortcode function. The name of the shortcode that you use would be the first variable and the second variable would be the output of it when it is triggered. The output can be – attributes, content, and name.

3. Widgets

Other than the hooks and shortcodes, you can use the widgets to add functionality to the site. WordPress Widgets are a good way to create a widget by extending the WP_Widget class. They render a user-friendly experience, as they have an object-oriented design approach and the functions and values are stored in a single entity.

How To Customize WordPress Plugins?

There are various methods to customize the WordPress plugins. Depending on your need, and the degree of customization you wish to make in the plugin, choose the right option for you. Also, don’t forget to keep in mind that it requires a little bit of technical knowledge too. So find an expert WordPress plugin development company in case you lack the knowledge to do it by yourself.

1. Hire A Plugin Developer3
This is image title

One of the best ways to customize a WordPress plugin is by hiring a plugin developer. There are many plugin developers listed in the WordPress directory. You can contact them and collaborate with world-class WordPress developers. It is quite easy to find a WordPress plugin developer.

Since it is not much work and doesn’t pay well or for the long term a lot of developers would be unwilling to collaborate but, you will eventually find people.

2. Creating A Supporting Plugin

If you are looking for added functionality in an already existing plugin go for this option. It is a cheap way to meet your needs and creating a supporting plugin takes very little time as it has very limited needs. Furthermore, you can extend a plugin to a current feature set without altering its base code.

However, to do so, you have to hire a WordPress developer as it also requires some technical knowledge.

3. Use Custom Hooks

Use the WordPress hooks to integrate some other feature into an existing plugin. You can add an action or a filter as per your need and improve the functionality of the website.

If the plugin you want to customize has the hook, you don’t have to do much to customize it. You can write your own plugin that works with these hooks. This way you don’t have to build a WordPress plugin right from scratch. If the hook is not present in the plugin code, you can contact a WordPress developer or write the code yourself. It may take some time, but it works.

Once the hook is added, you just have to manually patch each one upon the release of the new plugin update.

4. Override Callbacks

The last way to customize WordPress plugins is by override callbacks. You can alter the core functionality of the WordPress plugin with this method. You can completely change the way it functions with your website. It is a way to completely transform the plugin. By adding your own custom callbacks, you can create the exact functionality you desire.

We suggest you go for a web developer proficient in WordPress as this requires a good amount of technical knowledge and the working of a plugin.

Read More

#customize wordpress plugins #how to customize plugins in wordpress #how to customize wordpress plugins #how to edit plugins in wordpress #how to edit wordpress plugins #wordpress plugin customization

Hermann  Frami

Hermann Frami


Serverless Kubeless Offline Plugin

Serverless Kubeless Offline Plugin

This Serverless plugin emulates Kubeless on your local machine without minikube to speed up your development cycles. To do so, it starts an HTTP server that handles the request's lifecycle like Kubeless does and invokes your handlers.


  • NodeJS only.
  • serverless-webpack support
  • Lazy loading of your files with require cache invalidation: no need for a reloading tool like Nodemon.


For Serverless v1.x only.

First, add Serverless Kubeless Offline to your project:

npm install serverless-kubeless-offline --save-dev

Then inside your project's serverless.yml file add following entry to the plugins section: serverless-kubeless-offline. If there is no plugin section you will need to add it to the file.

It should look something like this:

  - serverless-kubeless-offline

You can check wether you have successfully installed the plugin by running the serverless command line:


the console should display KubelessOfflinePlugin as one of the plugins now available in your Serverless project.

Usage and command line options

In your project root run:

serverless offline start or sls offline start.

to list all the options for the plugin run:

sls offline --help

All CLI options are optional:

--port                  -p  Port to listen on. Default: 3000
--httpsProtocol         -H  To enable HTTPS, specify directory (relative to your cwd, typically your project dir) for local key and certificate files.

This is how to generate local key and certificate (valid for 365 days) files for HTTPS using openssl:

openssl req -newkey rsa:2048 -new -nodes -keyout key.pem -out csr.pem
openssl x509 -req -days 365 -in csr.pem -signkey key.pem -out server.crt

Any of the CLI options can be added to your serverless.yml. For example:

    port: 4000

Options passed on the command line override YAML options.

