Adz Demoe for Polkadot Written in Rust

TLDR

Build

cargo build

Run Local Chain

./target/debug/node-template --dev --tmp

Build Chain Spec

./target/debug/node-template build-spec

Adz Demoe

Using Nix

Install nix and optionally direnv and lorri for a fully plug and play experience for setting up the development environment. To get all the correct dependencies activate direnv direnv allow and lorri lorri shell.

Rust Setup

First, complete the basic Rust setup instructions.

Run

Use Rust's native cargo command to build and launch the template node:

cargo run --release -- --dev --tmp

Build

The cargo run command will perform an initial build. Use the following command to build the node without launching it:

cargo build --release

NOTE: You must use the release builds for parachains! The optimizations here are required as in debug mode, it is expected that nodes are not able to run fast enough to produce blocks.

Relay Chain

NOTE: In the following two sections, we document how to manually start a few relay chain nodes, start a parachain node (collator), and register the parachain with the relay chain.

We also have the polkadot-launch CLI tool that automate the following steps and help you easily launch relay chains and parachains. However it is still good to go through the following procedures once to understand the mechanism for running and registering a parachain.

Once the project has been built, the following command can be used to explore all parameters and subcommands:

./target/release/node-template -h

Run

The provided cargo run command will launch a temporary node and its state will be discarded after you terminate the process. After the project has been built, there are other ways to launch the node.

Single-Node Development Chain

This command will start the single-node development chain with persistent state:

./target/release/node-template --dev

Start Relay Chain

We need n + 1 full validator nodes running on a relay chain to accept n parachain / parathread connections. Here we will start two relay chain nodes so we can have one parachain node connecting in later.

From the Polkadot working directory:

./target/release/node-template purge-chain --dev

Start the development chain with detailed logging:

RUST_LOG=debug RUST_BACKTRACE=1 ./target/release/node-template -lruntime=debug --dev

Connect with Polkadot-JS Apps Front-end

To connect to a relay chain, you must first _reserve a ParaId for your parathread that will become a parachain. To do this, you will need sufficient amount of currency on the network account to reserve the ID.

Multi-Node Local Testnet

If you want to see the multi-node consensus algorithm in action, refer to our Start a Private Network tutorial.

Template Structure

A Substrate project such as this consists of a number of components that are spread across a few directories.

Node

A blockchain node is an application that allows users to participate in a blockchain network. Substrate-based blockchain nodes expose a number of capabilities:

  • Networking: Substrate nodes use the libp2p networking stack to allow the nodes in the network to communicate with one another.
  • Consensus: Blockchains must have a way to come to consensus on the state of the network. Substrate makes it possible to supply custom consensus engines and also ships with several consensus mechanisms that have been built on top of Web3 Foundation research.
  • RPC Server: A remote procedure call (RPC) server is used to interact with Substrate nodes.

There are several files in the node directory - take special note of the following:

  • chain_spec.rs: A chain specification is a source code file that defines a Substrate chain's initial (genesis) state. Chain specifications are useful for development and testing, and critical when architecting the launch of a production chain. Take note of the development_config and testnet_genesis functions, which are used to define the genesis state for the local development chain configuration. These functions identify some well-known accounts and use them to configure the blockchain's initial state.
  • service.rs: This file defines the node implementation. Take note of the libraries that this file imports and the names of the functions it invokes. In particular, there are references to consensus-related topics, such as the longest chain rule, the Aura block authoring mechanism and the GRANDPA finality gadget.

After the node has been built, refer to the embedded documentation to learn more about the capabilities and configuration parameters that it exposes:

./target/release/node-template --help

Runtime

In Substrate, the terms "runtime" and "state transition function" are analogous - they refer to the core logic of the blockchain that is responsible for validating blocks and executing the state changes they define. The Substrate project in this repository uses the FRAME framework to construct a blockchain runtime. FRAME allows runtime developers to declare domain-specific logic in modules called "pallets". At the heart of FRAME is a helpful macro language that makes it easy to create pallets and flexibly compose them to create blockchains that can address a variety of needs.

Review the FRAME runtime implementation included in this template and note the following:

  • This file configures several pallets to include in the runtime. Each pallet configuration is defined by a code block that begins with impl $PALLET_NAME::Config for Runtime.
  • The pallets are composed into a single runtime by way of the construct_runtime! macro, which is part of the core FRAME Support library.

Pallets

The runtime in this project is constructed using many FRAME pallets that ship with the core Substrate repository and a template pallet that is defined in the pallets directory.

A FRAME pallet is compromised of a number of blockchain primitives:

  • Storage: FRAME defines a rich set of powerful storage abstractions that makes it easy to use Substrate's efficient key-value database to manage the evolving state of a blockchain.
  • Dispatchables: FRAME pallets define special types of functions that can be invoked (dispatched) from outside of the runtime in order to update its state.
  • Events: Substrate uses events to notify users of important changes in the runtime.b
  • Errors: When a dispatchable fails, it returns an error.
  • Config: The Config configuration interface is used to define the types and parameters upon which a FRAME pallet depends.

Run in Docker

First, install Docker and Docker Compose.

Then run the following command to start a single node development chain.

./scripts/docker_run.sh

This command will firstly compile your code, and then start a local development network. You can also replace the default command (cargo build --release && ./target/release/node-template --dev --ws-external) by appending your own. A few useful ones are as follow.

