Alayna  Rippin

Alayna Rippin

1597330800

From ‘hi’ to $2y$10$TmNKr…: What Happened to Your Password?

Say that I decide to sign up for an account an incredibly insecure password, ‘hi’. How does this become something stored in the database like this:

$2y$10$TmNKrCzcsgVeIS/DOdQ6JeyhZUePie/yaiBQHMrN0tk4THZhgHyW6

Passwords are sequences of characters that carry your wallet, personal information, and online history. There is a tremendous need for these to be secure, not only from the user standpoint but from the website’s, in order to be legally compliant and to ensure user trust.

Image for post

For many reasons, it’s dangerous to directly store the user’s password in the database. The most obvious is that if someone else were to gain access to the database, they would be able to see everyone’s password. Many websites also use cookies, or data stored in your browser that lasts even when you leave the site, to help auto-login on your next site visit. Leaving the raw-text password in a cookie leaves it accessible to the next computer user and to sites and programs that can read cross-site cookies.

A hash is used to convert a string into another representation of the string. This purpose of a hashing function is to create an encoded version of the password such that:

  • Going from password-to-encoded (encoding) is easy (hi_there to sjiu3s9*@slajsk).
  • Going from encoded-to-password (decoding) is impossible (or, at least, very very far from easy) (sjiu3s9*@slajsk to hi_there).

Hence, even if a hacker were to access our databases, they would not be able to convert sjiu3s9*@slajsk into the real entered password, hi_there. Hashing is a difficult idea, however, in that somehow information must only be able to flow in one direction.

This is analogous to representing all of The Odyssey in five pages of text: the transformation is one-way, as it’s impossible to reconstruct The Odyssey from a five-page summary. Hence, an inherent part of hashing is the discarding of information. Because of this fact, sometimes vastly different inputted strings will have the same hash because the discarded information results in the same processed string, but by design the chance this possibility leads to some actual security threat is negligible.

Although there are many hashing functions, generally they follow a three step design. First, the password is broken into several components, which are passed into a compression function. This compression function is the part that squeezes out some information and condenses the components. Lastly, the output of the compression is encoded (represented) as a long string of characters, which can contain numbers, letters, and symbols.

Image for post

Through the controlled loss of information — which can be represented mathematically through operations like rounding or modulo, hashing creates a one-way function to secure passwords. Hashing algorithms are designed such that even small changes in the input will drastically affect the end result (the hash for ‘fox123’ is nowhere similar to the hash for ‘fox122’).

Then, instead of storing the raw password in the database, we store its hash. The next time a user logs in, we hash their input with the same algorithm and see if the hashes match. Since hashes will always yield the same result for the same inputs, we can be confident that the passwords are the same without ever storing the password in an open, vulnerable format.

Hashing greatly increases database security, but it is still vulnerable to the classic try-and-see strategy of hacking. Although hashing has made it impossible to access the raw text password directly, as long as we know which hashing algorithm is being used — nothing a reasonably good hacker can’t access — we can try millions of inputs and store their hashes, then see if any of the hashes match the ones recorded. This is the practice of building rainbow tables.

Image for post

The construction of a Rainbow Table.

Although it may seem much too manual, unfortunately people aren’t as good as creating passwords as you would hope, and many passwords are the same across accounts. Then, a hacker that has access to the database may spot a hash that is similar to the one recorded in their rainbow tables:

Image for post

Noticing that id 4 has the same hash as id 6, and that the hashes recorded are identical to that of input ‘hi’ in the rainbow table, the hacker now has access to two accounts because they know that their passwords are ‘hi’. Although this method may seem like it‘s too laborious and inefficient, many hackers are constantly building rainbow tables:

  • Efficient rainbow tables take into account the chance a password is a real password. For instance, ‘si*S&3ljksna’ is probably not a used password and not worth checking, but ‘my_Doggo_3_2020’ is.
  • A standard computer alone can check hashes for almost 600,000 passwords per second. A GPU or 3D card can perform at three times that pace, not to mention specialized systems some hackers operate on.
  • Reiterating on the point above: people suck at generating unique passwords. ‘123456’ is still used as a password by 23 million account holders, and undoubtedly there are many other common passwords. 59% of people use the same password everywhere, meaning that if a rainbow table manages to land on one account, the hacker has a good shot of successfully logging into another of your accounts on a different site.