By default you can send your requests to http://localhost:3000/. Please note that:

  • You'll need to restart the plugin if you modify your serverless.yml.
  • Kubeless allows all HTTP methods to direct to your handler, and so does the plugin.
  • Kubeless automatically handles CORs pre-flight (OPTIONS) requests for you, but additional CORs headers for your responses should be set by your handlers.
  • In your handler, process.env.IS_OFFLINE is true.
  • When the Content-Type header is set to 'application/json' on a request, Kubeless will JSON.parse the body and place it at event.data, and so does the plugin. But if you send any other Content-Type, Kubeless and this plugin will parse the body as a string and place it at event.data. You can always access the request and response objects directly in a Kubeless environment through event.extensions.request and event.extensions.response.

Usage with serverless-webpack plugin

Running the serverless kubeless start command will fire an init and an end lifecycle hook which is needed for serverless-offline to switch off resources.

Add plugins to your serverless.yml file:

  - serverless-webpack
  - serverless-kubeless
  - serverless-kubeless-offline #serverless-kubeless-offline needs to be last in the list

Debug process

Serverless Kubeless Offline plugin will respond to the overall framework settings and output additional information to the console in debug mode. In order to do this you will have to set the SLS_DEBUG environmental variable. You can run the following in the command line to switch to debug mode execution.

Unix: export SLS_DEBUG=*

Windows: SET SLS_DEBUG=*

Interactive debugging is also possible for your project if you have installed the node-inspector module and chrome browser. You can then run the following command line inside your project's root.

Initial installation: npm install -g node-inspector

For each debug run: node-debug sls offline

The system will start in wait status. This will also automatically start the chrome browser and wait for you to set breakpoints for inspection. Set the breakpoints as needed and, then, click the play button for the debugging to continue.

Depending on the breakpoint, you may need to call the URL path for your function in seperate browser window for your serverless function to be run and made available for debugging.

Simulation quality

This plugin simulates the NodeJS runtime in Kubeless for many practical purposes, good enough for development - but is not a perfect simulator. Specifically, Kubeless currently runs on Node v6.x and v8.x, whereas Kubeless Offline runs on your own runtime where no memory limits are enforced.

The HTTP server in this plugin mimics (the NodeJS server)[https://github.com/kubeless/kubeless/blob/master/docker/runtime/nodejs/kubeless.js] in the Kubeless runtime as closely as possible. If you find any discrepancies, please file an issue.

Inspiration/Prior Art

This plugin is heavily inspired by (especially this README): Serverless Offline Plugin. A big thank you to all the contributors there!

It is also mutually incompatible with the Serverless Offline Plugin since they both define and emit the same events in order to be compatible with serverless-webpack. You cannot add both this plugin and the standard Serverless Offline Plugin which simulates AWS Lambda/API Gateway to the same Serverless service.

The vast majority of the actual server code is taken from the (Kubeless' team's)[https://github.com/kubeless] NodeJS runtime server. Without them, this plugin wouldn't even make sense. Thanks for making it worth the time to build tools around your tools. ;)


Yes, thank you! Please update the docs and tests and add your name to the package.json file.

Author: usefulio
Source Code: https://github.com/usefulio/serverless-kubeless-offline 
License: MIT license

#serverless #plugin #framework 

Serverless Applications - Pros and Cons to Help Businesses Decide - Prismetric

In the past few years, especially after Amazon Web Services (AWS) introduced its Lambda platform, serverless architecture became the business realm’s buzzword. The increasing popularity of serverless applications saw market leaders like Netflix, Airbnb, Nike, etc., adopting the serverless architecture to handle their backend functions better. Moreover, serverless architecture’s market size is expected to reach a whopping $9.17 billion by the year 2023.


Why use serverless computing?
As a business it is best to approach a professional mobile app development company to build apps that are deployed on various servers; nevertheless, businesses should understand that the benefits of the serverless applications lie in the possibility it promises ideal business implementations and not in the hype created by cloud vendors. With the serverless architecture, the developers can easily code arbitrary codes on-demand without worrying about the underlying hardware.

But as is the case with all game-changing trends, many businesses opt for serverless applications just for the sake of being up-to-date with their peers without thinking about the actual need of their business.

The serverless applications work well with stateless use cases, the cases which execute cleanly and give the next operation in a sequence. On the other hand, the serverless architecture is not fit for predictable applications where there is a lot of reading and writing in the backend system.