# Run Substrate node without re-compiling
./scripts/docker_run.sh ./target/release/node-template --dev --ws-external

# Purge the local dev chain
./scripts/docker_run.sh ./target/release/node-template purge-chain --dev

Now that you have two relay chain nodes, and a parachain node accompanied with a relay chain light
client running, the next step is to register the parachain in the relay chain with the following
steps (for detail, refer to the [Substrate Cumulus Worship](https://substrate.dev/cumulus-workshop/#/en/3-parachains/2-register)):

-   Goto [Polkadot Apps UI](https://polkadot.js.org/apps/#/explorer), connecting to your relay chain.

-   Execute a sudo extrinsic on the relay chain by going to `Developer` -> `sudo` page.

-   Pick `paraSudoWrapper` -> `sudoScheduleParaInitialize(id, genesis)` as the extrinsic type,
    shown below.

        ![Polkadot Apps UI](docs/assets/ss01.png)

-   Set the `id: ParaId` to 2,000 (or whatever ParaId you used above), and set the `parachain: Bool`
    option to **Yes**.

-   For the `genesisHead`, drag the genesis state file exported above, `para-2000-genesis`, in.

-   For the `validationCode`, drag the genesis wasm file exported above, `para-2000-wasm`, in.

> **Note**: When registering to the public Rococo testnet, ensure you set a **unique** `paraId`
> larger than 1,000. Values below 1,000 are reserved _exclusively_ for system parachains.