A well-designed rainbow-table generator that has been generating for several months nonstop would have a massive dictionary, and a large portion of accounts are almost guaranteed to be matched in it.

In order to address this issue, we salt our hashes. (Hungry yet?)

Salting is a brilliant idea — it is the adding of a long string to the end of the password before it is hashed. Whenever someone’s account is created, a salt is generated, and the stored password is the hash of the password and the salt. For example, if the password was ‘hi’ and the randomly generated salt was ‘3s8S72l3’, then the stored hash would not be the hash for ‘hi’ but the hash for ‘hi3s8S72l3’. Both the salt and the hash are stored such that when a user logs in, the salt is appended to their password and the hashes are matched.

Image for post

With a salt that is sufficiently long, salting hashes can defeat rainbow tables. Rainbow tables are constructed by keeping in mind ideas for ‘common passwords’, like names, adjectives, nouns, and sequences of numbers (like dates or digits of pi), since it is impossible to search for all possible passwords as combinations of characters within a reasonable amount of time.

Think of salts as adding complexity to your password. A five-character password, with a 15-character salt, would become a password with twenty-character complexity and drastically reduce the chance that a rainbow table would contain that hash. So, technically, if you were to sign up for a site that used very heavy salting with the password ‘hi’, you would be safe.

That being said, most sites don’t spend too many resources with heavy salting because they can get long (salts can also sometimes be some function of other data, like your username or the time in which you signed up, to avoid the space required to store it), so it’s better off to follow good password guidelines for security’s sake.

#programming #coding #computer-science #technology #security

What is GEEK

Buddha Community

From ‘hi’ to $2y$10$TmNKr…: What Happened to Your Password?

Ayan Code

1656193861

Simple Login Page in HTML and CSS | Source Code

Hello guys, Today in this post we’ll learn How to Create a Simple Login Page with a fantastic design. To create it we are going to use pure CSS and HTML. Hope you enjoy this post.

A login page is one of the most important component of a website or app that allows authorized users to access an entire site or a part of a website. You would have already seen them when visiting a website. Let's head to create it.

Whether it’s a signup or login page, it should be catchy, user-friendly and easy to use. These types of Forms lead to increased sales, lead generation, and customer growth.


Demo

Click to watch demo!

Simple Login Page HTML CSS (source code)

<!DOCTYPE html>
  <html lang="en" >
  <head>
    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <link rel="stylesheet" href="https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/normalize/5.0.0/normalize.min.css">
  <link rel="stylesheet" href="styledfer.css">
  </head>

  <body>
   <div id="login-form-wrap">
    <h2>Login</h2>
    <form id="login-form">
      <p>
      <input type="email" id="email" name="email" placeholder="Email " required><i class="validation"><span></span><span></span></i>
      </p>
      <p>
      <input type="password" id="password" name="password" placeholder="Password" required><i class="validation"><span></span><span></span></i>
      </p>
      <p>
      <input type="submit" id="login" value="Login">
      </p>

      </form>
    <div id="create-account-wrap">
      <p>Don't have an accout? <a href="#">Create One</a><p>
    </div>
   </div>
    
  <script src='https://code.jquery.com/jquery-2.2.4.min.js'></script>
  <script src='https://cdnjs.cloudflare.com/ajax/libs/jquery-validate/1.15.0/jquery.validate.min.js'></script>
  </body>
</html>