Another benefit of working with the serverless software architecture is that the third-party service provider will charge based on the total number of requests. As the number of requests increases, the charge is bound to increase, but then it will cost significantly less than a dedicated IT infrastructure.

Defining serverless software architecture
In serverless software architecture, the application logic is implemented in an environment where operating systems, servers, or virtual machines are not visible. Although where the application logic is executed is running on any operating system which uses physical servers. But the difference here is that managing the infrastructure is the soul of the service provider and the mobile app developer focuses only on writing the codes.

There are two different approaches when it comes to serverless applications. They are

Backend as a service (BaaS)
Function as a service (FaaS)

  1. Backend as a service (BaaS)
    The basic required functionality of the growing number of third party services is to provide server-side logic and maintain their internal state. This requirement has led to applications that do not have server-side logic or any application-specific logic. Thus they depend on third-party services for everything.

Moreover, other examples of third-party services are Autho, AWS Cognito (authentication as a service), Amazon Kinesis, Keen IO (analytics as a service), and many more.

  1. Function as a Service (FaaS)
    FaaS is the modern alternative to traditional architecture when the application still requires server-side logic. With Function as a Service, the developer can focus on implementing stateless functions triggered by events and can communicate efficiently with the external world.

FaaS serverless architecture is majorly used with microservices architecture as it renders everything to the organization. AWS Lambda, Google Cloud functions, etc., are some of the examples of FaaS implementation.

Pros of Serverless applications
There are specific ways in which serverless applications can redefine the way business is done in the modern age and has some distinct advantages over the traditional could platforms. Here are a few –

🔹 Highly Scalable
The flexible nature of the serverless architecture makes it ideal for scaling the applications. The serverless application’s benefit is that it allows the vendor to run each of the functions in separate containers, allowing optimizing them automatically and effectively. Moreover, unlike in the traditional cloud, one doesn’t need to purchase a certain number of resources in serverless applications and can be as flexible as possible.

🔹 Cost-Effective
As the organizations don’t need to spend hundreds and thousands of dollars on hardware, they don’t need to pay anything to the engineers to maintain the hardware. The serverless application’s pricing model is execution based as the organization is charged according to the executions they have made.

The company that uses the serverless applications is allotted a specific amount of time, and the pricing of the execution depends on the memory required. Different types of costs like presence detection, access authorization, image processing, etc., associated with a physical or virtual server is completely eliminated with the serverless applications.

🔹 Focuses on user experience
As the companies don’t always think about maintaining the servers, it allows them to focus on more productive things like developing and improving customer service features. A recent survey says that about 56% of the users are either using or planning to use the serverless applications in the coming six months.

Moreover, as the companies would save money with serverless apps as they don’t have to maintain any hardware system, it can be then utilized to enhance the level of customer service and features of the apps.

🔹 Ease of migration
It is easy to get started with serverless applications by porting individual features and operate them as on-demand events. For example, in a CMS, a video plugin requires transcoding video for different formats and bitrates. If the organization wished to do this with a WordPress server, it might not be a good fit as it would require resources dedicated to serving pages rather than encoding the video.

Moreover, the benefits of serverless applications can be used optimally to handle metadata encoding and creation. Similarly, serverless apps can be used in other plugins that are often prone to critical vulnerabilities.

Cons of serverless applications
Despite having some clear benefits, serverless applications are not specific for every single use case. We have listed the top things that an organization should keep in mind while opting for serverless applications.

🔹 Complete dependence on third-party vendor
In the realm of serverless applications, the third-party vendor is the king, and the organizations have no options but to play according to their rules. For example, if an application is set in Lambda, it is not easy to port it into Azure. The same is the case for coding languages. In present times, only Python developers and Node.js developers have the luxury to choose between existing serverless options.

Therefore, if you are planning to consider serverless applications for your next project, make sure that your vendor has everything needed to complete the project.

🔹 Challenges in debugging with traditional tools
It isn’t easy to perform debugging, especially for large enterprise applications that include various individual functions. Serverless applications use traditional tools and thus provide no option to attach a debugger in the public cloud. The organization can either do the debugging process locally or use logging for the same purpose. In addition to this, the DevOps tools in the serverless application do not support the idea of quickly deploying small bits of codes into running applications.

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