### Restart the Parachain (Collator)

The collator node may need to be restarted to get it functioning as expected. After a
[new epoch](https://wiki.polkadot.network/docs/en/glossary#epoch) starts on the relay chain,
your parachain will come online. Once this happens, you should see the collator start
reporting _parachain_ blocks:

```bash
# Notice the relay epoch change! Only then do we start parachain collating!
#
2021-05-30 17:00:04 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #30 (0xfc02…2a2a), finalized #28 (0x10ff…6539), ⬇ 1.0kiB/s ⬆ 0.3kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:04 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] 👶 New epoch 3 launching at block 0x68bc…0605 (block slot 270402601 >= start slot 270402601).
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] 👶 Next epoch starts at slot 270402611
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #31 (0x68bc…0605)
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x68bcc93d24a31a2c89800a56c7a2b275fe9ca7bd63f829b64588ae0d99280605 at=0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🙌 Starting consensus session on top of parent 0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🎁 Prepared block for proposing at 1 [hash: 0xf6507812bf60bf53af1311f775aac03869be870df6b0406b2969784d0935cb92; parent_hash: 0xd42b…f271; extrinsics (2): [0x1bf5…1d76, 0x7c9b…4e23]]
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🔖 Pre-sealed block for proposal at 1. Hash now 0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae, previously 0xf6507812bf60bf53af1311f775aac03869be870df6b0406b2969784d0935cb92.
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] ✨ Imported #1 (0x80fc…ccae)
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] Produced proof-of-validity candidate. block_hash=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:09 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #31 (0x68bc…0605), finalized #29 (0xa6fa…9e16), ⬇ 1.2kiB/s ⬆ 129.9kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:09 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #32 (0x5e92…ba30)
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] Moving approval window from session 0..=2 to 0..=3
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #32 (0x8144…74eb)
2021-05-30 17:00:14 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #32 (0x5e92…ba30), finalized #29 (0xa6fa…9e16), ⬇ 1.4kiB/s ⬆ 0.2kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:14 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:18 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #33 (0x8c30…9ccd)
2021-05-30 17:00:18 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x8c30ce9e6e9867824eb2aff40148ac1ed64cf464f51c5f2574013b44b20f9ccd at=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:19 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), finalized #30 (0xfc02…2a2a), ⬇ 0.7kiB/s ⬆ 0.4kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:19 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Applying authority set change scheduled at block #31
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Applying GRANDPA set change to new set [(Public(88dc3417d5058ec4b4503e0c12ea1a0a89be200fe98922423d4334014fa6b0ee (5FA9nQDV...)), 1), (Public(d17c2d7823ebf260fd138f2d7e27d114c0145d968b5ff5006125f2414fadae69 (5GoNkf6W...)), 1)]
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Imported justification for block #31 that triggers command Changing authorities, signaling voter.
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #34 (0x211b…febf)
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x211b3c53bebeff8af05e8f283d59fe171b7f91a5bf9c4669d88943f5a42bfebf at=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🙌 Starting consensus session on top of parent 0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🎁 Prepared block for proposing at 2 [hash: 0x10fcb3180e966729c842d1b0c4d8d2c4028cfa8bef02b909af5ef787e6a6a694; parent_hash: 0x80fc…ccae; extrinsics (2): [0x4a6c…1fc6, 0x6b84…7cea]]
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🔖 Pre-sealed block for proposal at 2. Hash now 0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0, previously 0x10fcb3180e966729c842d1b0c4d8d2c4028cfa8bef02b909af5ef787e6a6a694.
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] ✨ Imported #2 (0x5087…b5a0)
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] Produced proof-of-validity candidate. block_hash=0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #34 (0x211b…febf), finalized #31 (0x68bc…0605), ⬇ 1.0kiB/s ⬆ 130.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:29 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #34 (0x211b…febf), finalized #32 (0x5e92…ba30), ⬇ 0.2kiB/s ⬆ 0.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:29 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:30 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #35 (0xee07…38a0)
2021-05-30 17:00:34 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #35 (0xee07…38a0), finalized #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), ⬇ 0.9kiB/s ⬆ 0.3kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:34 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #1 (0x80fc…ccae), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:36 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #36 (0xe8ce…4af6)
2021-05-30 17:00:36 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0xe8cec8015c0c7bf508bf3f2f82b1696e9cca078e814b0f6671f0b0d5dfe84af6 at=0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0
2021-05-30 17:00:39 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #36 (0xe8ce…4af6), finalized #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), ⬇ 0.6kiB/s ⬆ 0.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:39 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #2 (0x5087…b5a0), finalized #1 (0x80fc…ccae), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0

Note the delay here! It may take some time for your relay chain to enter a new epoch.

Rococo & Westend Relay Chain Testnets

Is this Cumulus Parachain Template Rococo & Westend testnets compatible? Yes!

  • Rococo is the testnet of Kusama (join the Rococo Faucet to get testing funds).
  • Westend is the testnet of Polkadot (join the Westend Faucet to get testing funds).

See the Cumulus Workshop for the latest instructions to register a parathread/parachain on a relay chain.

NOTE: When running the relay chain and parachain, you must use the same tagged version of Polkadot and Cumulus so the collator would register successfully to the relay chain. You should test locally registering your parachain successfully before attempting to connect to any running relay chain network!

Find chainspec files to connect to live networks here. You want to be sure to use the correct git release tag in these files, as they change from time to time and must match the live network!

These networks are under constant development - so please follow the progress and update of your parachains in lock step with the testnet changes if you wish to connect to the network. Do join the Parachain Technical matrix chat room to ask questions and connect with the parachain building teams.

Learn More

  • More detailed instructions to use Cumulus parachains are found in the Cumulus Workshop.
  • Refer to the upstream Substrate Node Template to learn more about the structure of this project, the capabilities it encapsulates and the way in which those capabilities are implemented.
  • Learn more about how a parachain block is added to a finalized chain here.

Download Details:
Author: paritytech
Source Code: https://github.com/paritytech/adz
License: Unlicense License

#blockchain  #polkadot  #smartcontract  #substrate 

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

Adz Demoe for Polkadot Written in Rust

Serde Rust: Serialization Framework for Rust

Serde

*Serde is a framework for serializing and deserializing Rust data structures efficiently and generically.*

You may be looking for:

Serde in action

Click to show Cargo.toml. Run this code in the playground.

[dependencies]

# The core APIs, including the Serialize and Deserialize traits. Always
# required when using Serde. The "derive" feature is only required when
# using #[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)] to make Serde work with structs
# and enums defined in your crate.
serde = { version = "1.0", features = ["derive"] }

# Each data format lives in its own crate; the sample code below uses JSON
# but you may be using a different one.
serde_json = "1.0"

 