CSS CODE

body {
  background-color: #020202;
  font-size: 1.6rem;
  font-family: "Open Sans", sans-serif;
  color: #2b3e51;
}
h2 {
  font-weight: 300;
  text-align: center;
}
p {
  position: relative;
}
a,
a:link,
a:visited,
a:active {
  color: #ff9100;
  -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease;
  transition: all 0.2s ease;
}
a:focus, a:hover,
a:link:focus,
a:link:hover,
a:visited:focus,
a:visited:hover,
a:active:focus,
a:active:hover {
  color: #ff9f22;
  -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease;
  transition: all 0.2s ease;
}
#login-form-wrap {
  background-color: #fff;
  width: 16em;
  margin: 30px auto;
  text-align: center;
  padding: 20px 0 0 0;
  border-radius: 4px;
  box-shadow: 0px 30px 50px 0px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.2);
}
#login-form {
  padding: 0 60px;
}
input {
  display: block;
  box-sizing: border-box;
  width: 100%;
  outline: none;
  height: 60px;
  line-height: 60px;
  border-radius: 4px;
}
#email,
#password {
  width: 100%;
  padding: 0 0 0 10px;
  margin: 0;
  color: #8a8b8e;
  border: 1px solid #c2c0ca;
  font-style: normal;
  font-size: 16px;
  -webkit-appearance: none;
     -moz-appearance: none;
          appearance: none;
  position: relative;
  display: inline-block;
  background: none;
}
#email:focus,
#password:focus {
  border-color: #3ca9e2;
}
#email:focus:invalid,
#password:focus:invalid {
  color: #cc1e2b;
  border-color: #cc1e2b;
}
#email:valid ~ .validation,
#password:valid ~ .validation 
{
  display: block;
  border-color: #0C0;
}
#email:valid ~ .validation span,
#password:valid ~ .validation span{
  background: #0C0;
  position: absolute;
  border-radius: 6px;
}
#email:valid ~ .validation span:first-child,
#password:valid ~ .validation span:first-child{
  top: 30px;
  left: 14px;
  width: 20px;
  height: 3px;
  -webkit-transform: rotate(-45deg);
          transform: rotate(-45deg);
}
#email:valid ~ .validation span:last-child
#password:valid ~ .validation span:last-child
{
  top: 35px;
  left: 8px;
  width: 11px;
  height: 3px;
  -webkit-transform: rotate(45deg);
          transform: rotate(45deg);
}
.validation {
  display: none;
  position: absolute;
  content: " ";
  height: 60px;
  width: 30px;
  right: 15px;
  top: 0px;
}
input[type="submit"] {
  border: none;
  display: block;
  background-color: #ff9100;
  color: #fff;
  font-weight: bold;
  text-transform: uppercase;
  cursor: pointer;
  -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease;
  transition: all 0.2s ease;
  font-size: 18px;
  position: relative;
  display: inline-block;
  cursor: pointer;
  text-align: center;
}
input[type="submit"]:hover {
  background-color: #ff9b17;
  -webkit-transition: all 0.2s ease;
  transition: all 0.2s ease;
}

#create-account-wrap {
  background-color: #eeedf1;
  color: #8a8b8e;
  font-size: 14px;
  width: 100%;
  padding: 10px 0;
  border-radius: 0 0 4px 4px;
}

Congratulations! You have now successfully created our Simple Login Page in HTML and CSS.

My Website: codewithayan, see this to checkout all of my amazing Tutorials.

Ethen Ellen

1616393382

Thumbs Up To New Trick of Reset Verizon Email Password

This is image title
Verizon Email is one of the most trusted email services in the entire world. It is installed with more security features and optional email services such as AOL, Outlook, Gmail or Yahoo Email. If you want to use your Verizon email account, first of all, you have to create an account. After that, you will login to your account with your username and password. Through these identities, you can access your Verizon account and enjoy all other activities provided by Verizon email.

But sometimes, If your Verizon account is hacked or blocked by someone else, you can easily login to your email account by resetting your Verizon email password. If you do not understand how to Reset Verizon Email Password. Then, you can contact Verizon Email Support Expert via a toll-free number (888-857-5157). Our experienced professionals can fix any type of issue in a few minutes.

Solutions to Reset Verizon Mail Password (Known Password)

If you remember your current password then you have to continue to process it. As well as known your login details you can follow the steps below to reset verizon mail password.

Step 1: First of all, you need to open your browser and log in to your Verizon email account.

Step 2: In the next step, you have to navigate to Account Settings from the main menu.

Step 3: After that, you have to open security settings and choose “Change Password”.

Step 4: Input your current password in the field provided.

Step 5: Finally, you will click on the next field and type in a new password for your Verizon mail account.

Once you are confirmed that your password has changed, you can close the browser and log in to your mail account using your new Verizon email password.

Solution to reset the Verizon Mail password (Forgot password)

If you need to reset your password because you do not remember your current mail password, the steps will vary as you will have to verify your identity before changing the password, you will have to reset your Verizon mail password. You can use the ‘Forgot Password’ option:

Step 1: First of all, you will go to the Verizon Mail website and click on ‘Forgot Password’.

Step 2: After that, input your username and choose the recovery method (Mail / Phone).

Step 3: Input on the mobile number associated with your Verizon mail account.