use serde::{Serialize, Deserialize};

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize, Debug)]
struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,
}

fn main() {
    let point = Point { x: 1, y: 2 };

    // Convert the Point to a JSON string.
    let serialized = serde_json::to_string(&point).unwrap();

    // Prints serialized = {"x":1,"y":2}
    println!("serialized = {}", serialized);

    // Convert the JSON string back to a Point.
    let deserialized: Point = serde_json::from_str(&serialized).unwrap();

    // Prints deserialized = Point { x: 1, y: 2 }
    println!("deserialized = {:?}", deserialized);
}

Getting help

Serde is one of the most widely used Rust libraries so any place that Rustaceans congregate will be able to help you out. For chat, consider trying the #rust-questions or #rust-beginners channels of the unofficial community Discord (invite: https://discord.gg/rust-lang-community), the #rust-usage or #beginners channels of the official Rust Project Discord (invite: https://discord.gg/rust-lang), or the #general stream in Zulip. For asynchronous, consider the [rust] tag on StackOverflow, the /r/rust subreddit which has a pinned weekly easy questions post, or the Rust Discourse forum. It's acceptable to file a support issue in this repo but they tend not to get as many eyes as any of the above and may get closed without a response after some time.

Download Details:
Author: serde-rs
Source Code: https://github.com/serde-rs/serde
License: View license

#rust  #rustlang 

Identicon Implementation in Rust for Polkadot

Crate plot_icon

Overview

This is a lib crate for generating standard 19-circle icons in png and in svg format.

Output is Vec<u8> png data, or svg::Document with svg data, both could be easily printed into files.

The identicon color scheme and elements arrangement follow the published javascript code for polkadot identicon generation. This crate is intended mainly for use by Signer.

Input

Identicon is generated for &[u8] input slice. During identicon generation, this input slice gets hashed, therefore, any length would be acceptable.

Typical input slice is a public key. Public key is often encountered as a hexadecimal string (d43593c715fdd31c61141abd04a99fd6822c8558854ccde39a5684e7a56da27d) or as a base58 network-specific string (5GrwvaEF5zXb26Fz9rcQpDWS57CtERHpNehXCPcNoHGKutQY), both could be easily transformed into &[u8] input.

Crate also supports generation of identicon-like images with user-provided colors in RGBA format.

PNG

Signer uses images in png format, since svg format is not sufficiently supported on devices side and might be non-deterministic. Therefore, this crate sticks mostly to png generation. Feature "pix" (enabled by default) enables generation of png images.

Function generate_png produces png data for identicon, and requires:

  • &[u8] slice
  • target image size in pixels (u16)
    png images are generated pixel-by-pixel, and the quality of final image is determined by the image size. Each png pixel (with integer coordinates) falling within the identicon circle element (with float circle parameters) gets the color of the circle. Below certain image size (approximately 100 pix) the circles become too pixelated. Also, images with even number of pixels size are off-centered by a pixel.

Signer needs small png identicon icons. Exact parameters are yet TBD (at the moment, identicons are 30 pix and device-independent), however, the straightforward approach with generate_png does not produce acceptable results.

Possible solution is to generate larger identicon and then scale it down in Signer frontend, but it was noticed that the scaling results (pixelation, color distribution) are device-dependent and although a minor thing, it should definitely be avoided in identicon.

To generate reproducible small identicons, the rescaling is performed within the crate. A larger png is generated, and then scaled down to originally desired size. This procedure results in both less pixelated circles and compensated off-centering.

Function generate_png_scaled_custom performs the scaling with custom parameters, and requires:

  • &[u8] slice
  • target identicon size in pixels (u8 - it is for small identicons, after all)
  • scaling factor (u8), how much larger the larger png actually is
  • filter (FilterType) used for image resize

The scaling factor reasonable values are in range [4..=8], below it the pixelation persists, above it the images are not visibly improving anymore, and may even seem blurry.

All filters produce reasonable results, except FilterType::Nearest that yields visibly distorted images and therefore is not recommended.

Function generate_png_scaled_default performs the scaling with default scaling parameters (scaling factor 5 and filter FilterType::Lanczos3) for image with default Signer identicon size (30 pix), and requires only:

  • &[u8] slice
    If somehow the generation of the identicon fails, function outputs default-sized (30x30) transparent png image, i.e. it never produces an error.

Function generate_png_with_colors is similar to generate_png, but accepts identicon colors directly, and does not generate color set itself. This is intended mainly for tests. Function generate_png_with_colors requires:

  • [[u8; 4]; 19] 19-element set of colors in RGBA format
  • target image size in pixels (u16)

Function generate_png_scaled_custom_with_colors is similar to generate_png_scaled_custom, but accepts identicon colors directly, and does not generate color set itself. This is intended mainly for tests. Function generate_png_scaled_custom_with_colors requires:

  • [[u8; 4]; 19] 19-element set of colors in RGBA format
  • target identicon size in pixels (u8)
  • scaling factor (u8)
  • filter (FilterType) used for image resize

SVG

Feature "vec" (enabled by default) enables infallible generation of identicon pictures in svg format. Since svg is a vector format, no image size parameters are needed.

Function generate_svg reqires only &[u8] input slice.

Function generate_svg_with_colors uses pre-set colors and is intended mainly for tests. It requires only the color set ([[u8; 4]; 19] 19-element set of colors in RGBA format).

Tests and Examples

Tests in colors.rs module check if the color sets calculated for Alice and Bob are identical to the colors in the corresponding well-known icons.

Doc tests in lib.rs produce various test pics, both png (through different functions and parameters) and svg.

Notes

There are several uncertainties about how the original published code was designed to work, those should be clarified, eventually.

For example, calculated HSL color saturation could range 30..109, and is processed as percents. Crate palette (currently used here) processes saturation values over 100 as percents over 100, and gives some results (slightly different from results for 100% saturation), but it is necessary to check if the calculations in js and here are matching.

See details in code comments.

Download Details:
Author: paritytech
Source Code: https://github.com/paritytech/polkadot-identicon-rust
License: Apache-2.0 License

#blockchain #rust  #polkadot  #smartcontract  #substrate #rust 

Awesome  Rust

Awesome Rust

1654894080

Serde JSON: JSON Support for Serde Framework

Serde JSON

Serde is a framework for serializing and deserializing Rust data structures efficiently and generically.

[dependencies]
serde_json = "1.0"

You may be looking for:

JSON is a ubiquitous open-standard format that uses human-readable text to transmit data objects consisting of key-value pairs.

{
    "name": "John Doe",
    "age": 43,
    "address": {
        "street": "10 Downing Street",
        "city": "London"
    },
    "phones": [
        "+44 1234567",
        "+44 2345678"
    ]
}

There are three common ways that you might find yourself needing to work with JSON data in Rust.

  • As text data. An unprocessed string of JSON data that you receive on an HTTP endpoint, read from a file, or prepare to send to a remote server.
  • As an untyped or loosely typed representation. Maybe you want to check that some JSON data is valid before passing it on, but without knowing the structure of what it contains. Or you want to do very basic manipulations like insert a key in a particular spot.
  • As a strongly typed Rust data structure. When you expect all or most of your data to conform to a particular structure and want to get real work done without JSON's loosey-goosey nature tripping you up.

Serde JSON provides efficient, flexible, safe ways of converting data between each of these representations.

Operating on untyped JSON values

Any valid JSON data can be manipulated in the following recursive enum representation. This data structure is serde_json::Value.

enum Value {
    Null,
    Bool(bool),
    Number(Number),
    String(String),
    Array(Vec<Value>),
    Object(Map<String, Value>),
}

A string of JSON data can be parsed into a serde_json::Value by the serde_json::from_str function. There is also from_slice for parsing from a byte slice &[u8] and from_reader for parsing from any io::Read like a File or a TCP stream.

use serde_json::{Result, Value};

fn untyped_example() -> Result<()> {
    // Some JSON input data as a &str. Maybe this comes from the user.
    let data = r#"
        {
            "name": "John Doe",
            "age": 43,
            "phones": [
                "+44 1234567",
                "+44 2345678"
            ]
        }"#;

    // Parse the string of data into serde_json::Value.
    let v: Value = serde_json::from_str(data)?;

    // Access parts of the data by indexing with square brackets.
    println!("Please call {} at the number {}", v["name"], v["phones"][0]);

    Ok(())
}

The result of square bracket indexing like v["name"] is a borrow of the data at that index, so the type is &Value. A JSON map can be indexed with string keys, while a JSON array can be indexed with integer keys. If the type of the data is not right for the type with which it is being indexed, or if a map does not contain the key being indexed, or if the index into a vector is out of bounds, the returned element is Value::Null.

When a Value is printed, it is printed as a JSON string. So in the code above, the output looks like Please call "John Doe" at the number "+44 1234567". The quotation marks appear because v["name"] is a &Value containing a JSON string and its JSON representation is "John Doe". Printing as a plain string without quotation marks involves converting from a JSON string to a Rust string with as_str() or avoiding the use of Value as described in the following section.

The Value representation is sufficient for very basic tasks but can be tedious to work with for anything more significant. Error handling is verbose to implement correctly, for example imagine trying to detect the presence of unrecognized fields in the input data. The compiler is powerless to help you when you make a mistake, for example imagine typoing v["name"] as v["nmae"] in one of the dozens of places it is used in your code.

Parsing JSON as strongly typed data structures

Serde provides a powerful way of mapping JSON data into Rust data structures largely automatically.

use serde::{Deserialize, Serialize};
use serde_json::Result;

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
struct Person {
    name: String,
    age: u8,
    phones: Vec<String>,
}

fn typed_example() -> Result<()> {
    // Some JSON input data as a &str. Maybe this comes from the user.
    let data = r#"
        {
            "name": "John Doe",
            "age": 43,
            "phones": [
                "+44 1234567",
                "+44 2345678"
            ]
        }"#;

    // Parse the string of data into a Person object. This is exactly the
    // same function as the one that produced serde_json::Value above, but
    // now we are asking it for a Person as output.
    let p: Person = serde_json::from_str(data)?;

    // Do things just like with any other Rust data structure.
    println!("Please call {} at the number {}", p.name, p.phones[0]);

    Ok(())
}

This is the same serde_json::from_str function as before, but this time we assign the return value to a variable of type Person so Serde will automatically interpret the input data as a Person and produce informative error messages if the layout does not conform to what a Person is expected to look like.

Any type that implements Serde's Deserialize trait can be deserialized this way. This includes built-in Rust standard library types like Vec<T> and HashMap<K, V>, as well as any structs or enums annotated with #[derive(Deserialize)].

Once we have p of type Person, our IDE and the Rust compiler can help us use it correctly like they do for any other Rust code. The IDE can autocomplete field names to prevent typos, which was impossible in the serde_json::Value representation. And the Rust compiler can check that when we write p.phones[0], then p.phones is guaranteed to be a Vec<String> so indexing into it makes sense and produces a String.

The necessary setup for using Serde's derive macros is explained on the Using derive page of the Serde site.

Constructing JSON values

Serde JSON provides a json! macro to build serde_json::Value objects with very natural JSON syntax.

use serde_json::json;

fn main() {
    // The type of `john` is `serde_json::Value`
    let john = json!({
        "name": "John Doe",
        "age": 43,
        "phones": [
            "+44 1234567",
            "+44 2345678"
        ]
    });

    println!("first phone number: {}", john["phones"][0]);

    // Convert to a string of JSON and print it out
    println!("{}", john.to_string());
}

The Value::to_string() function converts a serde_json::Value into a String of JSON text.

One neat thing about the json! macro is that variables and expressions can be interpolated directly into the JSON value as you are building it. Serde will check at compile time that the value you are interpolating is able to be represented as JSON.

let full_name = "John Doe";
let age_last_year = 42;

// The type of `john` is `serde_json::Value`
let john = json!({
    "name": full_name,
    "age": age_last_year + 1,
    "phones": [
        format!("+44 {}", random_phone())
    ]
});

This is amazingly convenient, but we have the problem we had before with Value: the IDE and Rust compiler cannot help us if we get it wrong. Serde JSON provides a better way of serializing strongly-typed data structures into JSON text.

Creating JSON by serializing data structures

A data structure can be converted to a JSON string by serde_json::to_string. There is also serde_json::to_vec which serializes to a Vec<u8> and serde_json::to_writer which serializes to any io::Write such as a File or a TCP stream.

use serde::{Deserialize, Serialize};
use serde_json::Result;

#[derive(Serialize, Deserialize)]
struct Address {
    street: String,
    city: String,
}

fn print_an_address() -> Result<()> {
    // Some data structure.
    let address = Address {
        street: "10 Downing Street".to_owned(),
        city: "London".to_owned(),
    };

    // Serialize it to a JSON string.
    let j = serde_json::to_string(&address)?;

    // Print, write to a file, or send to an HTTP server.
    println!("{}", j);

    Ok(())
}

Any type that implements Serde's Serialize trait can be serialized this way. This includes built-in Rust standard library types like Vec<T> and HashMap<K, V>, as well as any structs or enums annotated with #[derive(Serialize)].

Performance

It is fast. You should expect in the ballpark of 500 to 1000 megabytes per second deserialization and 600 to 900 megabytes per second serialization, depending on the characteristics of your data. This is competitive with the fastest C and C++ JSON libraries or even 30% faster for many use cases. Benchmarks live in the serde-rs/json-benchmark repo.

Getting help

Serde is one of the most widely used Rust libraries, so any place that Rustaceans congregate will be able to help you out. For chat, consider trying the #rust-questions or #rust-beginners channels of the unofficial community Discord (invite: https://discord.gg/rust-lang-community), the #rust-usage or #beginners channels of the official Rust Project Discord (invite: https://discord.gg/rust-lang), or the #general stream in Zulip. For asynchronous, consider the [rust] tag on StackOverflow, the /r/rust subreddit which has a pinned weekly easy questions post, or the Rust Discourse forum. It's acceptable to file a support issue in this repo, but they tend not to get as many eyes as any of the above and may get closed without a response after some time.

No-std support

As long as there is a memory allocator, it is possible to use serde_json without the rest of the Rust standard library. This is supported on Rust 1.36+. Disable the default "std" feature and enable the "alloc" feature:

[dependencies]
serde_json = { version = "1.0", default-features = false, features = ["alloc"] }

For JSON support in Serde without a memory allocator, please see the serde-json-core crate.

Link: https://crates.io/crates/serde_json

#rust  #rustlang  #encode   #json 

Adz Demoe for Polkadot Written in Rust

TLDR