Step 4: Press ‘Yes’ to allow Verizon to send you a verification code.

Step 5: You will type a security verification code in the field provided.

Step 6: Then, press ‘Submit’ and wait for Verizon to confirm the code.

Step 7: In the last, create a new password for your Verizon account by completing the instructions on the screen.

If you encounter any problems while resetting a Verizon email password, you can call a Verizon Email Support Number (888-857-5157) and seek advice from a certified expert to resolve the issue. Experts from Verizon are available 24 * 7 hours, which will help you to fix any problems encountered using Verizon’s email account.

Source: https://sites.google.com/view/verizon-key-settings

#change verizon email password #reset verizon email password #change verizon mail password #reset verizon mail password #change verizon password #reset verizon password

How to Create Arrays in Python

In this tutorial, you'll know the basics of how to create arrays in Python using the array module. Learn how to use Python arrays. You'll see how to define them and the different methods commonly used for performing operations on them.

This tutorialvideo on 'Arrays in Python' will help you establish a strong hold on all the fundamentals in python programming language. Below are the topics covered in this video:  
1:15 What is an array?
2:53 Is python list same as an array?
3:48  How to create arrays in python?
7:19 Accessing array elements
9:59 Basic array operations
        - 10:33  Finding the length of an array
        - 11:44  Adding Elements
        - 15:06  Removing elements
        - 18:32  Array concatenation
       - 20:59  Slicing
       - 23:26  Looping  


Python Array Tutorial – Define, Index, Methods

In this article, you'll learn how to use Python arrays. You'll see how to define them and the different methods commonly used for performing operations on them.

The artcile covers arrays that you create by importing the array module. We won't cover NumPy arrays here.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction to Arrays
    1. The differences between Lists and Arrays
    2. When to use arrays
  2. How to use arrays
    1. Define arrays
    2. Find the length of arrays
    3. Array indexing
    4. Search through arrays
    5. Loop through arrays
    6. Slice an array
  3. Array methods for performing operations
    1. Change an existing value
    2. Add a new value
    3. Remove a value
  4. Conclusion

Let's get started!

What are Python Arrays?

Arrays are a fundamental data structure, and an important part of most programming languages. In Python, they are containers which are able to store more than one item at the same time.

Specifically, they are an ordered collection of elements with every value being of the same data type. That is the most important thing to remember about Python arrays - the fact that they can only hold a sequence of multiple items that are of the same type.

What's the Difference between Python Lists and Python Arrays?

Lists are one of the most common data structures in Python, and a core part of the language.

Lists and arrays behave similarly.

Just like arrays, lists are an ordered sequence of elements.

They are also mutable and not fixed in size, which means they can grow and shrink throughout the life of the program. Items can be added and removed, making them very flexible to work with.

However, lists and arrays are not the same thing.

Lists store items that are of various data types. This means that a list can contain integers, floating point numbers, strings, or any other Python data type, at the same time. That is not the case with arrays.

As mentioned in the section above, arrays store only items that are of the same single data type. There are arrays that contain only integers, or only floating point numbers, or only any other Python data type you want to use.

When to Use Python Arrays

Lists are built into the Python programming language, whereas arrays aren't. Arrays are not a built-in data structure, and therefore need to be imported via the array module in order to be used.

Arrays of the array module are a thin wrapper over C arrays, and are useful when you want to work with homogeneous data.

They are also more compact and take up less memory and space which makes them more size efficient compared to lists.

If you want to perform mathematical calculations, then you should use NumPy arrays by importing the NumPy package. Besides that, you should just use Python arrays when you really need to, as lists work in a similar way and are more flexible to work with.

How to Use Arrays in Python

In order to create Python arrays, you'll first have to import the array module which contains all the necassary functions.

There are three ways you can import the array module:

  • By using import array at the top of the file. This includes the module array. You would then go on to create an array using array.array().
import array

#how you would create an array
array.array()
  • Instead of having to type array.array() all the time, you could use import array as arr at the top of the file, instead of import array alone. You would then create an array by typing arr.array(). The arr acts as an alias name, with the array constructor then immediately following it.
import array as arr

#how you would create an array
arr.array()
  • Lastly, you could also use from array import *, with * importing all the functionalities available. You would then create an array by writing the array() constructor alone.
from array import *

#how you would create an array
array()

How to Define Arrays in Python

Once you've imported the array module, you can then go on to define a Python array.