Build

cargo build

Run Local Chain

./target/debug/node-template --dev --tmp

Build Chain Spec

./target/debug/node-template build-spec

Adz Demoe

Using Nix

Install nix and optionally direnv and lorri for a fully plug and play experience for setting up the development environment. To get all the correct dependencies activate direnv direnv allow and lorri lorri shell.

Rust Setup

First, complete the basic Rust setup instructions.

Run

Use Rust's native cargo command to build and launch the template node:

cargo run --release -- --dev --tmp

Build

The cargo run command will perform an initial build. Use the following command to build the node without launching it:

cargo build --release

NOTE: You must use the release builds for parachains! The optimizations here are required as in debug mode, it is expected that nodes are not able to run fast enough to produce blocks.

Relay Chain

NOTE: In the following two sections, we document how to manually start a few relay chain nodes, start a parachain node (collator), and register the parachain with the relay chain.

We also have the polkadot-launch CLI tool that automate the following steps and help you easily launch relay chains and parachains. However it is still good to go through the following procedures once to understand the mechanism for running and registering a parachain.

Once the project has been built, the following command can be used to explore all parameters and subcommands:

./target/release/node-template -h

Run

The provided cargo run command will launch a temporary node and its state will be discarded after you terminate the process. After the project has been built, there are other ways to launch the node.

Single-Node Development Chain

This command will start the single-node development chain with persistent state:

./target/release/node-template --dev

Start Relay Chain

We need n + 1 full validator nodes running on a relay chain to accept n parachain / parathread connections. Here we will start two relay chain nodes so we can have one parachain node connecting in later.

From the Polkadot working directory:

./target/release/node-template purge-chain --dev

Start the development chain with detailed logging:

RUST_LOG=debug RUST_BACKTRACE=1 ./target/release/node-template -lruntime=debug --dev

Connect with Polkadot-JS Apps Front-end

To connect to a relay chain, you must first _reserve a ParaId for your parathread that will become a parachain. To do this, you will need sufficient amount of currency on the network account to reserve the ID.

Multi-Node Local Testnet

If you want to see the multi-node consensus algorithm in action, refer to our Start a Private Network tutorial.

Template Structure

A Substrate project such as this consists of a number of components that are spread across a few directories.

Node

A blockchain node is an application that allows users to participate in a blockchain network. Substrate-based blockchain nodes expose a number of capabilities:

  • Networking: Substrate nodes use the libp2p networking stack to allow the nodes in the network to communicate with one another.
  • Consensus: Blockchains must have a way to come to consensus on the state of the network. Substrate makes it possible to supply custom consensus engines and also ships with several consensus mechanisms that have been built on top of Web3 Foundation research.
  • RPC Server: A remote procedure call (RPC) server is used to interact with Substrate nodes.

There are several files in the node directory - take special note of the following:

  • chain_spec.rs: A chain specification is a source code file that defines a Substrate chain's initial (genesis) state. Chain specifications are useful for development and testing, and critical when architecting the launch of a production chain. Take note of the development_config and testnet_genesis functions, which are used to define the genesis state for the local development chain configuration. These functions identify some well-known accounts and use them to configure the blockchain's initial state.
  • service.rs: This file defines the node implementation. Take note of the libraries that this file imports and the names of the functions it invokes. In particular, there are references to consensus-related topics, such as the longest chain rule, the Aura block authoring mechanism and the GRANDPA finality gadget.

After the node has been built, refer to the embedded documentation to learn more about the capabilities and configuration parameters that it exposes:

./target/release/node-template --help

Runtime

In Substrate, the terms "runtime" and "state transition function" are analogous - they refer to the core logic of the blockchain that is responsible for validating blocks and executing the state changes they define. The Substrate project in this repository uses the FRAME framework to construct a blockchain runtime. FRAME allows runtime developers to declare domain-specific logic in modules called "pallets". At the heart of FRAME is a helpful macro language that makes it easy to create pallets and flexibly compose them to create blockchains that can address a variety of needs.

Review the FRAME runtime implementation included in this template and note the following:

  • This file configures several pallets to include in the runtime. Each pallet configuration is defined by a code block that begins with impl $PALLET_NAME::Config for Runtime.
  • The pallets are composed into a single runtime by way of the construct_runtime! macro, which is part of the core FRAME Support library.

Pallets

The runtime in this project is constructed using many FRAME pallets that ship with the core Substrate repository and a template pallet that is defined in the pallets directory.

A FRAME pallet is compromised of a number of blockchain primitives:

  • Storage: FRAME defines a rich set of powerful storage abstractions that makes it easy to use Substrate's efficient key-value database to manage the evolving state of a blockchain.
  • Dispatchables: FRAME pallets define special types of functions that can be invoked (dispatched) from outside of the runtime in order to update its state.
  • Events: Substrate uses events to notify users of important changes in the runtime.b
  • Errors: When a dispatchable fails, it returns an error.
  • Config: The Config configuration interface is used to define the types and parameters upon which a FRAME pallet depends.

Run in Docker

First, install Docker and Docker Compose.

Then run the following command to start a single node development chain.

./scripts/docker_run.sh

This command will firstly compile your code, and then start a local development network. You can also replace the default command (cargo build --release && ./target/release/node-template --dev --ws-external) by appending your own. A few useful ones are as follow.

# Run Substrate node without re-compiling
./scripts/docker_run.sh ./target/release/node-template --dev --ws-external

# Purge the local dev chain
./scripts/docker_run.sh ./target/release/node-template purge-chain --dev

Now that you have two relay chain nodes, and a parachain node accompanied with a relay chain light
client running, the next step is to register the parachain in the relay chain with the following
steps (for detail, refer to the [Substrate Cumulus Worship](https://substrate.dev/cumulus-workshop/#/en/3-parachains/2-register)):

-   Goto [Polkadot Apps UI](https://polkadot.js.org/apps/#/explorer), connecting to your relay chain.

-   Execute a sudo extrinsic on the relay chain by going to `Developer` -> `sudo` page.

-   Pick `paraSudoWrapper` -> `sudoScheduleParaInitialize(id, genesis)` as the extrinsic type,
    shown below.

        ![Polkadot Apps UI](docs/assets/ss01.png)

-   Set the `id: ParaId` to 2,000 (or whatever ParaId you used above), and set the `parachain: Bool`
    option to **Yes**.

-   For the `genesisHead`, drag the genesis state file exported above, `para-2000-genesis`, in.

-   For the `validationCode`, drag the genesis wasm file exported above, `para-2000-wasm`, in.

> **Note**: When registering to the public Rococo testnet, ensure you set a **unique** `paraId`
> larger than 1,000. Values below 1,000 are reserved _exclusively_ for system parachains.

### Restart the Parachain (Collator)

The collator node may need to be restarted to get it functioning as expected. After a
[new epoch](https://wiki.polkadot.network/docs/en/glossary#epoch) starts on the relay chain,
your parachain will come online. Once this happens, you should see the collator start
reporting _parachain_ blocks:

```bash
# Notice the relay epoch change! Only then do we start parachain collating!
#
2021-05-30 17:00:04 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #30 (0xfc02…2a2a), finalized #28 (0x10ff…6539), ⬇ 1.0kiB/s ⬆ 0.3kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:04 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] 👶 New epoch 3 launching at block 0x68bc…0605 (block slot 270402601 >= start slot 270402601).
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] 👶 Next epoch starts at slot 270402611
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #31 (0x68bc…0605)
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x68bcc93d24a31a2c89800a56c7a2b275fe9ca7bd63f829b64588ae0d99280605 at=0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🙌 Starting consensus session on top of parent 0xd42bb78354bc21770e3f0930ed45c7377558d2d8e81ca4d457e573128aabf271
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🎁 Prepared block for proposing at 1 [hash: 0xf6507812bf60bf53af1311f775aac03869be870df6b0406b2969784d0935cb92; parent_hash: 0xd42b…f271; extrinsics (2): [0x1bf5…1d76, 0x7c9b…4e23]]
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] 🔖 Pre-sealed block for proposal at 1. Hash now 0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae, previously 0xf6507812bf60bf53af1311f775aac03869be870df6b0406b2969784d0935cb92.
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] ✨ Imported #1 (0x80fc…ccae)
2021-05-30 17:00:06 [Parachain] Produced proof-of-validity candidate. block_hash=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:09 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #31 (0x68bc…0605), finalized #29 (0xa6fa…9e16), ⬇ 1.2kiB/s ⬆ 129.9kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:09 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #32 (0x5e92…ba30)
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] Moving approval window from session 0..=2 to 0..=3
2021-05-30 17:00:12 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #32 (0x8144…74eb)
2021-05-30 17:00:14 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #32 (0x5e92…ba30), finalized #29 (0xa6fa…9e16), ⬇ 1.4kiB/s ⬆ 0.2kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:14 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #0 (0xd42b…f271), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:18 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #33 (0x8c30…9ccd)
2021-05-30 17:00:18 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x8c30ce9e6e9867824eb2aff40148ac1ed64cf464f51c5f2574013b44b20f9ccd at=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:19 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), finalized #30 (0xfc02…2a2a), ⬇ 0.7kiB/s ⬆ 0.4kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:19 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Applying authority set change scheduled at block #31
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Applying GRANDPA set change to new set [(Public(88dc3417d5058ec4b4503e0c12ea1a0a89be200fe98922423d4334014fa6b0ee (5FA9nQDV...)), 1), (Public(d17c2d7823ebf260fd138f2d7e27d114c0145d968b5ff5006125f2414fadae69 (5GoNkf6W...)), 1)]
2021-05-30 17:00:22 [Relaychain] 👴 Imported justification for block #31 that triggers command Changing authorities, signaling voter.
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #34 (0x211b…febf)
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0x211b3c53bebeff8af05e8f283d59fe171b7f91a5bf9c4669d88943f5a42bfebf at=0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🙌 Starting consensus session on top of parent 0x80fc151d7ccf228b802525022b6de257e42388ec7dc3c1dd7de491313650ccae
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🎁 Prepared block for proposing at 2 [hash: 0x10fcb3180e966729c842d1b0c4d8d2c4028cfa8bef02b909af5ef787e6a6a694; parent_hash: 0x80fc…ccae; extrinsics (2): [0x4a6c…1fc6, 0x6b84…7cea]]
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 🔖 Pre-sealed block for proposal at 2. Hash now 0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0, previously 0x10fcb3180e966729c842d1b0c4d8d2c4028cfa8bef02b909af5ef787e6a6a694.
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] ✨ Imported #2 (0x5087…b5a0)
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] Produced proof-of-validity candidate. block_hash=0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #34 (0x211b…febf), finalized #31 (0x68bc…0605), ⬇ 1.0kiB/s ⬆ 130.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:24 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:29 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #34 (0x211b…febf), finalized #32 (0x5e92…ba30), ⬇ 0.2kiB/s ⬆ 0.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:29 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #0 (0xd42b…f271), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:30 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #35 (0xee07…38a0)
2021-05-30 17:00:34 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #35 (0xee07…38a0), finalized #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), ⬇ 0.9kiB/s ⬆ 0.3kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:34 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #1 (0x80fc…ccae), finalized #1 (0x80fc…ccae), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0
2021-05-30 17:00:36 [Relaychain] ✨ Imported #36 (0xe8ce…4af6)
2021-05-30 17:00:36 [Parachain] Starting collation. relay_parent=0xe8cec8015c0c7bf508bf3f2f82b1696e9cca078e814b0f6671f0b0d5dfe84af6 at=0x5087fd06b1b73d90cfc3ad175df8495b378fffbb02fea212cc9e49a00fd8b5a0
2021-05-30 17:00:39 [Relaychain] 💤 Idle (2 peers), best: #36 (0xe8ce…4af6), finalized #33 (0x8c30…9ccd), ⬇ 0.6kiB/s ⬆ 0.1kiB/s
2021-05-30 17:00:39 [Parachain] 💤 Idle (0 peers), best: #2 (0x5087…b5a0), finalized #1 (0x80fc…ccae), ⬇ 0 ⬆ 0