The general syntax for creating an array looks like this:

variable_name = array(typecode,[elements])

Let's break it down:

  • variable_name would be the name of the array.
  • The typecode specifies what kind of elements would be stored in the array. Whether it would be an array of integers, an array of floats or an array of any other Python data type. Remember that all elements should be of the same data type.
  • Inside square brackets you mention the elements that would be stored in the array, with each element being separated by a comma. You can also create an empty array by just writing variable_name = array(typecode) alone, without any elements.

Below is a typecode table, with the different typecodes that can be used with the different data types when defining Python arrays:

TYPECODEC TYPEPYTHON TYPESIZE
'b'signed charint1
'B'unsigned charint1
'u'wchar_tUnicode character2
'h'signed shortint2
'H'unsigned shortint2
'i'signed intint2
'I'unsigned intint2
'l'signed longint4
'L'unsigned longint4
'q'signed long longint8
'Q'unsigned long longint8
'f'floatfloat4
'd'doublefloat8

Tying everything together, here is an example of how you would define an array in Python:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])


print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30])

Let's break it down:

  • First we included the array module, in this case with import array as arr .
  • Then, we created a numbers array.
  • We used arr.array() because of import array as arr .
  • Inside the array() constructor, we first included i, for signed integer. Signed integer means that the array can include positive and negative values. Unsigned integer, with H for example, would mean that no negative values are allowed.
  • Lastly, we included the values to be stored in the array in square brackets.

Keep in mind that if you tried to include values that were not of i typecode, meaning they were not integer values, you would get an error:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10.0,20,30])


print(numbers)

#output

#Traceback (most recent call last):
# File "/Users/dionysialemonaki/python_articles/demo.py", line 14, in <module>
#   numbers = arr.array('i',[10.0,20,30])
#TypeError: 'float' object cannot be interpreted as an integer

In the example above, I tried to include a floating point number in the array. I got an error because this is meant to be an integer array only.

Another way to create an array is the following:

from array import *

#an array of floating point values
numbers = array('d',[10.0,20.0,30.0])

print(numbers)

#output

#array('d', [10.0, 20.0, 30.0])

The example above imported the array module via from array import * and created an array numbers of float data type. This means that it holds only floating point numbers, which is specified with the 'd' typecode.

How to Find the Length of an Array in Python

To find out the exact number of elements contained in an array, use the built-in len() method.

It will return the integer number that is equal to the total number of elements in the array you specify.

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])


print(len(numbers))

#output
# 3

In the example above, the array contained three elements – 10, 20, 30 – so the length of numbers is 3.

Array Indexing and How to Access Individual Items in an Array in Python

Each item in an array has a specific address. Individual items are accessed by referencing their index number.

Indexing in Python, and in all programming languages and computing in general, starts at 0. It is important to remember that counting starts at 0 and not at 1.

To access an element, you first write the name of the array followed by square brackets. Inside the square brackets you include the item's index number.

The general syntax would look something like this:

array_name[index_value_of_item]

Here is how you would access each individual element in an array:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

print(numbers[0]) # gets the 1st element
print(numbers[1]) # gets the 2nd element
print(numbers[2]) # gets the 3rd element

#output

#10
#20
#30

Remember that the index value of the last element of an array is always one less than the length of the array. Where n is the length of the array, n - 1 will be the index value of the last item.

Note that you can also access each individual element using negative indexing.

With negative indexing, the last element would have an index of -1, the second to last element would have an index of -2, and so on.

Here is how you would get each item in an array using that method:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

print(numbers[-1]) #gets last item
print(numbers[-2]) #gets second to last item
print(numbers[-3]) #gets first item
 
#output

#30
#20
#10

How to Search Through an Array in Python

You can find out an element's index number by using the index() method.

You pass the value of the element being searched as the argument to the method, and the element's index number is returned.

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#search for the index of the value 10
print(numbers.index(10))

#output

#0

If there is more than one element with the same value, the index of the first instance of the value will be returned:

import array as arr 


numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30,10,20,30])

#search for the index of the value 10
#will return the index number of the first instance of the value 10
print(numbers.index(10))

#output

#0

How to Loop through an Array in Python

You've seen how to access each individual element in an array and print it out on its own.

You've also seen how to print the array, using the print() method. That method gives the following result:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30])

What if you want to print each value one by one?