Note the delay here! It may take some time for your relay chain to enter a new epoch.

Rococo & Westend Relay Chain Testnets

Is this Cumulus Parachain Template Rococo & Westend testnets compatible? Yes!

  • Rococo is the testnet of Kusama (join the Rococo Faucet to get testing funds).
  • Westend is the testnet of Polkadot (join the Westend Faucet to get testing funds).

See the Cumulus Workshop for the latest instructions to register a parathread/parachain on a relay chain.

NOTE: When running the relay chain and parachain, you must use the same tagged version of Polkadot and Cumulus so the collator would register successfully to the relay chain. You should test locally registering your parachain successfully before attempting to connect to any running relay chain network!

Find chainspec files to connect to live networks here. You want to be sure to use the correct git release tag in these files, as they change from time to time and must match the live network!

These networks are under constant development - so please follow the progress and update of your parachains in lock step with the testnet changes if you wish to connect to the network. Do join the Parachain Technical matrix chat room to ask questions and connect with the parachain building teams.

Learn More

  • More detailed instructions to use Cumulus parachains are found in the Cumulus Workshop.
  • Refer to the upstream Substrate Node Template to learn more about the structure of this project, the capabilities it encapsulates and the way in which those capabilities are implemented.
  • Learn more about how a parachain block is added to a finalized chain here.

Download Details:
Author: paritytech
Source Code: https://github.com/paritytech/adz
License: Unlicense License

#blockchain  #polkadot  #smartcontract  #substrate 

aaron silva

aaron silva

1620795530

Polkadot Development | Polkadot Development Services | Polkadot Development Platform |

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  • Parachains on the Polkadot network can adopt a suitable governance model for accessing pre-built modules implemented on various on-chain governance systems. The on-chain governance maintains significant transparency over para communities.
  • It is highly interoperable on the Polkadot network for experiencing complete control over their fund transactions. It enables users to engage with continuous trade with other parachains and external networks. The Polkadots cross-chain model enables traders to exchange tokens and verify credentials.
  • The Polkadot protocol is highly flexible in that each parachain can have a unique design, token and governance process for optimized use cases. The parachains are specialized in several blockchains to experience a wide range of varieties such as service for finance and identity management.

The Polkadot blockchain development is ruling the entire blockchain world with unique features that benefit users to experience fast transactions. The Polkadot network is highly scalable for transactions to spread out for it to be processed parallely over a specialized layer of blockchain. The investors can reach out to Infinite Block Tech for gaining assistance towards Polkadot development on the blockchain platform cost-effectively.

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