This is where a loop comes in handy. You can loop through the array and print out each value, one-by-one, with each loop iteration.

For this you can use a simple for loop:

import array as arr 

numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

for number in numbers:
    print(number)
    
#output
#10
#20
#30

You could also use the range() function, and pass the len() method as its parameter. This would give the same result as above:

import array as arr  

values = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#prints each individual value in the array
for value in range(len(values)):
    print(values[value])

#output

#10
#20
#30

How to Slice an Array in Python

To access a specific range of values inside the array, use the slicing operator, which is a colon :.

When using the slicing operator and you only include one value, the counting starts from 0 by default. It gets the first item, and goes up to but not including the index number you specify.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#get the values 10 and 20 only
print(numbers[:2])  #first to second position

#output

#array('i', [10, 20])

When you pass two numbers as arguments, you specify a range of numbers. In this case, the counting starts at the position of the first number in the range, and up to but not including the second one:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])


#get the values 20 and 30 only
print(numbers[1:3]) #second to third position

#output

#rray('i', [20, 30])

Methods For Performing Operations on Arrays in Python

Arrays are mutable, which means they are changeable. You can change the value of the different items, add new ones, or remove any you don't want in your program anymore.

Let's see some of the most commonly used methods which are used for performing operations on arrays.

How to Change the Value of an Item in an Array

You can change the value of a specific element by speficying its position and assigning it a new value:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#change the first element
#change it from having a value of 10 to having a value of 40
numbers[0] = 40

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [40, 20, 30])

How to Add a New Value to an Array

To add one single value at the end of an array, use the append() method:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integer 40 to the end of numbers
numbers.append(40)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30, 40])

Be aware that the new item you add needs to be the same data type as the rest of the items in the array.

Look what happens when I try to add a float to an array of integers:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integer 40 to the end of numbers
numbers.append(40.0)

print(numbers)

#output

#Traceback (most recent call last):
#  File "/Users/dionysialemonaki/python_articles/demo.py", line 19, in <module>
#   numbers.append(40.0)
#TypeError: 'float' object cannot be interpreted as an integer

But what if you want to add more than one value to the end an array?

Use the extend() method, which takes an iterable (such as a list of items) as an argument. Again, make sure that the new items are all the same data type.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integers 40,50,60 to the end of numbers
#The numbers need to be enclosed in square brackets

numbers.extend([40,50,60])

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60])

And what if you don't want to add an item to the end of an array? Use the insert() method, to add an item at a specific position.

The insert() function takes two arguments: the index number of the position the new element will be inserted, and the value of the new element.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

#add the integer 40 in the first position
#remember indexing starts at 0

numbers.insert(0,40)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [40, 10, 20, 30])

How to Remove a Value from an Array

To remove an element from an array, use the remove() method and include the value as an argument to the method.

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30])

numbers.remove(10)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [20, 30])

With remove(), only the first instance of the value you pass as an argument will be removed.

See what happens when there are more than one identical values:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30,10,20])

numbers.remove(10)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [20, 30, 10, 20])

Only the first occurence of 10 is removed.

You can also use the pop() method, and specify the position of the element to be removed:

import array as arr 

#original array
numbers = arr.array('i',[10,20,30,10,20])

#remove the first instance of 10
numbers.pop(0)

print(numbers)

#output

#array('i', [20, 30, 10, 20])

Conclusion

And there you have it - you now know the basics of how to create arrays in Python using the array module. Hopefully you found this guide helpful.

Thanks for reading and happy coding!

#python #programming 

How To Validate Password And Confirm Password Using JQuery

In this post I will show you how to validate password and confirm password using jQuery, Validation is basic and important feature for authentication user so here i will give you demo about password and confirm password validation using jquery.

In jquery we are using keyup event to check whether password and confirm password is match or not.

Read More : How To Validate Password And Confirm Password Using JQuery

https://websolutionstuff.com/post/how-to-validate-password-and-confirm-password-using-jquery

#javascript #jquery #validation #validate password and confirm password #validate password in jquery #validate password and confirm password in jquery

sendy patel

sendy patel

1617086469

Online secure password generator

Create a secure password using our generator tool. Help prevent a security threat by getting a strong password today on hackthestuff.com.

#password #strong password generator #password generator #password generator tool #random generator tool #google generator tool